Cardiovascular System – Cost Effective Supplements

Cardiovascular System

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Cardiovascular System definition

Circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to cells and carrying waste products away.

Cardiovascular System conditions

Coronary Artery Disease
Heart Attack
Heart Failure
Intermittent Claudication
Mitral Regurgitation
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Superficial Thrombophlebitis
Varicose Veins
Vascular Diseases

Cardiovascular System supplements

  • Beetroot extract for the Cardiovascular System

An increase in dietary nitrate intake may not be an effective short-term approach to further lower blood pressure in treated hypertensive subjects.

Supplementation of the diet with 7.5mmol of nitrate per day for 2 weeks caused an increase in plasma nitrite and nitrate concentration, but did not lower BP, improve endothelial function, or improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with T2DM.

These results clearly indicate that a single oral dose of amaranth extract is able to increase the NO3- and NO2- levels in the body for at least 8 h. The increase in NO3- and NO2- levels can help to improve the overall performance of people involved in vigorous physical activities or sports.

Because whole vegetables have been shown to have health benefits, whereas nitrates from other sources may have detrimental health effects, it would be prudent for individuals seeking performance benefits to obtain nitrates from whole vegetables, such as beetroot.

Beetroot juice will lower BP in men when consumed as part of a normal diet in free-living healthy adults.

Functional capacity (6-min walk test), the muscle metabolic response to low-intensity exercise, brain metabolite concentrations, and cognitive function were also not altered. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduced resting blood pressure and improved Vo(2) kinetics during treadmill walking in healthy older adults but did not improve walking or cognitive performance. These results may have implications for the enhancement of cardiovascular health in older age.

These results indicate that the positive effects of 6 days of BR supplementation on the physiological responses to exercise can be ascribed to the high NO(3)(-) content per se.

  • Fish Oil for the Cardiovascular System

A 3-month fish oil supplementation in young healthy men improved circulating triglyceride levels and the HDL-c ratio while, concomitantly, increasing the concentrations of two eicosanoids (prostaglandin-F2α and thromboxane-B2). This suggests that fish oil supplementation does have significant benefits in young healthy adults and that specific omega-6-derived eicosanoids can help to further our understanding regarding the beneficial link between omega-3 FA and inflammation.

A moderate dose of fish oil did not lead to deleterious effects on glycemic control or whole-body insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men, with preserved triacylglycerol-lowering capacities.

An increase in clotting factor VII (P = 0.02), without changes in fibrinogen or factor X levels, occurred in the MaxEPA group. Similar reductions in blood pressure were observed in both groups. Dietary supplementation with MaxEPA capsules (10 g/day) in NIDDM subjects is associated with improvement in hypertriglyceridemia but with deleterious effects in factor VII and blood glucose levels. Most indices of platelet function are unaffected by this therapy.

Baseline values for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were comparable at baseline, and the intervention did not change these parameters significantly. The present study showed that treatment with n-3 PUFA slightly decreased plasma triglycerides and induced anti-inflammatory effects by increasing formation of anti-inflammatory LTB5.

Daily supplementation with n-3 capsules increases the serum n-3 PUFA concentration, improves vascular function, and lowers the degree of inflammation in obese adolescents.

DHA also raised high-density lipoprotein (4.49 mg/dL; 95% CI, 3.50–5.48) compared with placebo, whereas EPA did not. Although EPA and DHA both reduce triglycerides, they have divergent effects on LDL and high-density lipoprotein. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms and significance of these differences.

DHA supplementation improves liver steatosis and insulin sensitivity in children with NAFLD.

Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA significantly improved endothelial function and reduced pro-inflammatory markers in OPDs. Thus, fish oil consumption may have beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic health effects in otherwise healthy subjects predisposed to diabetes and its vascular complications.

Different doses of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce triglycerides concentrations, confirming the potential applicability of this nutrient on the management of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on ART.

Dyslipoproteinemia is common in pediatric SLE. Dietary modification and fish oil supplementation appear to be effective in improving serum lipid profiles, and blinded studies are warranted. a significant number of patients may require pharmacologic therapy for persistent dyslipoproteinemia to prevent complications of premature atherosclerosis.

Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not change with any intervention. Long-chain vs essential n-3 PUFA-rich oils have distinct metabolic and endocrine effects in polycystic ovary syndrome; and therefore, they should not be used interchangeably.

Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly with supplementation relative to placebo (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in ApoB-100 and malondialdehyde compared to baseline values and compared to the control group. Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c.

Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes lowers triglycerides, raises LDL cholesterol, and has no statistically significant effect on glycemic control. Trials with hard clinical end points are needed.

Fish oil supplementation produces a clinically significant dose-dependent reduction of fasting blood TG but not total, HDL or LDL cholesterol in hyperlipidemic subjects.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and plasma apoA1 levels were not significantly changed during fish oil treatment. At the 7.5-g dose, fasting glucose and glycohemoglobin levels increased by 20 and 12%, respectively, but were unchanged at the lower level of supplementation. Thus, in NIDDM patients, dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids induces a reduction in total plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

In a population with well-controlled type II diabetes, 3 months of FO but not LO resulted in lowered triglyceride levels. Neither LO nor FO significantly affected glycemic control, cholesterol values, SG, or insulin secretion, while a nonsignificant trend toward decreased insulin sensitivity was found with FO.

In conclusion, one year of dietary supplementation with fish oil in patients with stable lupus nephritis did not improve renal function or reduce disease activity, but did alter some lipid parameters. Hitherto unreported carry-over effects and treatment order effects caused by the olive oil created a risk of type II error, and bear methodologic consideration in the design of future studies.

In conclusion, P-OM3 + simvastatin appears to be a useful therapeutic option for the management of mixed dyslipidemia.

In conclusion, supplementation with n3PUFA and all-rac AT at these doses is not anti-inflammatory.

In conclusion, this study shows that a dietary supplement of fish oil decreases plasma triglyceride levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, an increased conversion rate of VLDL to LDL playing a role in this change. With this dosage of fish oil no relevant variations in glycemic control, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity occurred.

In spite of the reduction of the triglyceride concentrations and unchanged insulin levels, there was a significant increase of the activity of PAI-1 (+21%, P < 0.01) after MaxEPA suggesting a possible impairment of the fibrinolytic capacity. In many situations there seems to be a reduction of PAI-1 when the triglycerides are lowered. In the diabetic patients given n-3 fatty acids this was not the case.

