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L-Carnitine

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What are L-Carnitine's other names?

  • Acetylcarnitine
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine
  • ALCAR
  • Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine
  • GPLC
  • L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate
  • LCLT
  • Levacecarnine
  • Levocarnitine

What is L-Carnitine's recommended dosage?

  • Recommended daily intake: 500 - 2000 mg

What supplements interact with L-Carnitine?

  • L-Carnitine and Alpha-Lipoic Acid

  • L-Carnitine and Caffeine

  • L-Carnitine and Coenzyme Q10


What can L-Carnitine help with?

  • L-Carnitine for Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • L-Carnitine for Intermittent Claudication

  • L-Carnitine for ADHD

  • L-Carnitine for Aggression

  • L-Carnitine for Alcohol Use Disorder

  • L-Carnitine for Exercise-induced Fatigue

test
Slightly Positive


Data suggest that a 2-month L-carnitine supplementation may be effective in attenuating oxidative stress responses, enhancing antioxidant status, and improving performance of patients with end-stage renal disease.


test
Slightly Positive


Exercise-induced increases in plasma malondialdehyde returned to resting values sooner during LCLT compared with placebo. The amount of muscle disruption from MRI scans during LCLT was 41-45% of the placebo area. These data indicate that LCLT supplementation is effective in assisting recovery from high-repetition squat exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


However, markers of physical performance (ie, strength, power, get up and go) were not affected by supplementation. These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, because oxygen delivery was occluded during the forearm protocol, it is proposed that enhanced oxygen consumption mediated the reduced muscle oxygenation during the LCLT trial. Enhanced oxygen consumption would explain why hypoxic stress was attenuated with LCLT supplementation.


test
Slightly Positive


No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.


  • L-Carnitine for Fatigue

test
Slightly Positive


Acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine showed beneficial effect on fatigue and attention concentration. Less improvement was found by the combined treatment. Acetylcarnitine had main effect on mental fatigue and propionylcarnitine on general fatigue.


test
Slightly Positive


Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.


test
Slightly Positive


Also, after the physical load, the subjective feeling of fatigue assessed with a visual analogue scale was lower in the citric acid group than in the placebo group. In contrast, l-carnitine had no effect on chromogranin A or subjective fatigue. These results suggest that citric acid reduces physiological stress and attenuates physical fatigue, whereas l-carnitine does not.


test
Slightly Positive


It is concluded that during submaximal exercise after glycogen depletion (i.e., at a high lipid flux) substrate metabolism is not influenced by L-carnitine supplementation.


test
Slightly Positive


L-Carnitine therapy is safe and effective in ameliorating fatigue in celiac disease. Since L-carnitine is involved in muscle energy production its decreased absorption due to OCTN2 reduction might explain muscular symptoms in celiac disease patients. The diet-induced OCTN2 increase, improving carnitine absorption, might explain the L-carnitine treatment efficacy.


test
Slightly Positive


Our data show that administering ALC may reduce both physical and mental fatigue in elderly and improves both the cognitive status and physical functions.


test
Slightly Positive


Our study indicates that oral administration of levocarnitine produces a reduction of total fat mass, increases total muscular mass, and facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions.


  • L-Carnitine for Fibromyalgia

  • L-Carnitine for Hepatic Encephalopathy

  • L-Carnitine for Hyperthyroidism

  • L-Carnitine for Inflammation

  • L-Carnitine for Multiple Sclerosis

  • L-Carnitine for Muscle Soreness

  • L-Carnitine for Oxidative Damage


What is L-Carnitine used for?

