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Creatine

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What are Creatine's other names?

  • a-methylguanidinoacetic acid
  • Creatine 2-oxopropanoate
  • Creatine monohydrate

What is Creatine's recommended dosage?

  • Recommended daily intake: 0,03 - 0,3 g/kg

What supplements interact with Creatine?

  • Creatine and Alpha-Lipoic Acid

  • Creatine and Caffeine

  • Creatine and HMB

  • Creatine and Leucine

  • Creatine and Beta-Alanine

  • Creatine and Coenzyme Q10


What can Creatine help with?

  • Creatine for Depression

  • Creatine for Dizziness and Vertigo

  • Creatine for Fatigue

test
Moderately Positive


Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.


test
Moderately Positive


Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.


test
Moderately Positive


In conclusion, creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) did not have an obvious benefit on the multiple markers of disease progression measured over nine months. We measured fatigue during isometric contraction and found no significant improvement despite anecdotal patient reports prior to and during the study. The trend toward improved survival was also found in another recently completed blinded trial using creatine monohydrate. Further investigation on the possible survival benefit of creatine in this patient population is ongoing.


test
Moderately Positive


More specific examinations including brain spectroscopy for in vivo evaluation of Cr can be done, in order to draw conclusions for the optimal duration and manner of Cr supply, as well as its possible role for the prevention of TBI complications, in double blind studies.


test
Moderately Positive


There was significant difference at p<0.05 in the control group from training effect whereas there was significant difference at p<0.000 from training effect and creatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.


test
Moderately Positive


Twenty patients received either Cr or placebo for 3 months. After 3 months, there were no significant differences of muscle strength as assessed by hand-held dynamometry, testing of maximum grip strength, Medical Research Council scoring, and the Neuromuscular Symptom Score between the two groups. Some measures indicated trends toward mild improvement with Cr. Myalgia improved in two patients.


test
Moderately Positive


Using double-blind placebo-controlled paradigm, we demonstrated that dietary supplement of creatine (8 g/day for 5 days) reduces mental fatigue when subjects repeatedly perform a simple mathematical calculation. After taking the creatine supplement, task-evoked increase of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin in the brains of subjects measured by near infrared spectroscopy was significantly reduced, which is compatible with increased oxygen utilization in the brain.


  • Creatine for Headache

  • Creatine for DNA Damage

  • Creatine for Muscle Soreness

  • Creatine for Muscular Dystrophy

  • Creatine for Myotonic Dystrophy

  • Creatine for Osteoarthritis

  • Creatine for Sleep Deprivation


What is Creatine used for?

  • Creatine for Muscle building

test
Highly Positive


A significant improvement in CP was observed in the Cr group (6.72% +/- 2.54%), whereas PL showed no significant change (3.87% +/- 2.30%), and CON significantly decreased (6.27% +/- 2.38%). Furthermore, no changes in AWC were observed in any of the groups after treatment. The current findings suggest that Cr supplementation may enhance the effects of intense interval endurance training on endurance performance changes.


test
Highly Positive


All subjects swam faster after either dietary loading regimen (p < 0.01, both regimens); however, there was no difference in the extent of improvement of performance between groups. In addition, all swimmers continued to produce faster swim times for up to 4 weeks after intervention. Our findings suggest that no performance advantage was gained from the addition of carbohydrate to a creatine-loading regimen in these high-caliber swimmers.


test
Highly Positive


Although Cr influenced key modulators of brain 5-HT and DA function and reduced various thermophysiological parameters which all may have contributed to the reduced effort perception during exercise in the heat, performance was improved only in the "responders" to Cr supplementation. The present results may also suggest the demanding of the pre-experimental identification of the participants into "responders" and "non-responders" to Cr supplementation before performing the main experimentation. Otherwise, the possibility of the type II error may be enhanced.


test
Highly Positive


Although the greater relative improvements in PT and ACC for the CRE group were not statistically significant, these findings may be useful for rehabilitation or strength and conditioning professionals who may need to rapidly increase the strength of a patient or athlete within 9 days.


test
Highly Positive


Basal muscle TCr content was lower (P < 0.05) in VEG compared with NVEG. Muscle TCr increased (P < 0.05) throughout the Cr trial in both groups but was greater (P < 0.05) in VEG compared with NVEG, at days 1 and 5. CreaT gene expression was not different between VEG and NVEG. The results indicate that VEG have a lower muscle TCr content and an increased capacity to load Cr into muscle following CrS. Muscle CreaT gene expression does not appear to be affected by vegetarianism.


test
Highly Positive


Before the supplementation period, a significant increase in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA levels was observed after RE. The Cr supplementation induces a significant increase in athletics performance, and it attenuated the changes observed in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA. These results indicate that Cr supplementation reduced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of RE.


test
Highly Positive


Body weight, handgrip, dorsiflexion, and knee extensor strength were measured before and after treatment. Creatine administration increased all measured indices in both studies. Short-term creatine monohydrate increased high-intensity strength significantly in patients with neuromuscular disease.


test
Highly Positive


Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.


test
Highly Positive


CR supplementation improves physical function, lower limb lean mass, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with knee OA undergoing strengthening exercises.


test
Highly Positive


Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.


test
Highly Positive


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


test
Highly Positive


Creatine monohydrate supplementation did not improve body composition or muscle strength when given before surgery, nor did it enhance recovery after TKA.


test
Highly Positive


Creatine monohydrate supplementation helps to improve strength and body composition while resistance training. Data from this study assist in determining the potential role the addition of D-pinitol to creatine may aid in facilitating training adaptations to exercise.


test
Highly Positive


Creatine supplementation is not effective in improving selected factors of tennis specific performance and should not be recommended to tennis players.


test
Highly Positive


Creatine supplementation led to increases in fat-free mass, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, health status, but not exercise capacity. Creatine may constitute a new ergogenic treatment in COPD.


test
Highly Positive


Creatine supplementation plus resistance exercise increases fat-free mass and strength. Based on the magnitude inferences it appears that consuming creatine immediately post-workout is superior to pre-workout vis a vis body composition and strength.


test
Highly Positive


CrM supplementation did not increase any of the outcome measurements except for plasma creatinine concentration (but not creatinine clearance). Thus, CrM supplementation at 5 g daily does not have any effects on muscle strength, body composition, or activities of daily living in patients with DM1, perhaps because of a failure of the supplementation to increase muscle PCr/beta-ATP content.


test
Highly Positive


ES was greater for changes in lean body mass following short-term CS, repetitive-bout laboratory-based exercise tasks < or = 30 s (e.g., isometric, isokinetic, and isotonic resistance exercise), and upper-body exercise. CS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. There is no evidence in the literature of an effect of gender or training status on ES following CS.


test
Highly Positive


Further, the Cr and Mg(2+)-Cr groups were similar in both performance tests, suggesting that the proposed mechanism of entry is no better than the conventional method when 2.5 g of Cr is administered and performance is measured as work. This study raises the possibility that a low dose of Cr may be an effective means of enhancing performance after short-term ingestion.


test
Highly Positive


Given the equivalent performance improvement and the absence of weight gain, the carbohydrate supplementation could be considered the preferred option for weight-conscious power athletes involved in activities that require repeated- motion high-intensity activities.


test
Highly Positive


However, 2 days of supplementation was not sufficient to produce similar performance gains as that observed at the end of 5 days of loading in trained men, despite increases in creatine uptake in the body. The standard 5-day loading regime should hence be prescribed to individuals supplementing with creatine for enhanced strength and power.


test
Highly Positive


However, exercise also diminished CHO-mediated insulin release, which may have attenuated insulin-mediated muscle Cr accumulation. Ingesting Cr with CHO also augmented glycogen supercompensation in the exercised muscle.


test
Highly Positive


However, this study provides no evidence that creatine will prove beneficial after long-term treatment, or have any positive effect on patient lifespan.


test
Highly Positive


In addition, creatine supplementation appears to be effective for maintaining muscular performance during the initial phase of high-volume resistance training overreaching that otherwise results in small performance decrements.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) did not have an obvious benefit on the multiple markers of disease progression measured over nine months. We measured fatigue during isometric contraction and found no significant improvement despite anecdotal patient reports prior to and during the study. The trend toward improved survival was also found in another recently completed blinded trial using creatine monohydrate. Further investigation on the possible survival benefit of creatine in this patient population is ongoing.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, CrMS likely improved repeated BJ height capability without influencing the magnitude of muscular fatigue in these elite, university-level volleyball players.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, our preliminary results have demonstrated that supplementation temporary increases maximal isometric power in ALS patients so it may be of potential benefit in situations such as high intensity activity and it can be proposed as a symptomatic treatment.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, we reported that betaine supplementation does not augment muscle PCr content. Furthermore, we showed that betaine supplementation combined or not with creatine supplementation does not affect strength and power performance in untrained subjects.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, when compared to creatine monohydrate, creatine ethyl ester was not as effective at increasing serum and muscle creatine levels or in improving body composition, muscle mass, strength, and power. Therefore, the improvements in these variables can most likely be attributed to the training protocol itself, rather than the supplementation regimen.


test
Highly Positive


In particular, phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP at rest did not increase, and there was no facilitation of post-exercise PCr recovery. Clinical scores and laboratory tests did not alter significantly under Cr, which was tolerated without major side-effects in all patients. Cr supplementation did not improve skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation in our series of patients. However, one explanation for our negative findings may be the short study duration or the limited number of patients included.


test
Highly Positive


It is concluded that creatine supplementation enhances total power output during the repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise separated by short resting intervals.


test
Highly Positive


It is concluded that oral creatine supplementation stimulates muscle hypertrophy during rehabilitative strength training. This effect may be mediated by a creatine-induced change in MRF4 and myogenin expression.


test
Highly Positive


It is suggested that a muscle's glycogen loading capacity is influenced by its initial levels of creatine and the accompanying alterations in cell volume.


test
Highly Positive


Men aged 48 to 72 years maintained their ability to improve isokinetic muscle function following isotonic training, however, supplementation did not enhance muscle adaptability.


test
Highly Positive


MRS-measured skeletal muscle PCr and TCr increased linearly and in parallel throughout the 5 d, and there was no significant difference in the percentage increase in muscle PCr (11.7% +/- 2.3% after 5 d) vs. TCr (14.9% +/- 4.1%) at any time point. The results indicate that creatine supplementation does not alter the PCr:TCr ratio, and hence the cytoplasmic Gibbs free energy of ATP hydrolysis, in human skeletal muscle at rest.


test
Highly Positive


Myostatin and GASP-1 was measured. Resistance training caused significant decrease in serum levels of myostatin and increase in that of GASP-1. Creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training lead to greater decreases in serum myostatin (p<0.05), but had not additional effect on GASP-1 (p>0.05). The effects of resistance training on serum levels of myostatin and GASP-1, may explain the increased muscle mass that is amplified by creatine supplementation.


test
Highly Positive


No changes were found in the fatigue test by the Pla group, whereas Cre group showed a tendency for an increase. The aerobic and anaerobic capacities of the organism did not decrease in both groups. Thus the creatine supplementation during strength training potentates an increase of force-velocity characteristics of trained muscle group without impeding aerobic capacity of the organism.