In summary, dietary fish oil supplementation adversely affected glycemic control in NIDDM subjects without producing significant beneficial effects on plasma lipids. The effect of safflower oil supplementation was not significantly different from fish oil, suggesting that the negative effects on glucose metabolism may be related to the extra energy or fat intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

In the rTAG-group, but not in the EE-group, fasting serum TAG levels were significantly reduced from baseline after three and six months. There was no significant difference between the two n3-FA-groups. However, serum TAG levels were significantly lowered after six months in the rTAG-group compared to the placebo-group in contrast to the EE-group.

In these adult, mainly white patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, P-OM3 plus simvastatin and dietary counseling improved non-HDL-C and other lipid and lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than simvastatin alone.

In this population of hypertriglyceridemic adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles.

In this study, fish oil supplementation improved plasma VLDL cholesterol, VLDL TGs, and total TGs while having a transient deterioration in LDL cholesterol in subjects with NIDDM. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation had no significant deleterious effect on glycemic control.

It is concluded that a modest intake of omega 3 fatty acids, such as could be obtained from consuming fish regularly, will reduce plasma triglyceride level without affecting LDL or HDL cholesterol levels.

Serum TG and oxidative stress biomarkers did not differ between treatments. The FO and ISO were bioavailable but did not attenuate the postprandial rise in serum TG. Neither the study meal nor the FO or ISO induced significant changes in oxidative stress biomarkers. The current study adds to a limited literature on the acute effects of FO and ISO interventions on postprandial biomarkers of CVD risk.

Small doses of fish oil inhibit platelet aggregation and TXA2 production, reduce upright sBP and TG levels, and have only a small effect on glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with moderately controlled NIDDM. Small quantities of omega-3 fatty acids or dietary fish are safe and potentially beneficial in NIDDM patients.

Supplementation with low dose n-3 fatty acids for 6 months could significantly protect elderly Iranians from a rise in serum triglycerides.

The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.

The consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA-supplemented dairy products decreases cardiovascular risk factors.

The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at as NCT00504309.

The highest dose of EPA increased soluble E-selectin in young subjects, while increasing EPA tended to decrease soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in young and older subjects. Young and older males will gain cardiovascular benefit from increased intake of EPA. Young males are unlikely to suffer adverse consequences from high EPA intake, whereas older males may have an increased risk of lipoprotein peroxidation.

The LDL cholesterol level was significantly increased with fish oil supplementation, suggesting that patients with NIDDM who are given a fish oil supplement to decrease the plasma total and VLDL triglyceride levels may also need further dietary and/or pharmaceutical therapy to maintain an LDL cholesterol level compatible with a low risk of coronary disease. The study emphasizes the safe use of fish oil over a 6-month period in diabetic patients.

The median dose of algal DHA was 1.68 g/d. The pooled estimate for the change in TG concentration was -0.20 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.27 to -0.14), 0.23 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.16-0.30) for LDL-C, and 0.07 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05-0.10) for HDL-C. DHA supplementation from algal oil, a marine source of (n-3) fatty acids not extracted from fish, may reduce serum TG and increase HDL-C and LDL-C in persons without coronary heart disease.

The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.

There was no effect of 12 weeks of treatment with moderate-dose fish oil supplements on cardiovascular biomarkers or mood in patients with ischemic stroke. It is possible that insufficient dose, short duration of treatment, and/or oxidation of the fish oils may have influenced these outcomes.

These results suggest that dietary fish oil may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the modulation of both plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in healthy postmenopausal women.

These results suggest that POM3 slightly reduces pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to plasma glucose elevation, which may contribute to the rise in fasting glucose sometimes observed with POM3.

Total cholesterol, non-HDL-C, apolipoproteins A1 and B, and LDL particle concentration responses did not differ between treatments. These results did not confirm the hypothesis that POM3 treatment would lower LDL-C in primary, isolated hypercholesterolemia. Effects on other variables were consistent with prior results in mixed dyslipidemia.

Weight-loss improved risk factors associated with CVD, with some additional benefits of LC n-3 PUFA on triglycerides and adiponectin. Given the current low dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFA, greater attention should be given to increase these fatty acids in the treatment of obesity.

When all groups were combined, these treatments significantly reduced total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased HDL-cholesterol, and improved the atherogenic index. All improvements observed at 9 months persisted at 18 months (P < 0.001 verses baseline). Conclusion. Marine and botanical oils may be useful treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease compared to the general population.

AA/EPA and mood state are differently influenced by diet and Omega-3, body fat is particularly reduced by Zone diet, while blood parameters such as triglycerides/HDL ratio, insulin and homocysteine are related to AA/EPA variations. These findings are discussed in terms of differences in the composition of the diets and the influences of Omega-3 on physiological functions.

Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. identifier: NCT00385723.

EPA and DHA had similar benefits on lipids but adverse effects on short-term glycemic control in hypertensive diabetic patients. The overall implications for cardiovascular disease require long-term evaluation.

EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute) aerobic exercise.

In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects.

In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin and NO metabolite levels after 90 d, both in the fish oil and soya groups, reinforce the importance of the influence of adiponectin and NO levels on BP decrease in patients with the MetS.

In conclusion, this 12-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial did not show that 1.5 g/day n-3 PUFA significantly affected the serum inflammatory response in healthy individuals, nor did patterns of inflammatory markers. Thus, a healthy middle-aged population may not benefit from fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Independently of the dose and already at 1 week, short-term therapy with PO-3A provided a modest reduction of platelet activity biomarkers, despite concomitant aspirin and statin therapy, when compared to a placebo. The effect of PO-3A is unique, differs from other known antiplatelet agents and suggests potential pleiotropism. These preliminary randomized data call for confirmation in prospective studies.

Intakes of n-3 LC-PUFAs ≤1.8 g/d do not improve endothelial function in healthy adults. The trial is registered at as ISRCTN66664610.

Salmon consumption three times per week can decrease DBP similar to fish oil and significantly more than lean fish during an 8-wk energy restriction in young overweight individuals. A lower DHA content in erythrocyte membrane at baseline, which might indentify infrequent fish eaters, is associated with a greater DBP reduction in the course of an 8-wk dietary intervention providing fatty seafood.

Supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids had no affect on platelet and endothelial activation or markers of inflammation in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (3g/day) for 2months decreases the levels of homocysteine in diabetic patients with no change in FBS, MDA and CRP levels.