  • L-Carnitine for Mental health

test
Moderately Positive


L-carnitine therapy (50 mg/kilogram-bodyweight/day) administered for 3-months significantly improved several clinical measurements of ASD severity, but subsequent studies are recommended.


test
Slightly Positive


However, we observed a stronger reduction of hyperactivity and improvement of social behavior in patients treated with LAC, compared with the placebo group, as determined by the Conners' Global Index Parents and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Our results show that LAC (20-50 mg/kg/day) represents a safe alternative to the use of stimulant drugs for the treatment of ADHD in FXS children.


test
Slightly Positive


Our data show that administering ALC may reduce both physical and mental fatigue in elderly and improves both the cognitive status and physical functions.


test
Slightly Positive


Patients with HE treated with ALC showed a decrease in the severity of both mental and physical fatigue and an increase in physical activity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01223742.


test
Slightly Positive


Six patients withdrew from the study because of adverse reactions (five on amantadine and one on ALCAR). Statistical analysis showed significant effects of ALCAR compared with amantadine for the Fatigue Severity Scale (p = 0.039). There were no significant effects for any of the secondary outcome variables. The results of this study show that ALCAR is better tolerated and more effective than amantadine for the treatment of MS-related fatigue.


test
Slightly Positive


The benefits of ALC in comparison with placebo are demonstrated in greater reductions in serum ammonia levels, as well as in improvements of neuropsychological functioning.


test
Slightly Positive


The improvement of cognitive deficits, the reduction of ammonia, and the modification of EEG in patients treated with ALC suggest that ALC could represent a new tool in the treatment of severe hepatic encephalopathy.


test
Slightly Positive


This study shows that ALC treatment is associated with significant improvement in patient energy levels, general functioning and well-being. The improvement of quality of life is associated with reduction of anxiety and depression.


test
Slightly Positive


Treatment with carnitine significantly decreased the attention problems and aggressive behavior in boys with ADHD.


test
Slightly Positive


We hypothesize that correction of carnitine depletion, either by levocarnitine supplementation or by valproate dose reduction, may enhance recovery from hypocarnitinemia-associated encephalopathy in psychiatric patients. Our findings also suggest that ethnic traits may affect carnitine bioavailability as well as cognitive outcomes in this clinical context. Further studies of carnitine metabolism and supplementation in psychiatric patients are warranted.


  • L-Carnitine for Heart health

test
Moderately Positive


Claudicants with maximal walking distance < or = 250 m benefited from the use of propionyl-L-carnitine, with improvement in walking distance and quality of life. However, patients with mild functional impairment (i.e., walking distance > 250 m) showed no response to propionyl-L-carnitine.


test
Moderately Positive


Propionyl-L-carnitine safely improved treadmill exercise performance and enhanced functional status in patients with claudication.


test
Moderately Positive


These data indicate that propionyl-L-carnitine exerts beneficial effects on quality of life and walking performance in patients with more severely limited walking capacity.


test
Slightly Positive


GPLC supplementation combined with eight weeks of aerobic exercise decreases lipid peroxidation and elevates nitric oxide, but does not further improve blood lipid profiles in normolipidemic subjects.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, consistent with other work showing a beneficial effect of carnitine on vascular function, these findings indicate that carnitine supplementation in healthy individuals improves postprandial FMD after a high-fat meal.


test
Slightly Positive


Supplementation with ALCA results in an increase in resting nitrate/nitrite in pre-diabetics, without any statistically significant change in other metabolic or oxidative stress variables measured at rest or post meal.


test
Slightly Positive


These findings indicate that short-term oral GPLC supplementation can increase NOx in resistance trained men. However, as with many dietary supplements, there exist both "responders" and "non-responders" to treatment. Future work may focus on the mechanisms for the discrepancy in response to GPLC supplementation for purposes of NOx elevation.


test
Slightly Positive


Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.


test
Slightly Negative


It is concluded that during submaximal exercise after glycogen depletion (i.e., at a high lipid flux) substrate metabolism is not influenced by L-carnitine supplementation.


test
Slightly Negative


These responses suggest that LC may induce subtle changes in substrate handling in metabolically active tissues when fatty-acid availability is increased, but it does not affect whole-body substrate utilization during short-duration exercise at the intensities studied.