test
Highly Positive


No significant changes were found for PL on any of the measured variables. No adverse side-effects were reported by either group. Short-term creatine supplementation resulted in an increase in strength, power, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women without any adverse side effects.


test
Highly Positive


No significant treatment (p > 0.05) or treatment by test interaction effects (p > 0.05) were observed for peak or minimum power output (W), peak or minimum running velocity (m.s(-1)), or fatigue index (%). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found postsupplementation for body mass and percentage body fat. Although statistical significance was not achieved for any of the measured parameters, there were small improvements in performance that may be of benefit to rugby players.


test
Highly Positive


Oral creatine supplementation at 2 g daily has no effect on muscle creatine concentration, muscle oxygen supply or muscle aerobic or anaerobic metabolism during endurance exercise.


test
Highly Positive


Oral creatine supplementation in combination with exercise training showed no significant improvement in physical performance, measured as ESWT, in patients with COPD compared with exercise training alone.


test
Highly Positive


Our pilot study suggests, that creatine supplementation should be further evaluated as a possible clinically beneficial adjuvant therapy for patients with CF to increase muscle strength, body-weight and well-being.


test
Highly Positive


Pl groups over the 10 weeks. The results indicate that Cr supplementation combined with 10 weeks of concurrent resistance training may not improve strength or lean body mass greater than training only. These findings may be a result of nonresponders due to gender differences or a varying biological potential to uptake Cr within the muscle.


test
Highly Positive


Raising muscle total Cr content before exercise appears to improve the ability of the muscle to maintain energy balance during intense aerobic exercise, but not during more moderate exercise intensities.


test
Highly Positive


Resistance exercise improved muscle size, strength and function in HIV-infected men. While creatine supplementation produced a greater increase in LBM, it did not augment the robust increase in strength derived from PRT.


test
Highly Positive


Resistance training in middle-aged and older men significantly increased muscular strength and added muscle mass with no additional benefits from creatine and/or protein supplementation.


test
Highly Positive


Resting testosterone concentrations were elevated in C, however, no other significant endocrine changes were noted. Results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of creatine and creatine plus beta-alanine on strength performance. Creatine plus beta-alanine supplementation appeared to have the greatest effect on lean tissue accruement and body fat composition.


test
Highly Positive


Results (2 x 5 ANOVA) showed no significant differences between groups for AWC at any time point; however, BW was significantly increased at 10 days in the CPS group (1.0 kg) vs. PL (0.0 kg), and remained elevated for the duration of the study. These findings suggest that a single 5 g x d(-1) dose of CPS for 30 days increases BW but is not effective for increasing AWC in men.


test
Highly Positive


Results revealed no significant differences between the group means for sprint times or between 10-s maximal leg ergometry power and work. This study does not support the hypothesis that creatine supplementation enhances single-effort sprint ability of elite swimmers.


test
Highly Positive


Smaller doses of PEG creatine (1.25 and 2.50 g.d) improved muscle strength (1RMBP and 1RMLP) to the same extent as 5 g.d of CM, but did not alter BM, power output, or endurance. When compared to the PL group, neither CM nor PEG creatine supplementation improved peak power output (CVJ or PP), MP, or muscle endurance (REPBP or REPLP). Thus, PEG creatine may have ergogenic effects that are comparable to those of CM, but with a smaller dose of creatine.


test
Highly Positive


Sprint performance was enhanced by Cr loading. Peak power and mean power were significantly higher during the intermittent sprint exercise test following 6 days of Cr supplementation. It appears that ingestion of Cr for 6 days does not produce any different thermoregulatory responses to intermittent sprint exercise and may augment sprint exercise performance in the heat.


test
Highly Positive


Supplementing with Cr after training of the arms resulted in greater increase in muscle thickness of the arms. Males have a greater increase in LTM with Cr supplementation than females.


test
Highly Positive


The initial increase in muscle glycogen accumulation could not be explained by an increase in fasting plasma insulin concentration, muscle GLUT-4 mRNA and/or protein content. In addition, neither muscle GS-1 nor Gln-1 mRNA expression was affected. We conclude that creatine ingestion itself stimulates muscle glycogen storage, but does not affect muscle GLUT-4 expression.


test
Highly Positive


The mean and peak power during Sprint 3 in the CRE + PLA was significantly greater than that in the CON. Heart rates, plasma lactate, and glucose increased significantly with CRE + CAF during most sprints. No significant differences were observed in the RPE among the three trials. The present study determined that caffeine ingestion after creatine supplements augmented intermittent high-intensity sprint performance.


test
Highly Positive


The present study shows that oral Cr supplementation improves neuromuscular function of the elbow flexor muscle during both voluntary and electrically induced contractions.


test
Highly Positive


The results of this study indicate that five day Cr supplementation enhances the dynamic strength and may increase anaerobic metabolism in the lower extremity muscles, and improves performance in consecutive maximal swims in highly trained adolescent fin swimmers.


test
Highly Positive


There was significant difference at p<0.05 in the control group from training effect whereas there was significant difference at p<0.000 from training effect and creatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.


test
Highly Positive


There were no changes in either group for aerobic endurance. Creatine supplementation during a rugby union football season is effective for increasing muscular endurance, but has no effect on body composition or aerobic endurance.


test
Highly Positive


There were no differences in average power between groups over time. Only the Cr-only group increased total body mass (79.9 +/- 13.0 +/- 81.1 +/- 13.8 kg; p < .01), with no significant changes in lean-tissue or fat mass. These results suggest that Cr alone and in combination with A-AKG improves upper body muscle endurance, and Cr + A-AKG supplementation improves peak power output on repeated Wingate tests.


test
Highly Positive


There were no significant changes, however, in 1RMLE, MP, PP, or BW for the Creatine or Placebo group. These findings indicated that 28 days of PEG-creatine supplementation without resistance training increased upper body strength but not lower body strength or muscular power. These findings supported the use of the PEG-creatine supplement for increasing 1RMBP strength in untrained individuals.


test
Highly Positive


These data suggest that 21 days of CS produced significant effects on gross and/or propelling efficiency during swimming in female athletes. However, CS did not influence performance, body weight and body composition.


test
Highly Positive


These findings confirm an ergogenic effect of Cr during resistance training and suggest that subjects with initially low levels of intramuscular Cr (vegetarians) are more responsive to supplementation.


test
Highly Positive


These findings demonstrate that creatine supplementation can enhance the benefits of resistance training in patients with PD.


test
Highly Positive


These findings suggest that the addition of creatine supplementation to resistance training significantly increases total and fat-free body mass, muscular strength, peripheral blood flow, and resting energy expenditure and improves blood cholesterol.


test
Highly Positive


These results indicate that Cr supplementation can increase muscle strength (allied with 4 weeks of strength training) but only in subjects whose estimated Cr uptake and body mass are significantly increased; the greater the Cr uptake and associated body mass changes, the greater the performance gains.


test
Highly Positive


This adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial shows that CrS does not augment the substantial training effect of multidisciplinary PR for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with https://portal.nihr.ac.uk/Pages/NRRArchiveSearch.aspx (NO123138126).


test
Highly Positive


This investigation shows that short-term, high-dose oral creatine supplementation enhances the excretion of potential cytotoxic compounds, but does not have any detrimental effects on kidney permeability. This provides indirect evidence of the absence of microangiopathy in renal glomeruli.


test
Highly Positive


This is the first controlled study indicating that creatine supplementation improves skeletal muscle function in McArdle disease.


test
Highly Positive


This study demonstrates that short-term high dose oral creatine supplementation has an ergogenic effect on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers.


test
Highly Positive


This study provides definite evidence that prolonged creatine supplementation in humans does not increase muscle or whole-body oxidative capacity and, as such, does not influence substrate utilization or performance during endurance cycling exercise. In addition, our findings suggest that prolonged creatine ingestion induces an increase in fat-free mass.


test
Highly Positive


Thus there is substantial evidence to indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance training is more effective at increasing muscle strength and weightlifting performance than resistance training alone, although the response is highly variable.


test
Highly Positive


Twenty patients received either Cr or placebo for 3 months. After 3 months, there were no significant differences of muscle strength as assessed by hand-held dynamometry, testing of maximum grip strength, Medical Research Council scoring, and the Neuromuscular Symptom Score between the two groups. Some measures indicated trends toward mild improvement with Cr. Myalgia improved in two patients.


test
Highly Positive


We conclude that creatine supplementation during RT has a small beneficial effect on regional muscle thickness in young adults but that giving the creatine over 3 d wk did not differ from giving the same dose over 2 d wk.


test
Highly Positive


We conclude that creatine was not effective for improving performance in these ice-hockey players.


test
Highly Positive


We concluded that 1) oral creatine supplementation offsets the decline in muscle GLUT4 protein content that occurs during immobilization, and 2) oral creatine supplementation increases GLUT4 protein content during subsequent rehabilitation training in healthy subjects.


test
Highly Positive


We concluded that creatine monohydrate increased the strength of high-intensity anaerobic and aerobic type activities in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies but had no apparent effects upon lower intensity aerobic activities.


test
Slightly Positive


A short-term oral creatine supplementation compared to placebo seems not to enhance performance over 800 m in trained, spinal cord-injured, wheelchair athletes.


test
Slightly Positive


Activities of CK, ALD, LDH, GOT, GTP, and levels of CRP were increased in the Pl group after the competition as compared to basal values. CrS decreased plasma activities of CK, LDH, and ALD, and prevented the rise of GOT and GPT plasma activities. In rats, CrS delayed the fatigue, preserved the force, and prevented the rise of LDH and CK plasma activities and MVP in the gastrocnemius muscle. CrS presented a protective effect on muscle injury induced by strenuous contractile activities.


test
Slightly Positive


All the athletes finished the race in a time equivalent to their personal best +/- 5.8%. These results indicate that creatine supplementation reduced cell damage and inflammation after an exhaustive intense race.


test
Slightly Positive


Cr supplementation increased AWC 13-15% in both genders compared to PL (1.1%- 3.0% decline); although this result was not statistically significant, it may have some practical significance.


test
Slightly Positive


Creatine failed to improve muscle mass or function and QoL in colorectal cancer patients but improved bioimpedance parameters that are predictive of poor outcome. Creatine might therefore be useful in patients with milder chemotherapy in order to maintain or increase BCM whereas patients undergoing aggressive chemotherapy however are not likely to benefit.


test
Slightly Positive


Despite widespread use as an ergogenic aid in sport, the results of this study suggest that creatine monohydrate supplementation conveys no benefit to multiple sprint running performance.


test
Slightly Positive


Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.


test
Slightly Positive


Expected gender differences were observed. Of the comparisons made among supplementation groups, only two differences for creatinine and total protein (P < 0.05) were noted. All group means fell within normal clinical ranges. There were no differences in the reported incidence of muscle injury, cramps, or other side effects. These data suggest that long-term creatine supplementation does not result in adverse health effects.


test
Slightly Positive


Following supplementation, there was significant body mass gain in the Cr group ( P<0.05), whereas the P group did not change. The exercise-induced T2, blood lactate levels and sprint performance were not affected by Cr supplementation in any sprint bouts. These results suggest that short-term Cr supplementation does not influence short duration repetitive sprint performance and muscle activation and/or metabolic state during sprint cycling evaluated by mfMRI of the skeletal muscle in humans.