The small but statistically significant effects of fish-oil supplements in hypertensive participants in this review have important implications for population health and lowering the risk of stroke and ischaemic heart disease. Their modest effects, however, mean that they should not be recommended as an alternative to BP-lowering drugs where guidelines recommend treatment.

There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Results were not influenced by changes in blood pressure, heart rate or BMI. The findings of the present study reveal that supplementation with n-3 offers a scientifically supported means of reducing arterial stiffness. Reduction in arterial stiffness by n-3 may account for some of its purported cardioprotective effects.

These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.

  • TMG for the Cardiovascular System

A hypoenergetic diet with betaine supplementation (6 g daily for 12 wk) decreased the plasma homocysteine concentration but did not affect body composition more than a hypoenergetic diet without betaine supplementation did.

Betaine had no effect on serum lipid profile in long term in young healthy subjects. The lowering effect on plasma homocysteine concentration was weak.

In conclusion, a single dose of orally administered betaine had an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine concentration and resulted in lowered plasma tHcy concentrations within 2 h in healthy subjects.

In conclusion, betaine appears to be highly effective in preventing a rise in plasma homocysteine concentration after methionine intake in subjects with mildly elevated homocysteine. It is not known whether this potential of betaine to "stabilize" circulating homocysteine concentrations lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Supplemental or dietary betaine similarly increase circulating betaine concentrations and attenuate the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine concentrations.

The mean plasma tHcy concentration decreased by 1.1 (NS), 10.0 and 14.0 % (P<0.001) after supplementation with 1, 3 and 6 g betaine respectively. A further decrease in plasma tHcy by 5 % (P<0.01) was achieved by combining 1 mg folic acid with the 6 g betaine dose. Plasma betaine increased from 31 (sd 13) to 255 (sd 136) mumol/l in a dose-dependent manner (R(2) 0.97). We conclude that plasma tHcy is lowered rapidly and significantly by 3 or 6 g betaine/d in healthy men and women.

Folic acid supplementation does not seem to affect blood lipids and therefore remains the preferred treatment for lowering of blood homocysteine concentrations.

  • Vitamin B3 for the Cardiovascular System

Among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and LDL cholesterol levels of less than 70 mg per deciliter (1.81 mmol per liter), there was no incremental clinical benefit from the addition of niacin to statin therapy during a 36-month follow-up period, despite significant improvements in HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Abbott Laboratories; AIM-HIGH number, NCT00120289.).

In these patients, the addition of laropiprant did not influence the effects of niacin on endothelial function. Based on these findings, short-term niacin treatment might improve endothelial function in patients with low HDL-C levels. identifier: NCT01942291.

Short-term treatment with extended-release niacin causes a pronounced increase in adiponectin but fails to improve atheroprotective functions attributed to adiponectin, such as insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammation and endothelial function.

These data indicate that unlike gemfibrozil, niacin selectively increases LP-AI compared with LP-AI+AII particle concentration in patients with low HDL-C levels. The mechanism of action of increased LP-AI concentration appears to be mediated by decreased hepatic removal of LP-AI particles, which are more efficient in reverse cholesterol transport, thus suggesting an additional mechanism by which niacin mediates its antiatherogenic properties.

These results suggest a short term reduction in insulin sensitivity with NA is not accompanied by a change in blood pressure. This may relate to the short duration of treatment, to a dissociation between insulin resistance and hypertension or to other homeostatic mechanisms which prevent blood pressure rising in subjects not predisposed to hypertension.

This effect was associated with an increase in diacylglycerol and a decrease in tri-glyceride contents that occurred in the absence of modification of DGAT2 expression and activity. Eight weeks of Niaspan(®) treatment in dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome induce hepatic insulin resistance. The mechanism could involve an accumulation of diacylglycerol and an alteration of insulin signaling in hepatocytes.

Fenofibrate and Niaspan decrease plasma VLDL-TG concentration without altering IHTG content. However, the mechanism responsible for the change in VLDL-TG concentration is different for each drug; fenofibrate increases plasma VLDL-TG clearance, whereas nicotinic acid decreases VLDL-TG secretion.

  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the Cardiovascular System

  • Ashwagandha for the Cardiovascular System

Conclusions: A 500 mg dose of an aqueous extract of Ashwagandha improves upper and lower-body strength, supports a favorable distribution of body mass, and was well tolerated clinically in recreationally active men over a 12-week resistance training and supplementation period.

Decrease in blood glucose was comparable to that of an oral hypoglycemic drug. Significant increase in urine sodium, urine volume, significant decrease in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoproteins) and VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) cholesterol were observed indicating that root of W. somnifera is a potential source of hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic agents. Clinical observations revealed no adverse effects.

Organ function tests were in normal range before and after the intervention. Reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity was significant. Total body fat percentage showed a reduction trend. WS, in escalated dose, was tolerated well. The formulation appeared safe and strengthened muscle activity. In view of its traditional Rasayana use, further studies are planned to evaluate potential of this drug in patients of sarcopenia.

This early study suggests that adjunctive treatment with a standardized extract of Withania somnifera provides significant benefits, with minimal side effects, for negative, general, and total symptoms and stress in patients with recent exacerbation of schizophrenia.

A statistically significant (P<0.05) reduction in serum triglycerides and FBG was observed after 1 month of WS treatment compared to the placebo group. Patients of both groups reported feeling of isolation and depression.

Each subject was assessed at the start and at 4 and 8 weeks. The treatment with Ashwagandha resulted in significant improvements in primary and secondary measures. Also, the extract was found to be safe and tolerable. The outcome of this study suggests that Ashwagandha root extract can be used for body weight management in adults under chronic stress.

  • Berberine for the Cardiovascular System

  • Citrulline for the Cardiovascular System

  • Cocoa Extract for the Cardiovascular System

A serum marker of cocoa ingestion (total epicatechin) correlated with increased FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion (r = 0.44-0.48; both P < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases brachial artery FMD in healthy older humans. These responses may help to explain associations between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular-related mortality in humans.

Although HF consumption was shown to improve endothelial function, it did not enhance the effects of exercise on body fat and fat metabolism in obese subjects. However, it may be useful for reducing cardiometabolic risk factors in this population.

Daily consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa for 2 wk is not sufficient to reduce blood pressure or improve insulin resistance in human subjects with essential hypertension. This trial was registered at as NCT00099476.