  • L-Carnitine for Men's health

test
Moderately Positive


Based on a controlled study of efficacy, L-carnitine therapy was effective in increasing semen quality, especially in groups with lower baseline levels. However, these results need to be confirmed by larger clinical trials and in vitro studies.


test
Moderately Positive


Carnitine supplementation demonstrated no clinically or statistically significant effect on sperm motility or total motile sperm counts in men with idiopathic asthenospermia.


test
Moderately Positive


Combined treatment with l-carnitine and l-acetyl-carnitine in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in increasing sperm motility, especially in groups with lower baseline levels.


test
Moderately Positive


It seems that the use of clomiphene citrate and L-carnitine, either individually or in combination, as the first step of idiopathic male infertility treatment is reasonable, safe, and effective.


test
Moderately Positive


The administration of LC and LAC is effective in increasing sperm kinetic features in patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospemia and improves the total oxyradical scavenging capacity of the seminal fluid in the same population.


test
Slightly Positive


These preliminary findings indicate that the favourable cardiovascular effects of nutraceuticals might also reflect on male sexual function with possible implication in the treatment and prevention of ED. This study documents a considerable patient's interest toward nutritional supplementation--as first-line or adjunctive treatment to PDE5 inhibitors--that goes beyond the measurable increment in penile rigidity.


  • L-Carnitine for Muscle building

test
Moderately Positive


Patients with HE treated with ALC showed a decrease in the severity of both mental and physical fatigue and an increase in physical activity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01223742.


test
Moderately Positive


The benefits of ALC in comparison with placebo are demonstrated in greater reductions in serum ammonia levels, as well as in improvements of neuropsychological functioning.


test
Moderately Positive


The improvement of cognitive deficits, the reduction of ammonia, and the modification of EEG in patients treated with ALC suggest that ALC could represent a new tool in the treatment of severe hepatic encephalopathy.


test
Moderately Positive


The tendency toward suppressed ammonia accumulation, however, indicates that oral LC supplementation might have the potential to reduce the metabolic stress of exercise or alter ammonia production or removal, which warrants further investigation.


test
Slightly Positive


Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.


test
Slightly Positive


Data suggest that a 2-month L-carnitine supplementation may be effective in attenuating oxidative stress responses, enhancing antioxidant status, and improving performance of patients with end-stage renal disease.


test
Slightly Positive


Exercise-induced increases in plasma malondialdehyde returned to resting values sooner during LCLT compared with placebo. The amount of muscle disruption from MRI scans during LCLT was 41-45% of the placebo area. These data indicate that LCLT supplementation is effective in assisting recovery from high-repetition squat exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


Following CON II, all subjects began dietary supplementation of L-carnitine for a period of 14 days (4 g/day). Plasma total acid soluble and free carnitine concentrations were significantly higher (p < .05) at all time points following supplementation. L-carnitine supplementation had no significant effect on muscle carnitine content and thus could not alter lactate accumulation during exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


However, markers of physical performance (ie, strength, power, get up and go) were not affected by supplementation. These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, because oxygen delivery was occluded during the forearm protocol, it is proposed that enhanced oxygen consumption mediated the reduced muscle oxygenation during the LCLT trial. Enhanced oxygen consumption would explain why hypoxic stress was attenuated with LCLT supplementation.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, GPLC appears to be a useful dietary supplement to enhance anaerobic work capacity and potentially sport performance, but apparently the dosage must be determined specific to the intensity and duration of exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


In summary, these data demonstrated that: 1) feeding after RE increased AR content, which may result in increased testosterone uptake, and thus enhanced luteinizing hormone secretion via feedback mechanisms; and 2) LCLT supplementation upregulated AR content, which may promote recovery from RE.


test
Slightly Positive


No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.


test
Slightly Positive


No other direct effects of LCLT supplementation were observed on the absolute concentrations of the hormones examined, but with more undamaged tissue, a greater number of intact receptors would be available for hormonal interactions. These data support the use of LCLT as a recovery supplement for hypoxic exercise and lend further insights into the hormonal mechanisms that may help to mediate quicker recovery.


test
Slightly Positive


Our study indicates that oral administration of levocarnitine produces a reduction of total fat mass, increases total muscular mass, and facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions.