test
Slightly Positive


Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.


test
Slightly Positive


However, the change in the rate of fatigue of total work was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the creatine supplementation group than in the placebo group, indicating a reduced fatigue rate in subjects supplementing with creatine compared with the placebo. Although the results of this study demonstrated reduced fatigue rates in patients during high-intensity sprint intervals, further research is necessary in examining the efficacy of low-dose, short-term creatine supplementation.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that creatine supplementation in combination with strength training amplifies the training-induced increase in satellite cell number and myonuclei concentration in human skeletal muscle fibres, thereby allowing an enhanced muscle fibre growth in response to strength training.


test
Slightly Positive


In contrast, for men, CR significantly improved mean overall swimming velocity in the 6 X 50-m interval after 2 weeks of supplementation, whereas PL had no effect. Although ineffective in women, CR supplementation apparently enables men to maintain a faster mean overall swimming velocity during repeated swims each lasting about 30 s; however, CR was not effective for men in repeated swims each lasting about 10 - 15 s.


test
Slightly Positive


In resting conditions and at high dosages Cr enhances GH secretion, mimicking the response of strong exercise which also stimulates GH secretion. Acute body weight gain and strength increase observed after Cr supplementation should consider the indirect anabolic property of Cr.


test
Slightly Positive


It was concluded that 4 weeks of Cr supplementation did not significantly improve single sprint performance in competitive junior swimmers, but it did enhance swim bench test performance.


test
Slightly Positive


Mean blood pH decreased (p < 0.05) similarly during the swims in both groups. Mean blood lactate increased (p < 0.001) during the swims, but there were no differences in peak blood lactate between the combination group (14.9 +/- 0.9 mmol.L(-1)) and placebo (13.4 +/- 1.0 mmol.L(-1)). The data indicate that simultaneous supplementation of creatine and sodium bicarbonate enhances performance in consecutive maximal swims.


test
Slightly Positive


No adverse changes in blood pressure, body composition, weight, or serum Cr phosphokinase levels were observed. We conclude that short-term Cr supplementation appears to be safe but does not enhance push-up performance.


test
Slightly Positive


No statistically significant differences in performance were observed between groups after long-term maintenance during training, although small differences were observed that might be meaningful for elite performers.


test
Slightly Positive


Prior to and following supplementation, participants performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO(2peak), time to exhaustion (TTE), and power output, VO(2), and percent VO(2peak) associated with VT and LT. No significant group effects were found. However, within groups, a significant time effect was observed for CrBa on 5 of the 8 parameters measured. These data suggest that CrBA may potentially enhance endurance performance.


test
Slightly Positive


Resistance training of 12 weeks increases bone mineral density in older men and creatine supplementation may provide an additional benefit for increasing regional bone mineral content. The increase in bone mineral content may be due to an enhanced muscle mass with creatine, with potentially greater tension on bone at sites of muscle attachment.


test
Slightly Positive


The findings suggest that creatine supplementation tended to decrease muscle glycogen and protein degradation, especially after endurance exercise. However, creatine supplementation might induce collagen proteolysis in athletes after sprint running.


test
Slightly Positive


The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.


test
Slightly Positive


The male Cr loading group exhibited a 23% higher (p = 0.003) ARC compared to the PL group. Nonsignificant BW increases were found for the Cr groups. These findings suggest that Cr loading may be an effective strategy for improving ARC in men, but not in women, and revealed only nonsignificant increases in BW. Creatine loading may be used before competition by athletes to provide improvements in high-intensity, short-duration activities.


test
Slightly Positive


The PL resulted in no significant changes in AWC following supplementation; however, Cr increased AWC by 22.1% after 5 days of loading (p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect for body weight (BW), however, there was no significant increase in BW due to Cr supplementation. These results suggest that Cr supplementation is effective for increasing AWC in women following 5 days of loading without an associated increase in BW.


test
Slightly Positive


These data suggest that oral creatine supplementation does not reduce skeletal muscle damage or enhance recovery following a hypoxic resistance exercise challenge.


test
Slightly Positive


These results indicate that creatine monohydrate supplementation does not appear to improve the performance in 6 consecutive 60 meter repeated races but may modify ventilatory dynamics during the recovery after maximal effort.


test
Slightly Positive


Twenty g Cr supplementation a day for a week to the trained females improves not the maximal static strength and dynamic peak torque but the mean strength and endurance of repeated contractions. However, the effects on females are not so great as that ever found in males. The effects are enhanced by anaerobic exercises performed before the supplementation and would disappear in a week if the supplementation were stopped.


test
Slightly Positive


URCR was an effective measure of each CR dosage administered as well as of the excretion pattern that each group followed throughout the SP. Furthermore the strong relationship of URCR and PPI could be particularly useful for monitoring and optimising CR loading in athletic populations.


  • Creatine for Mental health

test
Moderately Positive


More specific examinations including brain spectroscopy for in vivo evaluation of Cr can be done, in order to draw conclusions for the optimal duration and manner of Cr supply, as well as its possible role for the prevention of TBI complications, in double blind studies.


test
Slightly Positive


Creatine monohydrate supplementation did not improve body composition or muscle strength when given before surgery, nor did it enhance recovery after TKA.


test
Slightly Positive


Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect (p < 0.0001) on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices), both tasks that require speed of processing. These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance.


test
Slightly Positive


In elderly women, short-term oral creatine supplementation does not improve endurance capacity but increases the ability to perform lower-body functional living tasks involving rapid movements.


test
Slightly Positive


Randomly and under a double-blind procedure, subjects consumed either a placebo or 20 g of creatine supplement for 5 d. Creatine supplementation did not influence measures of verbal fluency and vigilance. However, in vegetarians rather than in those who consume meat, creatine supplementation resulted in better memory. Irrespective of dietary style, the supplementation of creatine decreased the variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task.


  • Creatine for Energy

test
Moderately Positive


Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.


test
Moderately Positive


Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.


test
Moderately Positive


In conclusion, creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) did not have an obvious benefit on the multiple markers of disease progression measured over nine months. We measured fatigue during isometric contraction and found no significant improvement despite anecdotal patient reports prior to and during the study. The trend toward improved survival was also found in another recently completed blinded trial using creatine monohydrate. Further investigation on the possible survival benefit of creatine in this patient population is ongoing.


test
Moderately Positive


More specific examinations including brain spectroscopy for in vivo evaluation of Cr can be done, in order to draw conclusions for the optimal duration and manner of Cr supply, as well as its possible role for the prevention of TBI complications, in double blind studies.


test
Moderately Positive


There was significant difference at p<0.05 in the control group from training effect whereas there was significant difference at p<0.000 from training effect and creatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.


test
Moderately Positive


Twenty patients received either Cr or placebo for 3 months. After 3 months, there were no significant differences of muscle strength as assessed by hand-held dynamometry, testing of maximum grip strength, Medical Research Council scoring, and the Neuromuscular Symptom Score between the two groups. Some measures indicated trends toward mild improvement with Cr. Myalgia improved in two patients.


test
Moderately Positive


Using double-blind placebo-controlled paradigm, we demonstrated that dietary supplement of creatine (8 g/day for 5 days) reduces mental fatigue when subjects repeatedly perform a simple mathematical calculation. After taking the creatine supplement, task-evoked increase of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin in the brains of subjects measured by near infrared spectroscopy was significantly reduced, which is compatible with increased oxygen utilization in the brain.


test
Slightly Positive


Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.


test
Slightly Positive


Although Cr influenced key modulators of brain 5-HT and DA function and reduced various thermophysiological parameters which all may have contributed to the reduced effort perception during exercise in the heat, performance was improved only in the "responders" to Cr supplementation. The present results may also suggest the demanding of the pre-experimental identification of the participants into "responders" and "non-responders" to Cr supplementation before performing the main experimentation. Otherwise, the possibility of the type II error may be enhanced.


test
Slightly Positive


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


test
Slightly Positive


Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.


test
Slightly Positive


Ingesting a low dose (≈2.3 g/d) of creatine for 6 wk significantly increased plasma creatine concentration and enhanced resistance to fatigue during repeated bouts of high-intensity contractions.


test
Slightly Positive


The adjusted mean posttest PWC(FT) values (covaried for pretest PWC(FT) values) for the b-Ala and CrBA groups were greater than those for the PLA group (p < or = 0.05). However, there were no differences between the CrM vs. PLA, CrBA vs. b-Ala, CrM vs. b-Ala, or CrM vs. CrBA groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that b-Ala supplementation may delay the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Furthermore, there appeared to be no additive or unique effects of CrM vs. b-Ala alone on PWC(FT).


test
Slightly Positive


The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s intervals for each 60-s work bout. Resulting slopes from each successive work bout were used to calculate EMG FT. A 2-way ANOVA, Group (Cr vs. Pl) x Time (pre vs. post), resulted in a nonsignificant (p > .05) interaction for supplement and time. In addition, a significant increase (p = .009) in weight was observed in the Cr group. These data suggest that there was a minimal influence of Cr loading on EMG FT for the participants in this study.


test
Slightly Positive


These findings suggest that 14 days of CR supplementation may increase upper body grip strength and increase physical working capacity by delaying neuromuscular fatigue in the elderly men and women in this study. While more research is needed, CR supplementation may improve upper body grip strength and lower body muscle endurance which may be important for maintaining health and independent living in elderly men and women.


test
Slightly Positive


These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.


test
Slightly Positive


Thus healthy human brain energetics is malleable and shifts with 7 days of Cr supplementation, with the regions of initially low PCr showing the largest increments in PCr. Overall, Cr supplementation appears to improve high-energy phosphate turnover in healthy brain and can result in either a decrease or an increase in high-energy phosphate concentrations.