Dark chocolate inhibits platelet function by lowering oxidative stress only in smokers; this effect seems to be dependent on its polyphenolic content.

DC but not WC decreased HOMA-IR (P<0.0001), but it improved QUICKI, ISI, and FMD. DC also decreased serum LDL cholesterol (from 3.4+/-0.5 to 3.0+/-0.6 mmol/L; P<0.05). In summary, DC decreased BP and serum LDL cholesterol, improved FMD, and ameliorated insulin sensitivity in hypertensives. These results suggest that, while balancing total calorie intake, flavanols from cocoa products may provide some cardiovascular benefit if included as part of a healthy diet for patients with EH.

Diets rich in flavanols reverse vascular dysfunction in diabetes, highlighting therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disease.

Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.

Flavan-3-ols in dark chocolate, but also compounds in white chocolate, can improve platelet function, dependent on gender, and may thus beneficially affect atherogenesis.

Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

Flavanol-rich cocoa inhibited epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation and function. These effects were qualitatively similar to aspirin, but less profound. These results emphasize the need to further examine the effects of food flavonoids for platelet modulating effects.

Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake significantly improved coronary circulation in healthy adults, independent of changes in oxidative stress parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile, whereas non-flavonoid white chocolate had no such effects.

In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

In conclusion, one-week dark chocolate intake significantly improved endothelial function and reduced BP in younger hypertensive with impaired endothelial function in spite of lower cardiovascular risk.

In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

In PAD patients dark but not milk chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy with a mechanism possibly related to an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism involving NOX2 regulation.

One week of DC ingestion improved lipid profiles and decreased platelet reactivity within the total group while reducing inflammation only in women. Regular dark chocolate ingestion may have cardioprotective properties. Further long-term research is warranted to evaluate the effect of flavonoids on cardiovascular health and to determine whether DC's beneficial effects are related to flavonoids or some yet unknown component. This research is based on a larger study which was presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2007.

Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

Results suggest that in smokers, cocoa enhances artery dilatation by lowering of NOX2 activation.

Similarly, after white chocolate but not after dark chocolate, wave reflections, blood pressure, and endothelin-1 and 8-iso-PGF(2α) increased after OGTT. OGTT causes acute, transient impairment of endothelial function and oxidative stress, which is attenuated by flavanol-rich dark chocolate. These results suggest cocoa flavanols may contribute to vascular health by reducing the postprandial impairment of arterial function associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

The consumption of CFs in amounts up to 2000 mg/d for 12 wk was well tolerated in healthy men and women. This trial was registered at as NCT02447770 (part 1) and NCT02447783 (part 2).

These results confirm the feasibility of a large-scale RCT comparing daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate to an equivalent placebo during pregnancy and demonstrate higher plasma epicatechin and theobromine concentration in the intervention group after acute ingestion

Thus, FRDC ameliorated insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, decreased BP, and increased FMD in IGT hypertensive patients. These findings suggest flavanol-rich, low-energy cocoa food products may have a positive impact on CVD risk factors.

Cocoa powder and dark chocolate may favorably affect cardiovascular disease risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility, increasing serum total antioxidant capacity and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and not adversely affecting prostaglandins.

Dark, but not white, chocolate decreases blood pressure and improves insulin sensitivity in healthy persons.

In conclusion, FCMC consumption was associated with changes in several variables often associated with cardiovascular health and oxidant stress. The presence of significant quantities of flavanols in FCMC is likely to have been one of the contributing factors to these results.

in prehypertension subjects, dark chocolate 30 g/day increased NOx serum levels and decreased systolic blood pressure after 15 days of treatment.

No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51 mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials.

Our findings suggest that regular consumption of DC could be useful in maintaining a good atherogenic profile, due to the favourable effects on HDL cholesterol, lipoprotein ratios and inflammation markers.

This investigation failed to support the predicted beneficial effects of short-term dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on any of the neuropsychological or cardiovascular health-related variables included in this research. Consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa was, however, associated with significantly higher pulse rates at 3- and 6-wk treatment assessments.

In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  • Coffee bean extract for the Cardiovascular System

  • Curcumin for the Cardiovascular System

Collectively, these results demonstrate that a low dose of a curcumin-lipid preparation can produce a variety of potentially health promoting effects in healthy middle aged people.

Our data provide evidence for an enhanced bioavailable curcumin to improve homocysteine and high-density lipoprotein concentrations, which may promote favorable cardiovascular health in young, obese men. Improvements in endothelial function or blood pressure were not observed with curcumin supplementation, thus further investigation is warranted.

Compared with placebo, area under the curve (AUC) for change in blood glucose concentration was reduced by curcumin (36%, P = 0.003) and curcumin + fishoil (30%, 0.004), but not fish oil alone (p = 0.105). Both curcumin (P = 0.01) and curcumin + fishoil (P = 0.03) treatments significantly lowered postprandial insulin (AUC) by 26% in comparison with placebo. Curcumin, but not fish oil, reduces postprandial glycaemic response and insulin demand for glucose control.

Consumption of 98 mg of highly bioavailable curcuminoids with each principal meal sufficed to achieve curcuminoid accumulation in the blood, was safe, and did not alter blood lipids, inflammation, glucose, or iron homeostasis in healthy subjects with slightly elevated blood cholesterol and C-reactive protein.

Consumption of either dose of curcumin did not significantly affect triacylglycerols, or total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol over 1 month or 6 months. However, the concentrations of plasma curcumin and serum cholesterol were positively and significantly correlated. Curcumin consumption does not appear to have a significant effect on the serum lipid profile, unless the absorbed concentration of curcumin is considered, in which case curcumin may modestly increase cholesterol.

Curcuminoids at doses of 6000 mg/d in 3 divided doses are well tolerated and may prove efficacious in controlling signs and symptoms of oral lichen planus.

Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder.

In all mentioned laboratory parameters, significant difference was not detected between curcumin and placebo. Although curcumin improved some of lipid profile components, it did not show appreciable effect on inflammatory markers in patients with CAD. Therefore, more detailed assessment of metabolic effects or anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin need to perform by extensive human study.

In conclusion, short-term curcumin intervention ablates DKD progress with activating Nrf2 anti-oxidative system and anti-inflammatory efficacies in patients with T2DM.

