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Vitamin D

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What are Vitamin D's other names?

  • Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)
  • Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2)

What is Vitamin D's recommended dosage?

  • Recommended daily intake: 20 - 80 IU/kg

What supplements interact with Vitamin D?

  • Vitamin D and Calcium

  • Vitamin D and Vitamin K

  • Vitamin D and Magnesium


What can Vitamin D help with?

  • Vitamin D for Colorectal Cancer

  • Vitamin D for Falls

  • Vitamin D for Multiple Sclerosis

  • Vitamin D for Osteoarthritis

  • Vitamin D for Asthma

  • Vitamin D for Breast Cancer

  • Vitamin D for Diabetes Type 1

  • Vitamin D for Flu

  • Vitamin D for Fractures

  • Vitamin D for Joint pain

  • Vitamin D for Lupus

  • Vitamin D for Pancreatic Cancer

  • Vitamin D for Tuberculosis

  • Vitamin D for Vascular Diseases


What is Vitamin D used for?

  • Vitamin D for Joint support

test
Highly Positive


Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction.


test
Highly Positive


The results indicate that a vitamin D supplement of 83 microg/d does not adversely affect weight loss and is able to significantly improve several cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight subjects with inadequate vitamin D status participating in a weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00493012.


test
Highly Positive


Vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training induced an early improvement in peak power, and elevated vitamin D status was associated with reduced waist-to-hip ratio.


test
Highly Positive


Vitamin D(3) supplementation at 1000 IU/d increases 25(OH)D and decreases parathyroid hormone in children with average vitamin D intakes below the dietary recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. However, no significant effects of this change on calcium absorption occurred. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00868738.


test
Moderately Positive


Nursing home residents in the highest vitamin D group (800 IU) had a lower number of fallers and a lower incidence rate of falls over 5 months than those taking lower doses. Adequate vitamin D supplementation in elderly nursing home residents could reduce the number of falls experienced by this high falls risk group.


test
Moderately Positive


Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among older individuals by 19% and to a similar degree as active forms of vitamin D. Doses of supplemental vitamin D of less than 700 IU or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l may not reduce the risk of falling among older individuals.


test
Moderately Positive


Vitamin D may increase muscle strength by improving atrophy of type II muscle fibers, which may lead to decreased falls and hip fractures.


test
Slightly Positive


After 16 weeks of letrozole, more women with 25OHD levels >66 ng/ml (median level) reported no disability from joint pain than did women with levels <66 ng/ml (52 vs. 19%; P = 0.026). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent in post-menopausal women initiating adjuvant AI. Vitamin D3 supplementation with 50,000 IU per week is safe, significantly increases 25OHD levels, and may reduce disability from AI-induced arthralgias.


test
Slightly Positive


In the whole cohort, there was an increase in joint pain (mean 1.16 points SD 2.66; P < 0.001) and the increase was significantly (P = 0.02) attenuated in those that reached concentrations of 25(OH)D of ≥40 ng/ml, with a lower risk of incident arthralgia (OR 0.12 ** [0.03 to 0.40]). A target concentration of 40 ng/ml 25OHD may prevent development of AI arthralgia but higher loading doses are required to attain this level in women with deficiency at baseline.


test
Slightly Positive


Nonvertebral fracture prevention with vitamin D is dose dependent, and a higher dose should reduce fractures by at least 20% for individuals aged 65 years or older.


  • Vitamin D for Mental health

  • Vitamin D for Digestion

  • Vitamin D for Insulin control

test
Slightly Positive


An association was found between low UVB irradiance and high incidence rates of type 1 childhood diabetes after controlling for per capita health expenditure. Incidence rates of type 1 diabetes approached zero in regions worldwide with high UVB irradiance, adding new support to the concept of a role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of the disease.


test
Slightly Positive


Bearing in mind that the main defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus are reduced FPIS and insulin resistance, and the favourable effect vitamin D3 had on them, we suggest vitamin D3 deficiency may at least partly contribute to the impairment of insulin secretion and probably of insulin action. Our results suggest that vitamin D3 supplementation could be an element in the complex treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus during the winter.


test
Slightly Positive


In adults at risk of type 2 diabetes, short-term supplementation with cholecalciferol improved β cell function and had a marginal effect on attenuating the rise in Hb A(1c). This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00436475.


test
Slightly Positive


Supplementation with 4000 IU/day vitamin D(3) successfully corrected vitamin D insufficiency and had divergent effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity with no overall effect on disposition index or glycaemia. In this study, vitamin D supplementation for 3 months did not change the pathophysiology of prediabetes in overweight and obese African Americans.


test
Slightly Positive


The results indicate that orally administered high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and suggests that high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation might provide an inexpensive public health measure in preventing, or at least delaying, the progression from impaired fasting glucose to diabetes.


test
Slightly Positive


Vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training induced an early improvement in peak power, and elevated vitamin D status was associated with reduced waist-to-hip ratio.