  • Creatine for Emotional health

test
Moderately Positive


Further study of creatine as an adjunctive treatment for adolescents with SSRI-resistant MDD is warranted.


test
Moderately Positive


The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder.


test
Moderately Positive


This small, preliminary, open study of creatine monohydrate suggests a beneficial effect of creatine augmentation in unipolar depression, but possible precipitation of a manic switch in bipolar depression.


test
Slightly Positive


CR supplementation improves physical function, lower limb lean mass, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with knee OA undergoing strengthening exercises.


test
Slightly Positive


Creatine failed to improve muscle mass or function and QoL in colorectal cancer patients but improved bioimpedance parameters that are predictive of poor outcome. Creatine might therefore be useful in patients with milder chemotherapy in order to maintain or increase BCM whereas patients undergoing aggressive chemotherapy however are not likely to benefit.


test
Slightly Positive


Creatine supplementation led to increases in fat-free mass, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, health status, but not exercise capacity. Creatine may constitute a new ergogenic treatment in COPD.


test
Slightly Positive


Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) did not have an obvious benefit on the multiple markers of disease progression measured over nine months. We measured fatigue during isometric contraction and found no significant improvement despite anecdotal patient reports prior to and during the study. The trend toward improved survival was also found in another recently completed blinded trial using creatine monohydrate. Further investigation on the possible survival benefit of creatine in this patient population is ongoing.


test
Slightly Positive


It was concluded that, during sleep deprivation with moderate-intensity exercise, creatine supplementation only affects performance of complex central executive tasks.


test
Slightly Positive


Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Creatine (Cr) is an ergogenic compound that exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of PD. We conducted a 2-year placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the effect of Cr in 60 patients with PD. Cr improved patient mood and led to a smaller dose increase of dopaminergic therapy but had no effect on overall Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores or dopamine transporter SPECT.


test
Slightly Positive


Our pilot study suggests, that creatine supplementation should be further evaluated as a possible clinically beneficial adjuvant therapy for patients with CF to increase muscle strength, body-weight and well-being.


test
Slightly Positive


Short-term creatine supplementation inaddition to standard medication in patients with CHF leads to an increase in body weight and an improvement of muscle strength. This effect is restricted to the time of supplementation.


test
Slightly Positive


This adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial shows that CrS does not augment the substantial training effect of multidisciplinary PR for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with https://portal.nihr.ac.uk/Pages/NRRArchiveSearch.aspx (NO123138126).


test
Slightly Positive



  • Creatine for Overall health

test
Moderately Positive


Although the mechanism for this is not fully understood, it may be related to the asymmetrical distribution of muscle mass around those joints.


test
Moderately Positive


Both Cr/Pl and Cr/Gly resulted in significantly attenuated heart rate, rectal temperature, and perceived effort during exercise, although no regimen had any effect on performance. The addition of Gly to Cr significantly increased TBW more than Cr alone (P=0.02) but did not further enhance the attenuation in HR, Tre, and RPE during exercise. These data suggest that combined Cr and Gly is an effective method of hyperhydration capable of reducing thermal and cardiovascular responses.


test
Moderately Positive


Cr loading did not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heat.


test
Moderately Positive


Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.


test
Moderately Positive


In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.


test
Moderately Positive


No evidence supports the concept that creatine supplementation either hinders the body's ability to dissipate heat or negatively affects the athlete's body fluid balance. Controlled experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation at recommended dosages.


test
Moderately Positive


No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.


test
Moderately Positive


Short-term CrM supplementation did not increase the incidence of symptoms or compromise hydration status or thermoregulation in dehydrated, trained men exercising in the heat.


test
Moderately Positive


Sprint performance was enhanced by Cr loading. Peak power and mean power were significantly higher during the intermittent sprint exercise test following 6 days of Cr supplementation. It appears that ingestion of Cr for 6 days does not produce any different thermoregulatory responses to intermittent sprint exercise and may augment sprint exercise performance in the heat.


test
Slightly Positive


CrM supplementation did not increase any of the outcome measurements except for plasma creatinine concentration (but not creatinine clearance). Thus, CrM supplementation at 5 g daily does not have any effects on muscle strength, body composition, or activities of daily living in patients with DM1, perhaps because of a failure of the supplementation to increase muscle PCr/beta-ATP content.


test
Slightly Positive


Four months of CrM supplementation led to increases in FFM and handgrip strength in the dominant hand and a reduction in a marker of bone breakdown and was well tolerated in children with DD.


test
Slightly Positive


However, this study provides no evidence that creatine will prove beneficial after long-term treatment, or have any positive effect on patient lifespan.


test
Slightly Positive


There was no significant improvement using manual and quantitative muscle strength, daily-life activities, and patients' own global assessment comparing verum with placebo administration. Cr supplementation was well tolerated without clinically relevant side effects, but did not result in significant improvement of muscle strength or daily-life activities.


test
Slightly Positive


Twenty patients received either Cr or placebo for 3 months. After 3 months, there were no significant differences of muscle strength as assessed by hand-held dynamometry, testing of maximum grip strength, Medical Research Council scoring, and the Neuromuscular Symptom Score between the two groups. Some measures indicated trends toward mild improvement with Cr. Myalgia improved in two patients.


test
Moderately Negative


Any beneficial effect of creatine at 5 g per day in ALS must be small. Other agents should be considered in future studies of therapeutic agents to address mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS. In addition, motor unit number estimation may be a useful outcome measure for future clinical trials in ALS.


test
Moderately Negative


Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.


test
Moderately Negative


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


test
Moderately Negative


Creatinine clearance was estimated from serum creatinine and was not significantly different between groups. Within the CrM group, correlations between all blood parameters and either daily dosage or duration of supplementation were nonsignificant. Therefore, it appears that oral supplementation with CrM has no long-term detrimental effects on kidney or liver functions in highly trained college athletes in the absence of other nutritional supplements.


test
Moderately Negative


Expected gender differences were observed. Of the comparisons made among supplementation groups, only two differences for creatinine and total protein (P < 0.05) were noted. All group means fell within normal clinical ranges. There were no differences in the reported incidence of muscle injury, cramps, or other side effects. These data suggest that long-term creatine supplementation does not result in adverse health effects.


test
Moderately Negative


However, a trend towards reduced blood glucose levels was present in males given creatine monohydrate (P = 0.051). 4. These preliminary data suggest that creatine monohydrate may modulate lipid metabolism in certain individuals. These observations may demonstrate practical efficacy to the hyperlipidaemic patient as well as providing possible new mechanistic insights into the cellular regulation of blood lipid concentrations.


test
Moderately Negative


In conclusion Cr supplementation in trained swimmers may improve anaerobic performance and heart rate variations independent of the effect of intensive sprint swimming bouts.


test
Moderately Negative


In particular, phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP at rest did not increase, and there was no facilitation of post-exercise PCr recovery. Clinical scores and laboratory tests did not alter significantly under Cr, which was tolerated without major side-effects in all patients. Cr supplementation did not improve skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation in our series of patients. However, one explanation for our negative findings may be the short study duration or the limited number of patients included.


  • Creatine for Joint support

  • Creatine for Insulin control

test
Slightly Positive


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


test
Slightly Positive


Creatine supplementation combined with an exercise program improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. The underlying mechanism seems to be related to an increase in GLUT-4 recruitment to the sarcolemma.


test
Slightly Positive


CT demonstrated significant decrease in OGTT area under the curve compared to PT (P = 0.034). There were no differences between groups or over time in fasting insulin or HOMA. The results suggest that creatine supplementation, combined with aerobic training, can improve glucose tolerance but does not affect insulin sensitivity, and may warrant further investigation with diabetic subjects.


test
Slightly Positive


However, a trend towards reduced blood glucose levels was present in males given creatine monohydrate (P = 0.051). 4. These preliminary data suggest that creatine monohydrate may modulate lipid metabolism in certain individuals. These observations may demonstrate practical efficacy to the hyperlipidaemic patient as well as providing possible new mechanistic insights into the cellular regulation of blood lipid concentrations.


test
Slightly Positive


It was concluded that supplementation of CHO and Cr could promote the recovery of physical performance and athletic abilities after athletics in basketball athletes.


test
Slightly Positive


This study shows that creatine supplementation may result in abnormalities in glucose homeostasis in the absence of changes in insulin secretion.


  • Creatine for Testosterone

test
Slightly Positive


Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.


test
Slightly Positive


Creatine supplementation may, in part, act through an increased rate of conversion of T to DHT. Further investigation is warranted as a result of the high frequency of individuals using creatine supplementation and the long-term safety of alterations in circulating androgen composition. STATEMENT OF CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although creatine is a widely used ergogenic aid, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood, particularly in relation to dihydrotestosterone, and therefore the long-term clinical safety cannot be guaranteed.


test
Slightly Positive


Expected gender differences were observed. Of the comparisons made among supplementation groups, only two differences for creatinine and total protein (P < 0.05) were noted. All group means fell within normal clinical ranges. There were no differences in the reported incidence of muscle injury, cramps, or other side effects. These data suggest that long-term creatine supplementation does not result in adverse health effects.


test
Slightly Positive


In addition, creatine supplementation appears to be effective for maintaining muscular performance during the initial phase of high-volume resistance training overreaching that otherwise results in small performance decrements.


test
Slightly Positive


Resting testosterone concentrations were elevated in C, however, no other significant endocrine changes were noted. Results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of creatine and creatine plus beta-alanine on strength performance. Creatine plus beta-alanine supplementation appeared to have the greatest effect on lean tissue accruement and body fat composition.


  • Creatine for Sleep quality

  • Creatine for Heart health

  • Creatine for Antioxidant potential

test
Slightly Positive


8 weeks of CrM supplementation had no negative effects on blood and urinary clinical health markers in football players. Properties of CrM may, however, be associated with an increase in CK activity, improving the efficiency for ATP resynthesis, a phenomenon indirectly confirmed by the decreasing tendency in uric acid concentration. Furthermore, CrM seems to slightly influence glucoregulation in trained subjects.


test
Slightly Positive


Before the supplementation period, a significant increase in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA levels was observed after RE. The Cr supplementation induces a significant increase in athletics performance, and it attenuated the changes observed in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA. These results indicate that Cr supplementation reduced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of RE.


test
Slightly Positive


Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


Four months of CrM supplementation led to increases in FFM and handgrip strength in the dominant hand and a reduction in a marker of bone breakdown and was well tolerated in children with DD.


test
Slightly Positive


Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.


test
Slightly Negative


CMH supplementation increases global DNA methylation statistically significantly. Scores were lower for creatine than for placebo reflecting clinical improvement but not reaching statistical significance. Biochemical variables of methionine-homocysteine remethylation are unaffected. Multicenter studies are urgently warranted to evaluate the long-term effects of CMH supplementation in an optimally homogenous RTT population over a prolonged period.