In conclusion, the present trial shows that supplementation with a phytosomal preparation of curcumin containing phosphatidylserine and piperine could improve glycemic factors, hepatic function and serum cortisol levels in subjects with overweight and impaired fasting glucose.

It is therefore suggested that curcumin supplement would not be appropriate for healthy people except for reducing serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The dosage of a daily curcumin supplement at 500 mg is more effective than 6 g, although vitamin E is also considered to be an effective antioxidant supplement.

Meriva was, in general, well tolerated, and these preliminary findings suggest the usefulness of this curcumin formulation for the management of diabetic microangiopathy, opening a window of opportunities to be evaluated in more prolonged and larger studies. The molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of curcumin on microcirculation and edema are also worth investigation.

More importantly, curcumin treatment was found to be safe and did not relate with any adverse events. Our study provides the first evidence for the safety and superiority of curcumin treatment in patients with active RA, and highlights the need for future large-scale trials to validate these findings in patients with RA and other arthritic conditions.

NC supplementation in overweight/obese NAFLD patients improved glucose indices, lipids, inflammation, WC, nesfatin, liver transaminases, and fatty liver degree. Accordingly, the proposed mechanism for ameliorating NAFLD with NC was approved by the increased serum nesfatin and likely consequent improvements in inflammation, lipids, and glucose profile. Further trials of nano-curcumin's effects are suggested.

NCB-02 had a favourable effect, comparable to that of atorvastatin, on endothelial dysfunction in association with reductions in inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential long-term effects of NCB-02 and its combination with other herbal antioxidants.

No difference in baseline flow-mediated dilation or other key dependent variables were detected among the groups. Flow-mediated dilation increased significantly and equally in the curcumin and exercise groups, whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Our results indicated that curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training can increase flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women, suggesting that both can potentially improve the age-related decline in endothelial function.

No significant changes were observed in other parameters between the two groups after intervention (p value < 0.05). Turmeric improved some fractions of lipid profile and decreased body weight in hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes. It had no significant effect on glycemic status, hs-CRP, and total antioxidant capacity in these patients.

Our results showed that daily intake of 1500 mg curcumin plus weight loss is not superior to weight loss alone in amelioration of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with NAFLD. Further studies with different dosages of curcumin are needed to be able to conclude about the effects of this dietary supplement on cardiovascular risk factors and NAFLD characteristics.

Reduction in insulin resistance and triglycerides by curcumin and LCn-3PUFA appears to be attractive strategies for lowering the risk of developing T2D. However, this study failed to demonstrate complimentary benefits of curcumin and LCn-3PUFA on glycaemic control.

Results of the present trial suggest that curcumin supplementation reduces serum lipids and uric acid concentrations in patients with NAFLD.

Short-term supplementation with curcuminoid-piperine combination significantly improves oxidative and inflammatory status in patients with MetS. Curcuminoids could be regarded as natural, safe and effective CRP-lowering agents.

Short-term turmeric supplementation can attenuate proteinuria, TGF-β and IL-8 in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy and can be administered as a safe adjuvant therapy for these patients.

Short-term turmeric supplementation can decrease proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis and can be used as an adjuvant safe therapy for such patients.

The addition of curcumin to phytosterol therapy provides a complementary cholesterol-lowering effect that is larger than phytosterol therapy alone. Implications of these findings include the development of a single functional food containing both the active ingredients for enhanced lipid-lowering and compliance in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. ANZCTR identifier: 1261500095650.

the administration of low-dose curcumin showed a trend of reduction in total cholesterol level and LDL cholesterol level in ACS patients.

The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period.

The results indicate that this novel curcumin in a turmeric matrix acts as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of RA at a dose as low as 250 mg twice daily as evidenced by significant improvement in the ESR, CRP, VAS, RF, DAS28, and ACR responses compared to placebo. Both doses of the study product were well tolerated and without side effects.

The results of the present trial revealed a beneficial effect of curcuminoids plus piperine supplementation on glycemic and hepatic parameters but not on hs-CRP levels in T2D patients.

There were also significant reductions in body mass index and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin compared with the placebo group. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated during the course of trial. Findings of the present proof-of-concept trial suggested improvement of different features of NAFLD after a short-term supplementation with curcumin.

These data indicate that 4-week supplementation with RP or TM at culinary levels does not alter oxidative stress or inflammation in overweight/obese females with systemic inflammation, or cause a significant shift in the global metabolic profile.

These findings suggest a glucose-lowering effect of curcuminoids in type 2 diabetes, which is partially due to decrease in serum FFAs, which may result from promoting fatty acid oxidation and utilization.

These findings suggest an HbA1c lowering effect for Nano-curcumin in type-2 diabetes; also, it is partially decrease in serum LDL-C and BMI.

These results are associated with reduced levels of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride, uric acid, visceral fat and total body fat. In summary, a 6-month curcumin intervention in type 2 diabetic population lowered the atherogenic risks. In addition, the extract helped to improve relevant metabolic profiles in this high-risk population.

These results show that Meriva® is clinically effective in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis and suggest that the increased stability and better absorption of curcumin induced by complexation with phospholipids have clinical relevance, setting the stage for larger and more prolonged studies.

This represents the most ambitious attempt, to date, to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Significant improvements of both the clinical and biochemical end points were observed for Meriva compared to the control group. This, coupled with an excellent tolerability, suggests that Meriva is worth considering for the long-term complementary management of osteoarthritis.

Turmeric supplementation as an adjuvant to T2DM on metformin treatment had a beneficial effect on blood glucose, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Twelve-week use of curcumin complex or its combination with boswellic acid reduces pain-related symptoms in patients with OA. Curcumin in combination with boswellic acid is more effective. Combining Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in Curamin® increases the efficacy of OA treatment presumably due to synergistic effects of curcumin and boswellic acid.

  • Ecklonia cava for the Cardiovascular System

  • False Daisy for the Cardiovascular System

  • Forskolin for the Cardiovascular System

  • Garlic for the Cardiovascular System

After initial treadmill stress test, they were administered garlic oil in the dose of four capsules twice a day for 6 weeks and treadmill stress test was repeated. Garlic significantly (P<0.01) reduced heart rate at peak exercise and also significantly reduced the work load upon the heart resulting in better exercise tolerance (P<0.05) as compared to the initial test. It appears to be a good adaptogen to be utilized in patients with coronary artery disease.