  • Vitamin D for Weight loss

  • Vitamin D for Skin, hair and nails

  • Vitamin D for Immunity

test
Slightly Positive


In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OH)D and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OH)D increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.


test
Slightly Positive


Our results do not support the hypothesis that high doses of vitamin D supplementation will have a pronounced effect on influenza-like disease in populations not targeted for high influenza risk.


test
Slightly Positive


This study suggests that vitamin D(3) supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in specific subgroups of schoolchildren. This trial was registered at https://center.umin.ac.jp as UMIN000001373.


test
Slightly Positive


Vitamin D supplementation for 6 mo had significant favorable effects on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and on growth in stature. A trend was seen toward fewer TST conversions in the vitamin D group. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01244204.


test
Slightly Positive


Vitamin D supplementation in patients with SLE is recommended because increased vitamin D levels seem to ameliorate inflammatory and hemostatic markers and show a tendency toward subsequent clinical improvement. Clinical Trial Registry NCT01425775.


  • Vitamin D for Heart health

test
Slightly Positive


Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.


test
Slightly Positive


Evidence from limited data suggests that vitamin D supplements at moderate to high doses may reduce CVD risk, whereas calcium supplements seem to have minimal cardiovascular effects. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of these supplements in CVD prevention.


test
Slightly Positive


High levels of vitamin D among middle-age and elderly populations are associated with a substantial decrease in cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. If the relationship proves to be causal, interventions targeting vitamin D deficiency in adult populations could potentially slow the current epidemics of cardiometabolic disorders.


test
Slightly Positive


Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A causal relationship has yet to be proved by intervention trials using vitamin D.


test
Slightly Positive


The results indicate that a vitamin D supplement of 83 microg/d does not adversely affect weight loss and is able to significantly improve several cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight subjects with inadequate vitamin D status participating in a weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00493012.


test
Slightly Positive


Vitamin D status, which is amenable to intervention by safely increasing sun exposure or vitamin D supplementation, was associated inversely with BP in a large sample representative of the US population.


test
Slightly Positive


We found weak evidence to support a small effect of vitamin D on blood pressure in studies of hypertensive patients.


  • Vitamin D for Women's health

  • Vitamin D for Overall health

  • Vitamin D for Testosterone


What are Vitamin D's effects on the body?

  • Vitamin D for the Endocrine System

Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction.


The results indicate that a vitamin D supplement of 83 microg/d does not adversely affect weight loss and is able to significantly improve several cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight subjects with inadequate vitamin D status participating in a weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00493012.


Vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training induced an early improvement in peak power, and elevated vitamin D status was associated with reduced waist-to-hip ratio.


Vitamin D(3) supplementation at 1000 IU/d increases 25(OH)D and decreases parathyroid hormone in children with average vitamin D intakes below the dietary recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. However, no significant effects of this change on calcium absorption occurred. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00868738.


An association was found between low UVB irradiance and high incidence rates of type 1 childhood diabetes after controlling for per capita health expenditure. Incidence rates of type 1 diabetes approached zero in regions worldwide with high UVB irradiance, adding new support to the concept of a role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of the disease.


Bearing in mind that the main defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus are reduced FPIS and insulin resistance, and the favourable effect vitamin D3 had on them, we suggest vitamin D3 deficiency may at least partly contribute to the impairment of insulin secretion and probably of insulin action. Our results suggest that vitamin D3 supplementation could be an element in the complex treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus during the winter.


By contrast, there was no significant change in any testosterone measure in the placebo group. Our results suggest that vitamin D supplementation might increase testosterone levels. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.


In adults at risk of type 2 diabetes, short-term supplementation with cholecalciferol improved β cell function and had a marginal effect on attenuating the rise in Hb A(1c). This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00436475.


Supplementation with 4000 IU/day vitamin D(3) successfully corrected vitamin D insufficiency and had divergent effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity with no overall effect on disposition index or glycaemia. In this study, vitamin D supplementation for 3 months did not change the pathophysiology of prediabetes in overweight and obese African Americans.