  • Creatine for Men's health

  • Creatine for Weight loss

test
Highly Negative


8 weeks of CrM supplementation had no negative effects on blood and urinary clinical health markers in football players. Properties of CrM may, however, be associated with an increase in CK activity, improving the efficiency for ATP resynthesis, a phenomenon indirectly confirmed by the decreasing tendency in uric acid concentration. Furthermore, CrM seems to slightly influence glucoregulation in trained subjects.


test
Highly Negative


Any beneficial effect of creatine at 5 g per day in ALS must be small. Other agents should be considered in future studies of therapeutic agents to address mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS. In addition, motor unit number estimation may be a useful outcome measure for future clinical trials in ALS.


test
Highly Negative


Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.


test
Highly Negative


Cr supplementation increased AWC 13-15% in both genders compared to PL (1.1%- 3.0% decline); although this result was not statistically significant, it may have some practical significance.


test
Highly Negative


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


test
Highly Negative


Creatine supplementation led to increases in fat-free mass, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, health status, but not exercise capacity. Creatine may constitute a new ergogenic treatment in COPD.


test
Highly Negative


Despite widespread use as an ergogenic aid in sport, the results of this study suggest that creatine monohydrate supplementation conveys no benefit to multiple sprint running performance.


test
Highly Negative


Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.


test
Highly Negative


ES was greater for changes in lean body mass following short-term CS, repetitive-bout laboratory-based exercise tasks < or = 30 s (e.g., isometric, isokinetic, and isotonic resistance exercise), and upper-body exercise. CS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. There is no evidence in the literature of an effect of gender or training status on ES following CS.


test
Highly Negative


However, a trend towards reduced blood glucose levels was present in males given creatine monohydrate (P = 0.051). 4. These preliminary data suggest that creatine monohydrate may modulate lipid metabolism in certain individuals. These observations may demonstrate practical efficacy to the hyperlipidaemic patient as well as providing possible new mechanistic insights into the cellular regulation of blood lipid concentrations.


test
Highly Negative


However, the change in the rate of fatigue of total work was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the creatine supplementation group than in the placebo group, indicating a reduced fatigue rate in subjects supplementing with creatine compared with the placebo. Although the results of this study demonstrated reduced fatigue rates in patients during high-intensity sprint intervals, further research is necessary in examining the efficacy of low-dose, short-term creatine supplementation.


test
Highly Negative


In conclusion, our preliminary results have demonstrated that supplementation temporary increases maximal isometric power in ALS patients so it may be of potential benefit in situations such as high intensity activity and it can be proposed as a symptomatic treatment.


test
Highly Negative


In conclusion, we reported that betaine supplementation does not augment muscle PCr content. Furthermore, we showed that betaine supplementation combined or not with creatine supplementation does not affect strength and power performance in untrained subjects.


test
Highly Negative


In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.


test
Highly Negative


No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.


test
Highly Negative


No significant treatment (p > 0.05) or treatment by test interaction effects (p > 0.05) were observed for peak or minimum power output (W), peak or minimum running velocity (m.s(-1)), or fatigue index (%). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found postsupplementation for body mass and percentage body fat. Although statistical significance was not achieved for any of the measured parameters, there were small improvements in performance that may be of benefit to rugby players.


test
Highly Negative


No statistically significant differences in performance were observed between groups after long-term maintenance during training, although small differences were observed that might be meaningful for elite performers.


test
Highly Negative


Results (2 x 5 ANOVA) showed no significant differences between groups for AWC at any time point; however, BW was significantly increased at 10 days in the CPS group (1.0 kg) vs. PL (0.0 kg), and remained elevated for the duration of the study. These findings suggest that a single 5 g x d(-1) dose of CPS for 30 days increases BW but is not effective for increasing AWC in men.


test
Highly Negative


Sprint performance was enhanced by Cr loading. Peak power and mean power were significantly higher during the intermittent sprint exercise test following 6 days of Cr supplementation. It appears that ingestion of Cr for 6 days does not produce any different thermoregulatory responses to intermittent sprint exercise and may augment sprint exercise performance in the heat.


test
Highly Negative


The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s intervals for each 60-s work bout. Resulting slopes from each successive work bout were used to calculate EMG FT. A 2-way ANOVA, Group (Cr vs. Pl) x Time (pre vs. post), resulted in a nonsignificant (p > .05) interaction for supplement and time. In addition, a significant increase (p = .009) in weight was observed in the Cr group. These data suggest that there was a minimal influence of Cr loading on EMG FT for the participants in this study.


test
Highly Negative


The PL resulted in no significant changes in AWC following supplementation; however, Cr increased AWC by 22.1% after 5 days of loading (p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect for body weight (BW), however, there was no significant increase in BW due to Cr supplementation. These results suggest that Cr supplementation is effective for increasing AWC in women following 5 days of loading without an associated increase in BW.


test
Highly Negative


The present results suggest short term Cr supplementation has no detectable negative effect on cardiac structure or function. Additionally, Cr ingestion improves submaximal cycling efficiency. These results suggest that the increase in efficiency may be related to peripheral factors such an increase in muscle phosphocreatine, rather than central changes.


test
Highly Negative


These data suggest that 21 days of CS produced significant effects on gross and/or propelling efficiency during swimming in female athletes. However, CS did not influence performance, body weight and body composition.


test
Highly Negative


These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.


test
Highly Negative


This adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial shows that CrS does not augment the substantial training effect of multidisciplinary PR for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with https://portal.nihr.ac.uk/Pages/NRRArchiveSearch.aspx (NO123138126).


test
Highly Negative


This study provides definite evidence that prolonged creatine supplementation in humans does not increase muscle or whole-body oxidative capacity and, as such, does not influence substrate utilization or performance during endurance cycling exercise. In addition, our findings suggest that prolonged creatine ingestion induces an increase in fat-free mass.


test
Highly Negative


We conclude that between-day differences in FFM estimation were within acceptable limits, with the possible exception of ANTHRO. In addition, all 5 methods provided similar measures of FFM change during acute Cr supplementation.



What are Creatine's effects on the body?

  • Creatine for the Muscular System

A significant improvement in CP was observed in the Cr group (6.72% +/- 2.54%), whereas PL showed no significant change (3.87% +/- 2.30%), and CON significantly decreased (6.27% +/- 2.38%). Furthermore, no changes in AWC were observed in any of the groups after treatment. The current findings suggest that Cr supplementation may enhance the effects of intense interval endurance training on endurance performance changes.


All subjects swam faster after either dietary loading regimen (p < 0.01, both regimens); however, there was no difference in the extent of improvement of performance between groups. In addition, all swimmers continued to produce faster swim times for up to 4 weeks after intervention. Our findings suggest that no performance advantage was gained from the addition of carbohydrate to a creatine-loading regimen in these high-caliber swimmers.


Although Cr influenced key modulators of brain 5-HT and DA function and reduced various thermophysiological parameters which all may have contributed to the reduced effort perception during exercise in the heat, performance was improved only in the "responders" to Cr supplementation. The present results may also suggest the demanding of the pre-experimental identification of the participants into "responders" and "non-responders" to Cr supplementation before performing the main experimentation. Otherwise, the possibility of the type II error may be enhanced.


Although the greater relative improvements in PT and ACC for the CRE group were not statistically significant, these findings may be useful for rehabilitation or strength and conditioning professionals who may need to rapidly increase the strength of a patient or athlete within 9 days.


Basal muscle TCr content was lower (P < 0.05) in VEG compared with NVEG. Muscle TCr increased (P < 0.05) throughout the Cr trial in both groups but was greater (P < 0.05) in VEG compared with NVEG, at days 1 and 5. CreaT gene expression was not different between VEG and NVEG. The results indicate that VEG have a lower muscle TCr content and an increased capacity to load Cr into muscle following CrS. Muscle CreaT gene expression does not appear to be affected by vegetarianism.


Before the supplementation period, a significant increase in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA levels was observed after RE. The Cr supplementation induces a significant increase in athletics performance, and it attenuated the changes observed in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA. These results indicate that Cr supplementation reduced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of RE.


Body weight, handgrip, dorsiflexion, and knee extensor strength were measured before and after treatment. Creatine administration increased all measured indices in both studies. Short-term creatine monohydrate increased high-intensity strength significantly in patients with neuromuscular disease.


Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.


CR supplementation improves physical function, lower limb lean mass, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with knee OA undergoing strengthening exercises.


Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


Creatine monohydrate supplementation did not improve body composition or muscle strength when given before surgery, nor did it enhance recovery after TKA.


Creatine monohydrate supplementation helps to improve strength and body composition while resistance training. Data from this study assist in determining the potential role the addition of D-pinitol to creatine may aid in facilitating training adaptations to exercise.


Creatine supplementation is not effective in improving selected factors of tennis specific performance and should not be recommended to tennis players.


Creatine supplementation led to increases in fat-free mass, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, health status, but not exercise capacity. Creatine may constitute a new ergogenic treatment in COPD.


Creatine supplementation plus resistance exercise increases fat-free mass and strength. Based on the magnitude inferences it appears that consuming creatine immediately post-workout is superior to pre-workout vis a vis body composition and strength.


CrM supplementation did not increase any of the outcome measurements except for plasma creatinine concentration (but not creatinine clearance). Thus, CrM supplementation at 5 g daily does not have any effects on muscle strength, body composition, or activities of daily living in patients with DM1, perhaps because of a failure of the supplementation to increase muscle PCr/beta-ATP content.


ES was greater for changes in lean body mass following short-term CS, repetitive-bout laboratory-based exercise tasks < or = 30 s (e.g., isometric, isokinetic, and isotonic resistance exercise), and upper-body exercise. CS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. There is no evidence in the literature of an effect of gender or training status on ES following CS.


Further, the Cr and Mg(2+)-Cr groups were similar in both performance tests, suggesting that the proposed mechanism of entry is no better than the conventional method when 2.5 g of Cr is administered and performance is measured as work. This study raises the possibility that a low dose of Cr may be an effective means of enhancing performance after short-term ingestion.


Given the equivalent performance improvement and the absence of weight gain, the carbohydrate supplementation could be considered the preferred option for weight-conscious power athletes involved in activities that require repeated- motion high-intensity activities.


However, 2 days of supplementation was not sufficient to produce similar performance gains as that observed at the end of 5 days of loading in trained men, despite increases in creatine uptake in the body. The standard 5-day loading regime should hence be prescribed to individuals supplementing with creatine for enhanced strength and power.


However, exercise also diminished CHO-mediated insulin release, which may have attenuated insulin-mediated muscle Cr accumulation. Ingesting Cr with CHO also augmented glycogen supercompensation in the exercised muscle.


However, this study provides no evidence that creatine will prove beneficial after long-term treatment, or have any positive effect on patient lifespan.


In addition, creatine supplementation appears to be effective for maintaining muscular performance during the initial phase of high-volume resistance training overreaching that otherwise results in small performance decrements.


In conclusion, creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) did not have an obvious benefit on the multiple markers of disease progression measured over nine months. We measured fatigue during isometric contraction and found no significant improvement despite anecdotal patient reports prior to and during the study. The trend toward improved survival was also found in another recently completed blinded trial using creatine monohydrate. Further investigation on the possible survival benefit of creatine in this patient population is ongoing.


In conclusion, CrMS likely improved repeated BJ height capability without influencing the magnitude of muscular fatigue in these elite, university-level volleyball players.


In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.


In conclusion, our preliminary results have demonstrated that supplementation temporary increases maximal isometric power in ALS patients so it may be of potential benefit in situations such as high intensity activity and it can be proposed as a symptomatic treatment.


In conclusion, we reported that betaine supplementation does not augment muscle PCr content. Furthermore, we showed that betaine supplementation combined or not with creatine supplementation does not affect strength and power performance in untrained subjects.


In conclusion, when compared to creatine monohydrate, creatine ethyl ester was not as effective at increasing serum and muscle creatine levels or in improving body composition, muscle mass, strength, and power. Therefore, the improvements in these variables can most likely be attributed to the training protocol itself, rather than the supplementation regimen.


In particular, phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP at rest did not increase, and there was no facilitation of post-exercise PCr recovery. Clinical scores and laboratory tests did not alter significantly under Cr, which was tolerated without major side-effects in all patients. Cr supplementation did not improve skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation in our series of patients. However, one explanation for our negative findings may be the short study duration or the limited number of patients included.


It is concluded that creatine supplementation enhances total power output during the repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise separated by short resting intervals.


It is concluded that oral creatine supplementation stimulates muscle hypertrophy during rehabilitative strength training. This effect may be mediated by a creatine-induced change in MRF4 and myogenin expression.


It is suggested that a muscle's glycogen loading capacity is influenced by its initial levels of creatine and the accompanying alterations in cell volume.