test
Slightly Positive


There were no statistical differences (p> .05) between or within the 3 groups for any performance-related variable or muscle carnitine concentrations after 8 wk of supplementation and training. These results suggest that up to 3 g/d GPLC for 8 wk in conjunction with aerobic-exercise training is ineffective for increasing muscle carnitine content and has no significant effects on aerobic- or anaerobic-exercise performance.


test
Slightly Positive


These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.


test
Slightly Positive


This is the first demonstration that human muscle TC can be increased by dietary means and results in muscle glycogen sparing during low intensity exercise (consistent with an increase in lipid utilisation) and a better matching of glycolytic, PDC and mitochondrial flux during high intensity exercise, thereby reducing muscle anaerobic ATP production. Furthermore, these changes were associated with an improvement in exercise performance.


  • L-Carnitine for Weight loss

  • L-Carnitine for Emotional health

  • L-Carnitine for Insulin control

test
Slightly Positive


Considering the role of caloric restriction in increasing the intestinal uptake of carnitine, the results suggest that oral L-carnitine administration, when associated with a hypocaloric feeding regimen, improves insulin resistance and may represent an adjunctive treatment for IFG and DM-2.


test
Slightly Positive


It is concluded that LC supplementation induces changes in blood glucose handling/disposal during an OGTT, which is not influenced by GLP-1. The glucose handling/disposal response to oral LC is different between lean and overweight/obese suggesting that further investigation is required. LC effects on gastric emptying and/or direct 'insulin-like' actions on tissues should be examined in larger samples of overweight/obese and lean participants, respectively.


test
Slightly Positive


L-Carnitine orally administered for a period of 4 weeks did not modify insulin sensitivity or the lipid profile.


test
Slightly Positive


L-carnitine supplementation to diet is useful for reducing TNF-alpha and CRP, and for improving liver function, glucose plasma level, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and histological manifestations of NASH.


test
Slightly Positive


These responses suggest that LC may induce subtle changes in substrate handling in metabolically active tissues when fatty-acid availability is increased, but it does not affect whole-body substrate utilization during short-duration exercise at the intensities studied.


test
Slightly Positive


Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.


  • L-Carnitine for Antioxidant potential

test
Slightly Positive


Data suggest that a 2-month L-carnitine supplementation may be effective in attenuating oxidative stress responses, enhancing antioxidant status, and improving performance of patients with end-stage renal disease.


test
Slightly Positive


Exercise-induced increases in plasma malondialdehyde returned to resting values sooner during LCLT compared with placebo. The amount of muscle disruption from MRI scans during LCLT was 41-45% of the placebo area. These data indicate that LCLT supplementation is effective in assisting recovery from high-repetition squat exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


GPLC supplementation combined with eight weeks of aerobic exercise decreases lipid peroxidation and elevates nitric oxide, but does not further improve blood lipid profiles in normolipidemic subjects.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, L-carnitine increases activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. It may be useful as a supplementary therapy for chronic illnesses involving excessive oxidative stress.


test
Slightly Positive


L-carnitine supplementation to diet is useful for reducing TNF-alpha and CRP, and for improving liver function, glucose plasma level, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and histological manifestations of NASH.


test
Slightly Positive


No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.


test
Slightly Positive


GlycoCarn(R) resulted in a 13.7% decrease in MDA from pre- to post-exercise and yielded a non-significant but greater total volume load compared to all other conditions.


  • L-Carnitine for Overall health

  • L-Carnitine for Energy

test
Slightly Positive


Acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine showed beneficial effect on fatigue and attention concentration. Less improvement was found by the combined treatment. Acetylcarnitine had main effect on mental fatigue and propionylcarnitine on general fatigue.


test
Slightly Positive


Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.


test
Slightly Positive


Also, after the physical load, the subjective feeling of fatigue assessed with a visual analogue scale was lower in the citric acid group than in the placebo group. In contrast, l-carnitine had no effect on chromogranin A or subjective fatigue. These results suggest that citric acid reduces physiological stress and attenuates physical fatigue, whereas l-carnitine does not.