  • Vitamin D for the Skeletal System

Nursing home residents in the highest vitamin D group (800 IU) had a lower number of fallers and a lower incidence rate of falls over 5 months than those taking lower doses. Adequate vitamin D supplementation in elderly nursing home residents could reduce the number of falls experienced by this high falls risk group.


Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among older individuals by 19% and to a similar degree as active forms of vitamin D. Doses of supplemental vitamin D of less than 700 IU or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l may not reduce the risk of falling among older individuals.


Vitamin D may increase muscle strength by improving atrophy of type II muscle fibers, which may lead to decreased falls and hip fractures.


After 16 weeks of letrozole, more women with 25OHD levels >66 ng/ml (median level) reported no disability from joint pain than did women with levels <66 ng/ml (52 vs. 19%; P = 0.026). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent in post-menopausal women initiating adjuvant AI. Vitamin D3 supplementation with 50,000 IU per week is safe, significantly increases 25OHD levels, and may reduce disability from AI-induced arthralgias.


In the whole cohort, there was an increase in joint pain (mean 1.16 points SD 2.66; P < 0.001) and the increase was significantly (P = 0.02) attenuated in those that reached concentrations of 25(OH)D of ≥40 ng/ml, with a lower risk of incident arthralgia (OR 0.12 ** [0.03 to 0.40]). A target concentration of 40 ng/ml 25OHD may prevent development of AI arthralgia but higher loading doses are required to attain this level in women with deficiency at baseline.


Nonvertebral fracture prevention with vitamin D is dose dependent, and a higher dose should reduce fractures by at least 20% for individuals aged 65 years or older.


Vitamin D supplementation for 6 mo had significant favorable effects on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and on growth in stature. A trend was seen toward fewer TST conversions in the vitamin D group. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01244204.


  • Vitamin D for the Digestive System

The evidence to date suggests that daily intake of 1000-2000 IU/day of vitamin D(3) could reduce the incidence of colorectal with minimal risk.


After adjusting for vitamin D intake, calcium and retinol intakes were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In two U.S. cohorts, higher intakes of vitamin D were associated with lower risks for pancreatic cancer. Our results point to a potential role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis and prevention of pancreatic cancer.


Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction.


Bearing in mind that the main defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus are reduced FPIS and insulin resistance, and the favourable effect vitamin D3 had on them, we suggest vitamin D3 deficiency may at least partly contribute to the impairment of insulin secretion and probably of insulin action. Our results suggest that vitamin D3 supplementation could be an element in the complex treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus during the winter.


Supplementation with 4000 IU/day vitamin D(3) successfully corrected vitamin D insufficiency and had divergent effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity with no overall effect on disposition index or glycaemia. In this study, vitamin D supplementation for 3 months did not change the pathophysiology of prediabetes in overweight and obese African Americans.


The results indicate that a vitamin D supplement of 83 microg/d does not adversely affect weight loss and is able to significantly improve several cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight subjects with inadequate vitamin D status participating in a weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00493012.


The results indicate that orally administered high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and suggests that high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation might provide an inexpensive public health measure in preventing, or at least delaying, the progression from impaired fasting glucose to diabetes.


Vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training induced an early improvement in peak power, and elevated vitamin D status was associated with reduced waist-to-hip ratio.


  • Vitamin D for the Nervous System

  • Vitamin D for the Respiratory System

  • Vitamin D for the Immune System

  • Vitamin D for the Reproductive System

  • Vitamin D for the Cardiovascular System

Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.


Evidence from limited data suggests that vitamin D supplements at moderate to high doses may reduce CVD risk, whereas calcium supplements seem to have minimal cardiovascular effects. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of these supplements in CVD prevention.


High levels of vitamin D among middle-age and elderly populations are associated with a substantial decrease in cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. If the relationship proves to be causal, interventions targeting vitamin D deficiency in adult populations could potentially slow the current epidemics of cardiometabolic disorders.


Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A causal relationship has yet to be proved by intervention trials using vitamin D.


The results indicate that a vitamin D supplement of 83 microg/d does not adversely affect weight loss and is able to significantly improve several cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight subjects with inadequate vitamin D status participating in a weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00493012.


Vitamin D status, which is amenable to intervention by safely increasing sun exposure or vitamin D supplementation, was associated inversely with BP in a large sample representative of the US population.


We found weak evidence to support a small effect of vitamin D on blood pressure in studies of hypertensive patients.


  • Vitamin D for the Overall Systems

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