Men aged 48 to 72 years maintained their ability to improve isokinetic muscle function following isotonic training, however, supplementation did not enhance muscle adaptability.


MRS-measured skeletal muscle PCr and TCr increased linearly and in parallel throughout the 5 d, and there was no significant difference in the percentage increase in muscle PCr (11.7% +/- 2.3% after 5 d) vs. TCr (14.9% +/- 4.1%) at any time point. The results indicate that creatine supplementation does not alter the PCr:TCr ratio, and hence the cytoplasmic Gibbs free energy of ATP hydrolysis, in human skeletal muscle at rest.


Myostatin and GASP-1 was measured. Resistance training caused significant decrease in serum levels of myostatin and increase in that of GASP-1. Creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training lead to greater decreases in serum myostatin (p<0.05), but had not additional effect on GASP-1 (p>0.05). The effects of resistance training on serum levels of myostatin and GASP-1, may explain the increased muscle mass that is amplified by creatine supplementation.


No changes were found in the fatigue test by the Pla group, whereas Cre group showed a tendency for an increase. The aerobic and anaerobic capacities of the organism did not decrease in both groups. Thus the creatine supplementation during strength training potentates an increase of force-velocity characteristics of trained muscle group without impeding aerobic capacity of the organism.


No significant changes were found for PL on any of the measured variables. No adverse side-effects were reported by either group. Short-term creatine supplementation resulted in an increase in strength, power, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women without any adverse side effects.


No significant treatment (p > 0.05) or treatment by test interaction effects (p > 0.05) were observed for peak or minimum power output (W), peak or minimum running velocity (m.s(-1)), or fatigue index (%). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found postsupplementation for body mass and percentage body fat. Although statistical significance was not achieved for any of the measured parameters, there were small improvements in performance that may be of benefit to rugby players.


Oral creatine supplementation at 2 g daily has no effect on muscle creatine concentration, muscle oxygen supply or muscle aerobic or anaerobic metabolism during endurance exercise.


Oral creatine supplementation in combination with exercise training showed no significant improvement in physical performance, measured as ESWT, in patients with COPD compared with exercise training alone.


Our pilot study suggests, that creatine supplementation should be further evaluated as a possible clinically beneficial adjuvant therapy for patients with CF to increase muscle strength, body-weight and well-being.


Pl groups over the 10 weeks. The results indicate that Cr supplementation combined with 10 weeks of concurrent resistance training may not improve strength or lean body mass greater than training only. These findings may be a result of nonresponders due to gender differences or a varying biological potential to uptake Cr within the muscle.


Raising muscle total Cr content before exercise appears to improve the ability of the muscle to maintain energy balance during intense aerobic exercise, but not during more moderate exercise intensities.


Resistance exercise improved muscle size, strength and function in HIV-infected men. While creatine supplementation produced a greater increase in LBM, it did not augment the robust increase in strength derived from PRT.


Resistance training in middle-aged and older men significantly increased muscular strength and added muscle mass with no additional benefits from creatine and/or protein supplementation.


Resting testosterone concentrations were elevated in C, however, no other significant endocrine changes were noted. Results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of creatine and creatine plus beta-alanine on strength performance. Creatine plus beta-alanine supplementation appeared to have the greatest effect on lean tissue accruement and body fat composition.


Results (2 x 5 ANOVA) showed no significant differences between groups for AWC at any time point; however, BW was significantly increased at 10 days in the CPS group (1.0 kg) vs. PL (0.0 kg), and remained elevated for the duration of the study. These findings suggest that a single 5 g x d(-1) dose of CPS for 30 days increases BW but is not effective for increasing AWC in men.


Results revealed no significant differences between the group means for sprint times or between 10-s maximal leg ergometry power and work. This study does not support the hypothesis that creatine supplementation enhances single-effort sprint ability of elite swimmers.


Smaller doses of PEG creatine (1.25 and 2.50 g.d) improved muscle strength (1RMBP and 1RMLP) to the same extent as 5 g.d of CM, but did not alter BM, power output, or endurance. When compared to the PL group, neither CM nor PEG creatine supplementation improved peak power output (CVJ or PP), MP, or muscle endurance (REPBP or REPLP). Thus, PEG creatine may have ergogenic effects that are comparable to those of CM, but with a smaller dose of creatine.


Sprint performance was enhanced by Cr loading. Peak power and mean power were significantly higher during the intermittent sprint exercise test following 6 days of Cr supplementation. It appears that ingestion of Cr for 6 days does not produce any different thermoregulatory responses to intermittent sprint exercise and may augment sprint exercise performance in the heat.


Supplementing with Cr after training of the arms resulted in greater increase in muscle thickness of the arms. Males have a greater increase in LTM with Cr supplementation than females.


The initial increase in muscle glycogen accumulation could not be explained by an increase in fasting plasma insulin concentration, muscle GLUT-4 mRNA and/or protein content. In addition, neither muscle GS-1 nor Gln-1 mRNA expression was affected. We conclude that creatine ingestion itself stimulates muscle glycogen storage, but does not affect muscle GLUT-4 expression.


The mean and peak power during Sprint 3 in the CRE + PLA was significantly greater than that in the CON. Heart rates, plasma lactate, and glucose increased significantly with CRE + CAF during most sprints. No significant differences were observed in the RPE among the three trials. The present study determined that caffeine ingestion after creatine supplements augmented intermittent high-intensity sprint performance.


The present study shows that oral Cr supplementation improves neuromuscular function of the elbow flexor muscle during both voluntary and electrically induced contractions.


The results of this study indicate that five day Cr supplementation enhances the dynamic strength and may increase anaerobic metabolism in the lower extremity muscles, and improves performance in consecutive maximal swims in highly trained adolescent fin swimmers.


There was significant difference at p<0.05 in the control group from training effect whereas there was significant difference at p<0.000 from training effect and creatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.


There were no changes in either group for aerobic endurance. Creatine supplementation during a rugby union football season is effective for increasing muscular endurance, but has no effect on body composition or aerobic endurance.


There were no differences in average power between groups over time. Only the Cr-only group increased total body mass (79.9 +/- 13.0 +/- 81.1 +/- 13.8 kg; p < .01), with no significant changes in lean-tissue or fat mass. These results suggest that Cr alone and in combination with A-AKG improves upper body muscle endurance, and Cr + A-AKG supplementation improves peak power output on repeated Wingate tests.


There were no significant changes, however, in 1RMLE, MP, PP, or BW for the Creatine or Placebo group. These findings indicated that 28 days of PEG-creatine supplementation without resistance training increased upper body strength but not lower body strength or muscular power. These findings supported the use of the PEG-creatine supplement for increasing 1RMBP strength in untrained individuals.


These data suggest that 21 days of CS produced significant effects on gross and/or propelling efficiency during swimming in female athletes. However, CS did not influence performance, body weight and body composition.


These findings confirm an ergogenic effect of Cr during resistance training and suggest that subjects with initially low levels of intramuscular Cr (vegetarians) are more responsive to supplementation.


These findings demonstrate that creatine supplementation can enhance the benefits of resistance training in patients with PD.


These findings suggest that the addition of creatine supplementation to resistance training significantly increases total and fat-free body mass, muscular strength, peripheral blood flow, and resting energy expenditure and improves blood cholesterol.


These results indicate that Cr supplementation can increase muscle strength (allied with 4 weeks of strength training) but only in subjects whose estimated Cr uptake and body mass are significantly increased; the greater the Cr uptake and associated body mass changes, the greater the performance gains.


This adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial shows that CrS does not augment the substantial training effect of multidisciplinary PR for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with https://portal.nihr.ac.uk/Pages/NRRArchiveSearch.aspx (NO123138126).


This investigation shows that short-term, high-dose oral creatine supplementation enhances the excretion of potential cytotoxic compounds, but does not have any detrimental effects on kidney permeability. This provides indirect evidence of the absence of microangiopathy in renal glomeruli.


This is the first controlled study indicating that creatine supplementation improves skeletal muscle function in McArdle disease.


This study demonstrates that short-term high dose oral creatine supplementation has an ergogenic effect on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers.


This study provides definite evidence that prolonged creatine supplementation in humans does not increase muscle or whole-body oxidative capacity and, as such, does not influence substrate utilization or performance during endurance cycling exercise. In addition, our findings suggest that prolonged creatine ingestion induces an increase in fat-free mass.


Thus there is substantial evidence to indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance training is more effective at increasing muscle strength and weightlifting performance than resistance training alone, although the response is highly variable.


Twenty patients received either Cr or placebo for 3 months. After 3 months, there were no significant differences of muscle strength as assessed by hand-held dynamometry, testing of maximum grip strength, Medical Research Council scoring, and the Neuromuscular Symptom Score between the two groups. Some measures indicated trends toward mild improvement with Cr. Myalgia improved in two patients.


We conclude that creatine supplementation during RT has a small beneficial effect on regional muscle thickness in young adults but that giving the creatine over 3 d wk did not differ from giving the same dose over 2 d wk.


We conclude that creatine was not effective for improving performance in these ice-hockey players.


We concluded that 1) oral creatine supplementation offsets the decline in muscle GLUT4 protein content that occurs during immobilization, and 2) oral creatine supplementation increases GLUT4 protein content during subsequent rehabilitation training in healthy subjects.


We concluded that creatine monohydrate increased the strength of high-intensity anaerobic and aerobic type activities in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies but had no apparent effects upon lower intensity aerobic activities.


A short-term oral creatine supplementation compared to placebo seems not to enhance performance over 800 m in trained, spinal cord-injured, wheelchair athletes.


Activities of CK, ALD, LDH, GOT, GTP, and levels of CRP were increased in the Pl group after the competition as compared to basal values. CrS decreased plasma activities of CK, LDH, and ALD, and prevented the rise of GOT and GPT plasma activities. In rats, CrS delayed the fatigue, preserved the force, and prevented the rise of LDH and CK plasma activities and MVP in the gastrocnemius muscle. CrS presented a protective effect on muscle injury induced by strenuous contractile activities.


All the athletes finished the race in a time equivalent to their personal best +/- 5.8%. These results indicate that creatine supplementation reduced cell damage and inflammation after an exhaustive intense race.


Cr supplementation increased AWC 13-15% in both genders compared to PL (1.1%- 3.0% decline); although this result was not statistically significant, it may have some practical significance.


Creatine failed to improve muscle mass or function and QoL in colorectal cancer patients but improved bioimpedance parameters that are predictive of poor outcome. Creatine might therefore be useful in patients with milder chemotherapy in order to maintain or increase BCM whereas patients undergoing aggressive chemotherapy however are not likely to benefit.


Despite widespread use as an ergogenic aid in sport, the results of this study suggest that creatine monohydrate supplementation conveys no benefit to multiple sprint running performance.


Following supplementation, there was significant body mass gain in the Cr group ( P<0.05), whereas the P group did not change. The exercise-induced T2, blood lactate levels and sprint performance were not affected by Cr supplementation in any sprint bouts. These results suggest that short-term Cr supplementation does not influence short duration repetitive sprint performance and muscle activation and/or metabolic state during sprint cycling evaluated by mfMRI of the skeletal muscle in humans.