Anethum has no significant effect on lipid profile, but garlic tablet has significant favorable effect on cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Garlic may play an important role in therapy of hypercholesterolemia.

Blood pressure readings were recorded at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Present study showed significant decrease in both Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure in both dose and duration dependent manner. In each garlic treated group, significant reduction in SBP and DBP (p<0.005) were observed when compared with atenolol (P<0.005) and placebo.

Chronic garlic powder intake attenuated age-related increases in aortic stiffness. These data strongly support the hypothesis that garlic intake had a protective effect on the elastic properties of the aorta related to aging in humans.

Further, a significant increase in vitamin levels and TAS was also observed in this group as compared to the control subjects. These findings point out the beneficial effects of garlic supplementation in reducing blood pressure and counteracting oxidative stress, and thereby, offering cardioprotection in essential hypertensives.

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels improved only slightly, and triglycerides were not influenced significantly. Garlic preparations were highly tolerable in all trials and were associated with minimal side effects. They might be considered as an alternative option with a higher safety profile than conventional cholesterol-lowering medications in patients with slightly elevated cholesterol.

In addition, there was a 5.5% decrease in systolic blood pressure and a modest reduction of diastolic blood pressure in response to aged garlic extract. We conclude that dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract has beneficial effects on the lipid profile and blood pressure of moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Mean LDL cholesterol concentration was 4.64 +/- 0.52 mmol/l on garlic and 4.60 +/- 0.59 mmol/l on placebo. There was no demonstrable effect of garlic on oxidisability of LDL, on the ratio of plasma lathosterol/cholesterol (a measure of cholesterol synthesis), nor on LDL receptor expression in lymphocytes. This study found no demonstrable effect of garlic ingestion on lipids and lipoproteins.

Meta-analysis of the controlled trials of garlic to reduce hypercholesterolemia showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels. The best available evidence suggests that garlic, in an amount approximating one half to one clove per day, decreased total serum cholesterol levels by about 9% in the groups of patients studied.

Our results show that ingestion of garlic leads to significantly lowered plasma and erythrocyte MDA levels and to increased activities of some antioxidant enzymes, which indicates that consumption of garlic decreases oxidation reactions. It is quite possible that reduced peroxidation processes due to garlic consumption may play a part in some of the beneficial effects of garlic in elderly subjects.

Our trial suggests aged garlic extract to be an effective and tolerable treatment in uncontrolled hypertension, and may be considered as a safe adjunct treatment to conventional antihypertensive therapy.

Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is superior to placebo in lowering systolic blood pressure similarly to current first line medications in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension.

Since Allicor is the remedy of natural origin, it is safe with the respect to adverse effects and allows even perpetual administration that may be crucial for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic diseases in CHD patients.

The available data suggest that garlic is superior to placebo in reducing total cholesterol levels. However, the size of the effect is modest, and the robustness of the effect is debatable. The use of garlic for hypercholesterolemia is therefore of questionable value.

The chronic eating of garlic was found to maintain IFN-alpha at high levels for at least 7 days. The exposure of neutrophils to garlic in vivo or in vitro, which also stimulated synthesis of NO in these cells, was found to stimulate IFN-alpha synthesis as measured by the stimulation of IFN-alpha mRNA synthesis. Thus, consumption of garlic resulted in stimulated synthesis of NO and, in turn, IFN-alpha in humans, which could be beneficial in viral or proliferative diseases.

The combination of garlic and fish oil reversed the moderate fish-oil-induced rise in LDL-C. Coadministration of garlic with fish oil was well-tolerated and had a beneficial effect on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations by providing a combined lowering of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triacylglycerol concentrations as well as the ratios of total cholesterol to HDL-C and LDL-C to HDL-C.

The difference between the verum and placebo group was highly significant (p less than 0.001). A mild garlic smell was observed in up to 21% of the verum group and up to 9% in the placebo group. Only one of the patients left the study for this reason. Standardized garlic tablets have been shown to be effective in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia by lowering total cholesterol values by an average of 12% and triglyceride values by an average of 17%.

The K:(M) for ADP-induced aggregation were approximately doubled after supplementation with AGE, whereas the maximum rate of aggregation was unaffected. No significant changes in plasma thromboxane B(2) and 6-ketoprostaglandin F(1alpha) concentrations or serum lipid profiles were observed. We conclude that AGE, when taken as a dietary supplement by normolipidemic subjects, may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease as a result of inhibiting platelet aggregation.

The obtained results are in good agreement with trials that have demonstrated the cardioprotective action of garlic preparations and may be due to the use of a time-released form of garlic powder tablets that provides a prolonged biological effect.

The present results have shown for the first time that the administration of AGE for 12 weeks increased plasma adiponectin levels in patients with MS. This suggests that AGE might be a useful, novel, nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention to increase adiponectin and to prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications in individuals with MS.

The reduction was evident after one month of therapy and persisted for at least six months. In the dried garlic powders, in which the allicin content is standardised, there was no significant difference in the size of the reduction across the dose range of 600-900 mg daily. Dried garlic powder preparations also significantly lowered serum triglyceride by 0.31 mmol/l compared to placebo (95% CI: -0.14, -0.49).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

This small pilot study indicates the potential ability of AGE to inhibit the rate of progression of coronary calcification, as compared to placebo over 1 year. Should these findings be extended and confirmed in larger studies, garlic may prove useful for patients who are at high risk of future cardiovascular events.

We found that although serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were not lowered in this short time period, the ex vivo susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to oxidation was significantly decreased (-34%). Because garlic has been reported to beneficially affect serum lipid levels, platelet function, fibrinolysis and blood pressure, this additional effect of retarding lipoprotein oxidation may contribute to the potential antiatherosclerotic effect of garlic.

A trend toward decreased susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation also was noted during AGE administration compared with the placebo period. We conclude that the beneficial effect of garlic preparations on lipids and blood pressure extends also to platelet function, thus providing a wider potential protection of the cardiovascular system.

It seems even more important that with garlic application the plaque volume in the whole collective remained practically constant within the age-span of 50-80 years. These results substantiated that not only a preventive but possibly also a curative role in arteriosclerosis therapy (plaque regression) may be ascribed to garlic remedies.

Platelet function is not impaired by single and repeated oral consumption of a dietary dose of garlic in healthy volunteers. Dishes containing socially acceptable doses of raw garlic are unlikely to increase the risk of perioperative bleeding. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential additive effects of platelet-inhibiting drugs combined with garlic and other herbs.