test
Slightly Positive


It is concluded that during submaximal exercise after glycogen depletion (i.e., at a high lipid flux) substrate metabolism is not influenced by L-carnitine supplementation.


test
Slightly Positive


L-Carnitine therapy is safe and effective in ameliorating fatigue in celiac disease. Since L-carnitine is involved in muscle energy production its decreased absorption due to OCTN2 reduction might explain muscular symptoms in celiac disease patients. The diet-induced OCTN2 increase, improving carnitine absorption, might explain the L-carnitine treatment efficacy.


test
Slightly Positive


Our data show that administering ALC may reduce both physical and mental fatigue in elderly and improves both the cognitive status and physical functions.


test
Slightly Positive


Our study indicates that oral administration of levocarnitine produces a reduction of total fat mass, increases total muscular mass, and facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions.


test
Slightly Positive


Treatment with carnitine significantly decreased the attention problems and aggressive behavior in boys with ADHD.


  • L-Carnitine for Detox


What are L-Carnitine's effects on the body?

  • L-Carnitine for the Muscular System

Patients with HE treated with ALC showed a decrease in the severity of both mental and physical fatigue and an increase in physical activity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01223742.


The benefits of ALC in comparison with placebo are demonstrated in greater reductions in serum ammonia levels, as well as in improvements of neuropsychological functioning.


The improvement of cognitive deficits, the reduction of ammonia, and the modification of EEG in patients treated with ALC suggest that ALC could represent a new tool in the treatment of severe hepatic encephalopathy.


The tendency toward suppressed ammonia accumulation, however, indicates that oral LC supplementation might have the potential to reduce the metabolic stress of exercise or alter ammonia production or removal, which warrants further investigation.


Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.


Data suggest that a 2-month L-carnitine supplementation may be effective in attenuating oxidative stress responses, enhancing antioxidant status, and improving performance of patients with end-stage renal disease.


Exercise-induced increases in plasma malondialdehyde returned to resting values sooner during LCLT compared with placebo. The amount of muscle disruption from MRI scans during LCLT was 41-45% of the placebo area. These data indicate that LCLT supplementation is effective in assisting recovery from high-repetition squat exercise.


Following CON II, all subjects began dietary supplementation of L-carnitine for a period of 14 days (4 g/day). Plasma total acid soluble and free carnitine concentrations were significantly higher (p < .05) at all time points following supplementation. L-carnitine supplementation had no significant effect on muscle carnitine content and thus could not alter lactate accumulation during exercise.


However, markers of physical performance (ie, strength, power, get up and go) were not affected by supplementation. These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling.


In conclusion, because oxygen delivery was occluded during the forearm protocol, it is proposed that enhanced oxygen consumption mediated the reduced muscle oxygenation during the LCLT trial. Enhanced oxygen consumption would explain why hypoxic stress was attenuated with LCLT supplementation.


In conclusion, GPLC appears to be a useful dietary supplement to enhance anaerobic work capacity and potentially sport performance, but apparently the dosage must be determined specific to the intensity and duration of exercise.


In summary, these data demonstrated that: 1) feeding after RE increased AR content, which may result in increased testosterone uptake, and thus enhanced luteinizing hormone secretion via feedback mechanisms; and 2) LCLT supplementation upregulated AR content, which may promote recovery from RE.


No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.


No other direct effects of LCLT supplementation were observed on the absolute concentrations of the hormones examined, but with more undamaged tissue, a greater number of intact receptors would be available for hormonal interactions. These data support the use of LCLT as a recovery supplement for hypoxic exercise and lend further insights into the hormonal mechanisms that may help to mediate quicker recovery.


Our study indicates that oral administration of levocarnitine produces a reduction of total fat mass, increases total muscular mass, and facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions.


There were no statistical differences (p> .05) between or within the 3 groups for any performance-related variable or muscle carnitine concentrations after 8 wk of supplementation and training. These results suggest that up to 3 g/d GPLC for 8 wk in conjunction with aerobic-exercise training is ineffective for increasing muscle carnitine content and has no significant effects on aerobic- or anaerobic-exercise performance.