Four months of CrM supplementation led to increases in FFM and handgrip strength in the dominant hand and a reduction in a marker of bone breakdown and was well tolerated in children with DD.


However, the change in the rate of fatigue of total work was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the creatine supplementation group than in the placebo group, indicating a reduced fatigue rate in subjects supplementing with creatine compared with the placebo. Although the results of this study demonstrated reduced fatigue rates in patients during high-intensity sprint intervals, further research is necessary in examining the efficacy of low-dose, short-term creatine supplementation.


In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that creatine supplementation in combination with strength training amplifies the training-induced increase in satellite cell number and myonuclei concentration in human skeletal muscle fibres, thereby allowing an enhanced muscle fibre growth in response to strength training.


In contrast, for men, CR significantly improved mean overall swimming velocity in the 6 X 50-m interval after 2 weeks of supplementation, whereas PL had no effect. Although ineffective in women, CR supplementation apparently enables men to maintain a faster mean overall swimming velocity during repeated swims each lasting about 30 s; however, CR was not effective for men in repeated swims each lasting about 10 - 15 s.


It was concluded that 4 weeks of Cr supplementation did not significantly improve single sprint performance in competitive junior swimmers, but it did enhance swim bench test performance.


Mean blood pH decreased (p < 0.05) similarly during the swims in both groups. Mean blood lactate increased (p < 0.001) during the swims, but there were no differences in peak blood lactate between the combination group (14.9 +/- 0.9 mmol.L(-1)) and placebo (13.4 +/- 1.0 mmol.L(-1)). The data indicate that simultaneous supplementation of creatine and sodium bicarbonate enhances performance in consecutive maximal swims.


No adverse changes in blood pressure, body composition, weight, or serum Cr phosphokinase levels were observed. We conclude that short-term Cr supplementation appears to be safe but does not enhance push-up performance.


Resistance training of 12 weeks increases bone mineral density in older men and creatine supplementation may provide an additional benefit for increasing regional bone mineral content. The increase in bone mineral content may be due to an enhanced muscle mass with creatine, with potentially greater tension on bone at sites of muscle attachment.


The findings suggest that creatine supplementation tended to decrease muscle glycogen and protein degradation, especially after endurance exercise. However, creatine supplementation might induce collagen proteolysis in athletes after sprint running.


The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.


The male Cr loading group exhibited a 23% higher (p = 0.003) ARC compared to the PL group. Nonsignificant BW increases were found for the Cr groups. These findings suggest that Cr loading may be an effective strategy for improving ARC in men, but not in women, and revealed only nonsignificant increases in BW. Creatine loading may be used before competition by athletes to provide improvements in high-intensity, short-duration activities.


The PL resulted in no significant changes in AWC following supplementation; however, Cr increased AWC by 22.1% after 5 days of loading (p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect for body weight (BW), however, there was no significant increase in BW due to Cr supplementation. These results suggest that Cr supplementation is effective for increasing AWC in women following 5 days of loading without an associated increase in BW.


There was no significant improvement using manual and quantitative muscle strength, daily-life activities, and patients' own global assessment comparing verum with placebo administration. Cr supplementation was well tolerated without clinically relevant side effects, but did not result in significant improvement of muscle strength or daily-life activities.


These data suggest that oral creatine supplementation does not reduce skeletal muscle damage or enhance recovery following a hypoxic resistance exercise challenge.


These results indicate that creatine monohydrate supplementation does not appear to improve the performance in 6 consecutive 60 meter repeated races but may modify ventilatory dynamics during the recovery after maximal effort.


Twenty g Cr supplementation a day for a week to the trained females improves not the maximal static strength and dynamic peak torque but the mean strength and endurance of repeated contractions. However, the effects on females are not so great as that ever found in males. The effects are enhanced by anaerobic exercises performed before the supplementation and would disappear in a week if the supplementation were stopped.


URCR was an effective measure of each CR dosage administered as well as of the excretion pattern that each group followed throughout the SP. Furthermore the strong relationship of URCR and PPI could be particularly useful for monitoring and optimising CR loading in athletic populations.


Creatine supplementation may, in part, act through an increased rate of conversion of T to DHT. Further investigation is warranted as a result of the high frequency of individuals using creatine supplementation and the long-term safety of alterations in circulating androgen composition. STATEMENT OF CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although creatine is a widely used ergogenic aid, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood, particularly in relation to dihydrotestosterone, and therefore the long-term clinical safety cannot be guaranteed.


Any beneficial effect of creatine at 5 g per day in ALS must be small. Other agents should be considered in future studies of therapeutic agents to address mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS. In addition, motor unit number estimation may be a useful outcome measure for future clinical trials in ALS.


Creatinine clearance was estimated from serum creatinine and was not significantly different between groups. Within the CrM group, correlations between all blood parameters and either daily dosage or duration of supplementation were nonsignificant. Therefore, it appears that oral supplementation with CrM has no long-term detrimental effects on kidney or liver functions in highly trained college athletes in the absence of other nutritional supplements.


Expected gender differences were observed. Of the comparisons made among supplementation groups, only two differences for creatinine and total protein (P < 0.05) were noted. All group means fell within normal clinical ranges. There were no differences in the reported incidence of muscle injury, cramps, or other side effects. These data suggest that long-term creatine supplementation does not result in adverse health effects.


However, a trend towards reduced blood glucose levels was present in males given creatine monohydrate (P = 0.051). 4. These preliminary data suggest that creatine monohydrate may modulate lipid metabolism in certain individuals. These observations may demonstrate practical efficacy to the hyperlipidaemic patient as well as providing possible new mechanistic insights into the cellular regulation of blood lipid concentrations.


In conclusion Cr supplementation in trained swimmers may improve anaerobic performance and heart rate variations independent of the effect of intensive sprint swimming bouts.


In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.


  • Creatine for the Overall Systems

Although the mechanism for this is not fully understood, it may be related to the asymmetrical distribution of muscle mass around those joints.


Both Cr/Pl and Cr/Gly resulted in significantly attenuated heart rate, rectal temperature, and perceived effort during exercise, although no regimen had any effect on performance. The addition of Gly to Cr significantly increased TBW more than Cr alone (P=0.02) but did not further enhance the attenuation in HR, Tre, and RPE during exercise. These data suggest that combined Cr and Gly is an effective method of hyperhydration capable of reducing thermal and cardiovascular responses.


Cr loading did not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heat.


Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.


In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.


No evidence supports the concept that creatine supplementation either hinders the body's ability to dissipate heat or negatively affects the athlete's body fluid balance. Controlled experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation at recommended dosages.


No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.


Short-term CrM supplementation did not increase the incidence of symptoms or compromise hydration status or thermoregulation in dehydrated, trained men exercising in the heat.


Sprint performance was enhanced by Cr loading. Peak power and mean power were significantly higher during the intermittent sprint exercise test following 6 days of Cr supplementation. It appears that ingestion of Cr for 6 days does not produce any different thermoregulatory responses to intermittent sprint exercise and may augment sprint exercise performance in the heat.


Before the supplementation period, a significant increase in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA levels was observed after RE. The Cr supplementation induces a significant increase in athletics performance, and it attenuated the changes observed in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA. These results indicate that Cr supplementation reduced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of RE.


Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.


Four months of CrM supplementation led to increases in FFM and handgrip strength in the dominant hand and a reduction in a marker of bone breakdown and was well tolerated in children with DD.


Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.


CMH supplementation increases global DNA methylation statistically significantly. Scores were lower for creatine than for placebo reflecting clinical improvement but not reaching statistical significance. Biochemical variables of methionine-homocysteine remethylation are unaffected. Multicenter studies are urgently warranted to evaluate the long-term effects of CMH supplementation in an optimally homogenous RTT population over a prolonged period.


  • Creatine for the Nervous System

Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.


Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.


Further study of creatine as an adjunctive treatment for adolescents with SSRI-resistant MDD is warranted.


In conclusion, creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) did not have an obvious benefit on the multiple markers of disease progression measured over nine months. We measured fatigue during isometric contraction and found no significant improvement despite anecdotal patient reports prior to and during the study. The trend toward improved survival was also found in another recently completed blinded trial using creatine monohydrate. Further investigation on the possible survival benefit of creatine in this patient population is ongoing.


More specific examinations including brain spectroscopy for in vivo evaluation of Cr can be done, in order to draw conclusions for the optimal duration and manner of Cr supply, as well as its possible role for the prevention of TBI complications, in double blind studies.


The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder.


There was significant difference at p<0.05 in the control group from training effect whereas there was significant difference at p<0.000 from training effect and creatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.


This small, preliminary, open study of creatine monohydrate suggests a beneficial effect of creatine augmentation in unipolar depression, but possible precipitation of a manic switch in bipolar depression.


Twenty patients received either Cr or placebo for 3 months. After 3 months, there were no significant differences of muscle strength as assessed by hand-held dynamometry, testing of maximum grip strength, Medical Research Council scoring, and the Neuromuscular Symptom Score between the two groups. Some measures indicated trends toward mild improvement with Cr. Myalgia improved in two patients.


Using double-blind placebo-controlled paradigm, we demonstrated that dietary supplement of creatine (8 g/day for 5 days) reduces mental fatigue when subjects repeatedly perform a simple mathematical calculation. After taking the creatine supplement, task-evoked increase of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin in the brains of subjects measured by near infrared spectroscopy was significantly reduced, which is compatible with increased oxygen utilization in the brain.


Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.


Although Cr influenced key modulators of brain 5-HT and DA function and reduced various thermophysiological parameters which all may have contributed to the reduced effort perception during exercise in the heat, performance was improved only in the "responders" to Cr supplementation. The present results may also suggest the demanding of the pre-experimental identification of the participants into "responders" and "non-responders" to Cr supplementation before performing the main experimentation. Otherwise, the possibility of the type II error may be enhanced.


CR supplementation improves physical function, lower limb lean mass, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with knee OA undergoing strengthening exercises.


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


Creatine failed to improve muscle mass or function and QoL in colorectal cancer patients but improved bioimpedance parameters that are predictive of poor outcome. Creatine might therefore be useful in patients with milder chemotherapy in order to maintain or increase BCM whereas patients undergoing aggressive chemotherapy however are not likely to benefit.


Creatine monohydrate supplementation did not improve body composition or muscle strength when given before surgery, nor did it enhance recovery after TKA.


Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect (p < 0.0001) on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices), both tasks that require speed of processing. These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance.


Creatine supplementation led to increases in fat-free mass, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, health status, but not exercise capacity. Creatine may constitute a new ergogenic treatment in COPD.


Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.


In elderly women, short-term oral creatine supplementation does not improve endurance capacity but increases the ability to perform lower-body functional living tasks involving rapid movements.


Ingesting a low dose (≈2.3 g/d) of creatine for 6 wk significantly increased plasma creatine concentration and enhanced resistance to fatigue during repeated bouts of high-intensity contractions.


It was concluded that, during sleep deprivation with moderate-intensity exercise, creatine supplementation only affects performance of complex central executive tasks.


Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Creatine (Cr) is an ergogenic compound that exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of PD. We conducted a 2-year placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the effect of Cr in 60 patients with PD. Cr improved patient mood and led to a smaller dose increase of dopaminergic therapy but had no effect on overall Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores or dopamine transporter SPECT.