Thus, AGE exerts selective inhibition on platelet aggregation and adhesion, platelet functions that may be important for the development of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. We briefly review the effect of garlic preparations in general on cardiovascular risk factors and point out differences between AGE and other garlic preparations that we feel are important to explain the efficacy of AGE.

  • Ginkgo biloba for the Cardiovascular System

In older adults with PAD, Ginkgo biloba produced a modest but insignificant increase in maximal treadmill walking time and flow-mediated vasodilation. These data do not support the use of Ginkgo biloba as an effective therapy for PAD, although a longer duration of use should be considered in any future trials.

The atherosclerosis inhibiting effect is possibly due to an upregulation in the body's own radical scavenging enzymes and an attenuation of the risk factors oxLDL/LDL and Lp(a).

A/B ratio and Doppler ankle responses to exercise did not show any significant change in either group at any time interval, nor did the post exercise recovery time. Gingkco Biloba Extract is a safe and effective method of improving walking distance and reducing pain severity in patients with intermittent claudication, although Doppler studies have failed to suggest any gross improvement in the perfusion of the ischaemic leg.

From the results of measurements of pain-free walking distance, maximum walking distance and plethysmography recordings, GBE was shown to be active and significantly superior to placebo. These results correlated with the physician's and patients' overall assessment of response to treatment.

GLE could decrease the plasma level of vWF, raise the plasma NO level and improve the endothelium dependent vascular dilating function in DN patients.

It can be concluded from the results of this study that treatment with EGb 761 in POAD patients with Fontaine stage II b is very safe and causes a significant and therapeutically relevant prolongation of the patients' walking distance.

The new ginkgo fresh plant extract increased the microcirculation significantly, and at the same time improved the radical scavenging capacity in elderly patients and was very well tolerated. This extract is an interesting adjuvant treatment option for patients suffering from impaired microcirculation and improves mechanisms which inhibit an accelerated expression of atherosclerosis.

There was no evidence that G biloba reduced total or CVD mortality or CVD events. There were more peripheral vascular disease events in the placebo arm. G biloba cannot be recommended for preventing CVD. Further clinical trials of peripheral vascular disease outcomes might be indicated.

These results suggest that Ginkgo biloba extract is superior to placebo in the symptomatic treatment of intermittent claudication. However, the size of the overall treatment effect is modest and of uncertain clinical relevance.

This difference between groups is significant (F [1.18] = 4.91; P = 0.04) and the 95% confidence interval for the difference ranges from 0.89 to 3.87. This study confirmed significantly the rapid antiischemic action of EGb 761 and its value in the management of peripheral arterial occlusive disease at the stage of intermittent claudication.

  • Gotu kola for the Cardiovascular System

A significant difference (p less than 0.05) in favor of TECA was shown for the symptoms of heaviness in the lower limbs and edema, as well as for the overall evaluation by the patient. The venous distensibility measured by a mercury strain gauge plethysmograph at three occlusion pressures was improved for the TECA groups but aggravated for the placebo group.

In conclusion this study showed a combined improvement of the microcirculation and capillary permeability after treatment with TTFCA and the possibility of using the VSC to evaluate the effects of drugs (or other treatment) on local capillary permeability in patients with venous hypertension.

In conclusion venous microangiopathy was improved by TTFCA treatment.

In conclusion, the decrease in capillary filtration and edema is associated with symptomatic improvement. The action on edema is beneficial for the evolution of neuropathy. The effects of TTFCA on flux, RAS, and edema are important in early stages of microangiopathy to avoid progression to clinical stages.

In conclusion, the improvement of signs and symptoms by TTFCA observed in patients with venous hypertension was well correlated with the improvement of CFR and ankle edema. Dose ranging showed that 180 mg/day is more effective in improving symptoms and CFR.

In conclusion, TTFCA improves microcirculation and leg volume in venous hypertension. The effects of TTFCA are observed even in a limited sample of patients.

RF (abnormally increased at the beginning of the treatment) decreased, and the VAR (impaired at the beginning of the study) improved. PO2 increased and PCO2 decreased the abnormally increased capillary permeability was also improved (decreased). According to these data, TTFCA is useful in diabetic microangiopathy by improving microcirculation and decreasing capillary permeability. Also TTFCA protects against the deterioration of microcirculation due to diabetic microangiopathy.

The compound was well tolerated and no unwanted effects were observed. Microcirculatory parameters--peri-malleolar skin flux at rest (RF) and transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2--improved as did the abnormally increased RF, PCO2 decreased and PO2 increased in comparison with values measured at inclusion. These results confirm the efficacy of FTTCA in venous hypertensive microangiopathy. Furthermore the effects of FTTCA appear to be dose-related.

The trend of symptom evaluation paralleled the results of objective tests of our microcirculatory model, providing evidence that this model can reveal effects of venoactive drugs on venous hypertensive microangiopathy. TTFCA displays a significant activity. Doses as high as 120 mg daily may be safely used in venous hypertension.

The variations in all parameters were milder (p>0.05) in the TTFCA group. RAS and edema were significantly lower in the TTFCA-treated group (p<0.025). The progressive increase in RAS, PCO2, and the decrease in VAR and O2 were linearly associated with flight time (up to 10 hours). These results are very interesting and indicate an option for patients prone to edema and microcirculation disturbances during long flights.

  • Grape Seed Extract for the Cardiovascular System

Collectively, these results suggest that flavanol-rich products, such as cocoa, wine, grape seed, or tea can provide a dietary means by which to augment vascular function in at-risk populations.

GSE alone improved flow-mediated dilatation determined ultrasonically by an absolute $1.1$ % compared with control. There was no effect of the combination of GSE with quercetin. No other blood or urine measure was altered. Thus sufficient polyphenols from GSE appear to be absorbed to influence endothelial nitric oxide production, and GSE has the potential to favourably influence vascular function.

Blood pressure was recorded using an ambulatory monitoring device at the start of the treatment period and at the end. Both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were lowered after treatment with GSE as compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in serum lipids or blood glucose values. These findings suggest that GSE could be used as a nutraceutical in a lifestyle modification program for patients with the metabolic syndrome.