These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.


This is the first demonstration that human muscle TC can be increased by dietary means and results in muscle glycogen sparing during low intensity exercise (consistent with an increase in lipid utilisation) and a better matching of glycolytic, PDC and mitochondrial flux during high intensity exercise, thereby reducing muscle anaerobic ATP production. Furthermore, these changes were associated with an improvement in exercise performance.


  • L-Carnitine for the Reproductive System

  • L-Carnitine for the Cardiovascular System

Claudicants with maximal walking distance < or = 250 m benefited from the use of propionyl-L-carnitine, with improvement in walking distance and quality of life. However, patients with mild functional impairment (i.e., walking distance > 250 m) showed no response to propionyl-L-carnitine.


Propionyl-L-carnitine safely improved treadmill exercise performance and enhanced functional status in patients with claudication.


These data indicate that propionyl-L-carnitine exerts beneficial effects on quality of life and walking performance in patients with more severely limited walking capacity.


GPLC supplementation combined with eight weeks of aerobic exercise decreases lipid peroxidation and elevates nitric oxide, but does not further improve blood lipid profiles in normolipidemic subjects.


In conclusion, consistent with other work showing a beneficial effect of carnitine on vascular function, these findings indicate that carnitine supplementation in healthy individuals improves postprandial FMD after a high-fat meal.


Supplementation with ALCA results in an increase in resting nitrate/nitrite in pre-diabetics, without any statistically significant change in other metabolic or oxidative stress variables measured at rest or post meal.


These findings indicate that short-term oral GPLC supplementation can increase NOx in resistance trained men. However, as with many dietary supplements, there exist both "responders" and "non-responders" to treatment. Future work may focus on the mechanisms for the discrepancy in response to GPLC supplementation for purposes of NOx elevation.


Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.


It is concluded that during submaximal exercise after glycogen depletion (i.e., at a high lipid flux) substrate metabolism is not influenced by L-carnitine supplementation.


These responses suggest that LC may induce subtle changes in substrate handling in metabolically active tissues when fatty-acid availability is increased, but it does not affect whole-body substrate utilization during short-duration exercise at the intensities studied.


  • L-Carnitine for the Nervous System

L-carnitine therapy (50 mg/kilogram-bodyweight/day) administered for 3-months significantly improved several clinical measurements of ASD severity, but subsequent studies are recommended.


Acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine showed beneficial effect on fatigue and attention concentration. Less improvement was found by the combined treatment. Acetylcarnitine had main effect on mental fatigue and propionylcarnitine on general fatigue.


Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.


Also, after the physical load, the subjective feeling of fatigue assessed with a visual analogue scale was lower in the citric acid group than in the placebo group. In contrast, l-carnitine had no effect on chromogranin A or subjective fatigue. These results suggest that citric acid reduces physiological stress and attenuates physical fatigue, whereas l-carnitine does not.


Although this experience deserves further studies, these results indicate that LAC may be of benefit in patients with FMS, providing improvement in pain as well as the general and mental health of these patients.


However, we observed a stronger reduction of hyperactivity and improvement of social behavior in patients treated with LAC, compared with the placebo group, as determined by the Conners' Global Index Parents and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Our results show that LAC (20-50 mg/kg/day) represents a safe alternative to the use of stimulant drugs for the treatment of ADHD in FXS children.


It is concluded that during submaximal exercise after glycogen depletion (i.e., at a high lipid flux) substrate metabolism is not influenced by L-carnitine supplementation.


L-Carnitine therapy is safe and effective in ameliorating fatigue in celiac disease. Since L-carnitine is involved in muscle energy production its decreased absorption due to OCTN2 reduction might explain muscular symptoms in celiac disease patients. The diet-induced OCTN2 increase, improving carnitine absorption, might explain the L-carnitine treatment efficacy.


Our data show that administering ALC may reduce both physical and mental fatigue in elderly and improves both the cognitive status and physical functions.


Our study indicates that oral administration of levocarnitine produces a reduction of total fat mass, increases total muscular mass, and facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions.