Our pilot study suggests, that creatine supplementation should be further evaluated as a possible clinically beneficial adjuvant therapy for patients with CF to increase muscle strength, body-weight and well-being.


Randomly and under a double-blind procedure, subjects consumed either a placebo or 20 g of creatine supplement for 5 d. Creatine supplementation did not influence measures of verbal fluency and vigilance. However, in vegetarians rather than in those who consume meat, creatine supplementation resulted in better memory. Irrespective of dietary style, the supplementation of creatine decreased the variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task.


Short-term creatine supplementation inaddition to standard medication in patients with CHF leads to an increase in body weight and an improvement of muscle strength. This effect is restricted to the time of supplementation.


The adjusted mean posttest PWC(FT) values (covaried for pretest PWC(FT) values) for the b-Ala and CrBA groups were greater than those for the PLA group (p < or = 0.05). However, there were no differences between the CrM vs. PLA, CrBA vs. b-Ala, CrM vs. b-Ala, or CrM vs. CrBA groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that b-Ala supplementation may delay the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Furthermore, there appeared to be no additive or unique effects of CrM vs. b-Ala alone on PWC(FT).


The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s intervals for each 60-s work bout. Resulting slopes from each successive work bout were used to calculate EMG FT. A 2-way ANOVA, Group (Cr vs. Pl) x Time (pre vs. post), resulted in a nonsignificant (p > .05) interaction for supplement and time. In addition, a significant increase (p = .009) in weight was observed in the Cr group. These data suggest that there was a minimal influence of Cr loading on EMG FT for the participants in this study.


These findings suggest that 14 days of CR supplementation may increase upper body grip strength and increase physical working capacity by delaying neuromuscular fatigue in the elderly men and women in this study. While more research is needed, CR supplementation may improve upper body grip strength and lower body muscle endurance which may be important for maintaining health and independent living in elderly men and women.


These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.


This adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial shows that CrS does not augment the substantial training effect of multidisciplinary PR for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with https://portal.nihr.ac.uk/Pages/NRRArchiveSearch.aspx (NO123138126).


Thus healthy human brain energetics is malleable and shifts with 7 days of Cr supplementation, with the regions of initially low PCr showing the largest increments in PCr. Overall, Cr supplementation appears to improve high-energy phosphate turnover in healthy brain and can result in either a decrease or an increase in high-energy phosphate concentrations.



  • Creatine for the Endocrine System

Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


Creatine supplementation combined with an exercise program improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. The underlying mechanism seems to be related to an increase in GLUT-4 recruitment to the sarcolemma.


Creatine supplementation may, in part, act through an increased rate of conversion of T to DHT. Further investigation is warranted as a result of the high frequency of individuals using creatine supplementation and the long-term safety of alterations in circulating androgen composition. STATEMENT OF CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although creatine is a widely used ergogenic aid, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood, particularly in relation to dihydrotestosterone, and therefore the long-term clinical safety cannot be guaranteed.


CT demonstrated significant decrease in OGTT area under the curve compared to PT (P = 0.034). There were no differences between groups or over time in fasting insulin or HOMA. The results suggest that creatine supplementation, combined with aerobic training, can improve glucose tolerance but does not affect insulin sensitivity, and may warrant further investigation with diabetic subjects.


Expected gender differences were observed. Of the comparisons made among supplementation groups, only two differences for creatinine and total protein (P < 0.05) were noted. All group means fell within normal clinical ranges. There were no differences in the reported incidence of muscle injury, cramps, or other side effects. These data suggest that long-term creatine supplementation does not result in adverse health effects.


However, a trend towards reduced blood glucose levels was present in males given creatine monohydrate (P = 0.051). 4. These preliminary data suggest that creatine monohydrate may modulate lipid metabolism in certain individuals. These observations may demonstrate practical efficacy to the hyperlipidaemic patient as well as providing possible new mechanistic insights into the cellular regulation of blood lipid concentrations.


In addition, creatine supplementation appears to be effective for maintaining muscular performance during the initial phase of high-volume resistance training overreaching that otherwise results in small performance decrements.


In resting conditions and at high dosages Cr enhances GH secretion, mimicking the response of strong exercise which also stimulates GH secretion. Acute body weight gain and strength increase observed after Cr supplementation should consider the indirect anabolic property of Cr.


It was concluded that supplementation of CHO and Cr could promote the recovery of physical performance and athletic abilities after athletics in basketball athletes.


No statistically significant differences in performance were observed between groups after long-term maintenance during training, although small differences were observed that might be meaningful for elite performers.


Resting testosterone concentrations were elevated in C, however, no other significant endocrine changes were noted. Results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of creatine and creatine plus beta-alanine on strength performance. Creatine plus beta-alanine supplementation appeared to have the greatest effect on lean tissue accruement and body fat composition.


This study shows that creatine supplementation may result in abnormalities in glucose homeostasis in the absence of changes in insulin secretion.


  • Creatine for the Skeletal System

  • Creatine for the Respiratory System

Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.


Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.


In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.


Prior to and following supplementation, participants performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO(2peak), time to exhaustion (TTE), and power output, VO(2), and percent VO(2peak) associated with VT and LT. No significant group effects were found. However, within groups, a significant time effect was observed for CrBa on 5 of the 8 parameters measured. These data suggest that CrBA may potentially enhance endurance performance.


This study provides definite evidence that prolonged creatine supplementation in humans does not increase muscle or whole-body oxidative capacity and, as such, does not influence substrate utilization or performance during endurance cycling exercise. In addition, our findings suggest that prolonged creatine ingestion induces an increase in fat-free mass.


We concluded that creatine monohydrate increased the strength of high-intensity anaerobic and aerobic type activities in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies but had no apparent effects upon lower intensity aerobic activities.


  • Creatine for the Cardiovascular System

  • Creatine for the Urinary System

  • Creatine for the Digestive System

8 weeks of CrM supplementation had no negative effects on blood and urinary clinical health markers in football players. Properties of CrM may, however, be associated with an increase in CK activity, improving the efficiency for ATP resynthesis, a phenomenon indirectly confirmed by the decreasing tendency in uric acid concentration. Furthermore, CrM seems to slightly influence glucoregulation in trained subjects.


Any beneficial effect of creatine at 5 g per day in ALS must be small. Other agents should be considered in future studies of therapeutic agents to address mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS. In addition, motor unit number estimation may be a useful outcome measure for future clinical trials in ALS.


Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.


Cr supplementation increased AWC 13-15% in both genders compared to PL (1.1%- 3.0% decline); although this result was not statistically significant, it may have some practical significance.


Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.


Creatine supplementation led to increases in fat-free mass, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, health status, but not exercise capacity. Creatine may constitute a new ergogenic treatment in COPD.


Despite widespread use as an ergogenic aid in sport, the results of this study suggest that creatine monohydrate supplementation conveys no benefit to multiple sprint running performance.


Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.


ES was greater for changes in lean body mass following short-term CS, repetitive-bout laboratory-based exercise tasks < or = 30 s (e.g., isometric, isokinetic, and isotonic resistance exercise), and upper-body exercise. CS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. There is no evidence in the literature of an effect of gender or training status on ES following CS.


However, a trend towards reduced blood glucose levels was present in males given creatine monohydrate (P = 0.051). 4. These preliminary data suggest that creatine monohydrate may modulate lipid metabolism in certain individuals. These observations may demonstrate practical efficacy to the hyperlipidaemic patient as well as providing possible new mechanistic insights into the cellular regulation of blood lipid concentrations.


However, the change in the rate of fatigue of total work was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the creatine supplementation group than in the placebo group, indicating a reduced fatigue rate in subjects supplementing with creatine compared with the placebo. Although the results of this study demonstrated reduced fatigue rates in patients during high-intensity sprint intervals, further research is necessary in examining the efficacy of low-dose, short-term creatine supplementation.


In conclusion, our preliminary results have demonstrated that supplementation temporary increases maximal isometric power in ALS patients so it may be of potential benefit in situations such as high intensity activity and it can be proposed as a symptomatic treatment.


In conclusion, we reported that betaine supplementation does not augment muscle PCr content. Furthermore, we showed that betaine supplementation combined or not with creatine supplementation does not affect strength and power performance in untrained subjects.


In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.


No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.


No significant treatment (p > 0.05) or treatment by test interaction effects (p > 0.05) were observed for peak or minimum power output (W), peak or minimum running velocity (m.s(-1)), or fatigue index (%). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found postsupplementation for body mass and percentage body fat. Although statistical significance was not achieved for any of the measured parameters, there were small improvements in performance that may be of benefit to rugby players.


No statistically significant differences in performance were observed between groups after long-term maintenance during training, although small differences were observed that might be meaningful for elite performers.


Results (2 x 5 ANOVA) showed no significant differences between groups for AWC at any time point; however, BW was significantly increased at 10 days in the CPS group (1.0 kg) vs. PL (0.0 kg), and remained elevated for the duration of the study. These findings suggest that a single 5 g x d(-1) dose of CPS for 30 days increases BW but is not effective for increasing AWC in men.


Sprint performance was enhanced by Cr loading. Peak power and mean power were significantly higher during the intermittent sprint exercise test following 6 days of Cr supplementation. It appears that ingestion of Cr for 6 days does not produce any different thermoregulatory responses to intermittent sprint exercise and may augment sprint exercise performance in the heat.


The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s intervals for each 60-s work bout. Resulting slopes from each successive work bout were used to calculate EMG FT. A 2-way ANOVA, Group (Cr vs. Pl) x Time (pre vs. post), resulted in a nonsignificant (p > .05) interaction for supplement and time. In addition, a significant increase (p = .009) in weight was observed in the Cr group. These data suggest that there was a minimal influence of Cr loading on EMG FT for the participants in this study.


The PL resulted in no significant changes in AWC following supplementation; however, Cr increased AWC by 22.1% after 5 days of loading (p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect for body weight (BW), however, there was no significant increase in BW due to Cr supplementation. These results suggest that Cr supplementation is effective for increasing AWC in women following 5 days of loading without an associated increase in BW.


The present results suggest short term Cr supplementation has no detectable negative effect on cardiac structure or function. Additionally, Cr ingestion improves submaximal cycling efficiency. These results suggest that the increase in efficiency may be related to peripheral factors such an increase in muscle phosphocreatine, rather than central changes.


These data suggest that 21 days of CS produced significant effects on gross and/or propelling efficiency during swimming in female athletes. However, CS did not influence performance, body weight and body composition.


These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.


This adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial shows that CrS does not augment the substantial training effect of multidisciplinary PR for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with https://portal.nihr.ac.uk/Pages/NRRArchiveSearch.aspx (NO123138126).


This study provides definite evidence that prolonged creatine supplementation in humans does not increase muscle or whole-body oxidative capacity and, as such, does not influence substrate utilization or performance during endurance cycling exercise. In addition, our findings suggest that prolonged creatine ingestion induces an increase in fat-free mass.


We conclude that between-day differences in FFM estimation were within acceptable limits, with the possible exception of ANTHRO. In addition, all 5 methods provided similar measures of FFM change during acute Cr supplementation.


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