Patients with HE treated with ALC showed a decrease in the severity of both mental and physical fatigue and an increase in physical activity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01223742.


Six patients withdrew from the study because of adverse reactions (five on amantadine and one on ALCAR). Statistical analysis showed significant effects of ALCAR compared with amantadine for the Fatigue Severity Scale (p = 0.039). There were no significant effects for any of the secondary outcome variables. The results of this study show that ALCAR is better tolerated and more effective than amantadine for the treatment of MS-related fatigue.


The benefits of ALC in comparison with placebo are demonstrated in greater reductions in serum ammonia levels, as well as in improvements of neuropsychological functioning.


The improvement of cognitive deficits, the reduction of ammonia, and the modification of EEG in patients treated with ALC suggest that ALC could represent a new tool in the treatment of severe hepatic encephalopathy.


The results of this study suggest that ALC can reduce craving and the time to first drink. ALC use was safe. Further studies are needed to clarify to confirm, over longer periods, these short-term outcome benefits.


This study shows that ALC treatment is associated with significant improvement in patient energy levels, general functioning and well-being. The improvement of quality of life is associated with reduction of anxiety and depression.


Treatment with carnitine significantly decreased the attention problems and aggressive behavior in boys with ADHD.


We hypothesize that correction of carnitine depletion, either by levocarnitine supplementation or by valproate dose reduction, may enhance recovery from hypocarnitinemia-associated encephalopathy in psychiatric patients. Our findings also suggest that ethnic traits may affect carnitine bioavailability as well as cognitive outcomes in this clinical context. Further studies of carnitine metabolism and supplementation in psychiatric patients are warranted.


  • L-Carnitine for the Overall Systems

  • L-Carnitine for the Immune System

  • L-Carnitine for the Urinary System

  • L-Carnitine for the Endocrine System

It is concluded that LC supplementation induces changes in blood glucose handling/disposal during an OGTT, which is not influenced by GLP-1. The glucose handling/disposal response to oral LC is different between lean and overweight/obese suggesting that further investigation is required. LC effects on gastric emptying and/or direct 'insulin-like' actions on tissues should be examined in larger samples of overweight/obese and lean participants, respectively.


No other direct effects of LCLT supplementation were observed on the absolute concentrations of the hormones examined, but with more undamaged tissue, a greater number of intact receptors would be available for hormonal interactions. These data support the use of LCLT as a recovery supplement for hypoxic exercise and lend further insights into the hormonal mechanisms that may help to mediate quicker recovery.


These responses suggest that LC may induce subtle changes in substrate handling in metabolically active tissues when fatty-acid availability is increased, but it does not affect whole-body substrate utilization during short-duration exercise at the intensities studied.


Thus, the results of this pilot study suggest the need for further research with both n-3 FA and vitamin E in children with behavioral disorders.


Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.


Considering the role of caloric restriction in increasing the intestinal uptake of carnitine, the results suggest that oral L-carnitine administration, when associated with a hypocaloric feeding regimen, improves insulin resistance and may represent an adjunctive treatment for IFG and DM-2.


  • L-Carnitine for the Digestive System

Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.


Considering the role of caloric restriction in increasing the intestinal uptake of carnitine, the results suggest that oral L-carnitine administration, when associated with a hypocaloric feeding regimen, improves insulin resistance and may represent an adjunctive treatment for IFG and DM-2.


Conversely REE increased significantly for all subjects, but no between group differences existed. Five of the L-C group experienced nausea or diarrhea and consequently did not complete the study. Eight weeks of L-C ingestion and walking did not significantly alter the TBM or FM of overweight women, thereby casting doubt on the efficacy of L-C supplementation for weight loss.


L-Carnitine orally administered for a period of 4 weeks did not modify insulin sensitivity or the lipid profile.


L-carnitine supplementation to diet is useful for reducing TNF-alpha and CRP, and for improving liver function, glucose plasma level, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and histological manifestations of NASH.


Our study indicates that oral administration of levocarnitine produces a reduction of total fat mass, increases total muscular mass, and facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions.


Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.


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