Egger's weighted regression statistic suggested low likelihood of publication bias in all analysis (P>0.05 for all), except for the effect on diastolic blood pressure (P=0.046). Based on the currently available literature, grape seed extract appears to significantly lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no effect on lipid or CRP levels. Larger randomized, double-blinded trials evaluating different dosages of grape seed extract and for longer follow-up durations are needed.

GSE significantly improved markers of inflammation and glycaemia and a sole marker of oxidative stress in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects at high risk of cardiovascular events over a 4-week period, which suggests it may have a therapeutic role in decreasing cardiovascular risk.

The antioxidant potential of grape seed extract polyphenols may prove effective in a model of oxidative stress (smoking); however more investigational data are needed before use in wider clinical settings.

The intake of GSE is a contributing factor in the inhibition of leg swelling in healthy women during prolonged sitting.

  • Green Coffee Extract for the Cardiovascular System

  • Hesperidin for the Cardiovascular System

A volunteer study using women with cold sensitivity showed that a single dose of water-dispersible hesperetin was effective on peripheral vasodilatation.These results strongly suggest that rapid accumulation with higher plasma concentration enables hesperetin to exert a potential vasodilatation effect by the endothelial action of its plasma metabolites. Water-dispersible hesperetin may be useful to improve the health effect of dietary hesperetin.

Novel mechanisms for hesperetin action in endothelial cells inform effects of oral hesperidin treatment to improve endothelial dysfunction and reduce circulating markers of inflammation in our exploratory clinical trial. Hesperetin has vasculoprotective actions that may explain beneficial cardiovascular effects of citrus consumption.

As a result, 3 of 9 patients in the Hsp-G group improved, while only 1 of 10 patients in the placebo group improved; this was in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria. The present study revealed that the food material Hsp-G was effective when administered with standard anti-rheumatoid therapy in ameliorating RA in mice and humans without any adverse effects and may improve the quality of life for patients with RA as a complementary/alternative medicine.

Hesperidin supplement also had no effect on systolic (WMD = -0.85 mmHg; 95% CI [-3.07, 1.36]) and diastolic blood pressure (WMD = -0.48 mmHg; 95% CI [-2.39, 1.42]). Hesperidin supplementation might not improve lipid profile and blood pressure. Future well-designed trials are still needed to confirm these results.

In healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, orange juice decreases DBP when regularly consumed and postprandially increases endothelium-dependent microvascular reactivity. Our study suggests that hesperidin could be causally linked to the beneficial effect of orange juice. This trial is registered at as NCT00983086.

In this phenotype, serum apolipoprotein (apo) C-II and E levels decreased by the administration, but non-apo B. G-Hesperidin also raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol/apo B in the high-TG type. These results indicate that G-hesperidin preferentially lowers serum TG in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and that this effect is possibly caused by the facilitation of catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and may contribute to the reduction of small dense LDL.

These results indicate that G-hesperidin preferentially lowers serum TG in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and that this effect is possibly caused by the improvement of VLDL metabolic abnormality, leading to the reduction of small dense LDL.

  • Horse Chestnut for the Cardiovascular System

  • Krill Oil for the Cardiovascular System

  • L-Carnitine for the Cardiovascular System

Claudicants with maximal walking distance < or = 250 m benefited from the use of propionyl-L-carnitine, with improvement in walking distance and quality of life. However, patients with mild functional impairment (i.e., walking distance > 250 m) showed no response to propionyl-L-carnitine.

Propionyl-L-carnitine safely improved treadmill exercise performance and enhanced functional status in patients with claudication.

These data indicate that propionyl-L-carnitine exerts beneficial effects on quality of life and walking performance in patients with more severely limited walking capacity.

GPLC supplementation combined with eight weeks of aerobic exercise decreases lipid peroxidation and elevates nitric oxide, but does not further improve blood lipid profiles in normolipidemic subjects.

In conclusion, consistent with other work showing a beneficial effect of carnitine on vascular function, these findings indicate that carnitine supplementation in healthy individuals improves postprandial FMD after a high-fat meal.

Supplementation with ALCA results in an increase in resting nitrate/nitrite in pre-diabetics, without any statistically significant change in other metabolic or oxidative stress variables measured at rest or post meal.

These findings indicate that short-term oral GPLC supplementation can increase NOx in resistance trained men. However, as with many dietary supplements, there exist both "responders" and "non-responders" to treatment. Future work may focus on the mechanisms for the discrepancy in response to GPLC supplementation for purposes of NOx elevation.

Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.

It is concluded that during submaximal exercise after glycogen depletion (i.e., at a high lipid flux) substrate metabolism is not influenced by L-carnitine supplementation.

These responses suggest that LC may induce subtle changes in substrate handling in metabolically active tissues when fatty-acid availability is increased, but it does not affect whole-body substrate utilization during short-duration exercise at the intensities studied.

  • Licorice for the Cardiovascular System

  • Magnesium for the Cardiovascular System

An increase in plasma Mg concentration irrespective of medication was associated with a tendency to a decrease in diastolic pressure (increased plasma Mg vs no increase: -4.0 +/- 10.1 vs +2.5 +/- 12.0 mmHg, p = 0.059). Three months' oral Mg supplementation of insulin-requiring patients with Type 2 DM increased plasma Mg concentration and urinary Mg excretion but had no effect on glycaemic control or plasma lipid concentrations.

Changes in 24-hour systolic and diastolic BPs were correlated negatively with baseline BP or changes in serum magnesium concentration. These results indicate that magnesium supplementation lowers BP in hypertensive subjects and this effect is greater in subjects with higher BP. Our study supports the usefulness of increasing magnesium intake as a lifestyle modification in the management of hypertension, although its antihypertensive effect may be small.

In conclusion, potassium, but not calcium or magnesium supplements, has a modest blood pressure-lowering effect in normotensive persons with low dietary intake. This study strengthens evidence for the importance of potassium for blood pressure regulation in the general population.

Increasing the mean Mg intake in healthy young adult females above the usual dietary intake, which is currently above the US EAR (estimated average requirement), but below the US RDA for Mg, does not affect blood pressure or the rate of bone turnover.

Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile did not show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimization of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes.

MgCl(2) 2·5 g daily improves the ability of beta-cells to compensate for variations in insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals with significant hypomagnesaemia.

The adjusted odds ratio between serum magnesium and BP was 2.8 (95%CI: 1.4-6.9). Oral magnesium supplementation with MgCl(2) significantly reduces SBP and DBP in diabetic hypertensive adults with hypomagnesaemia.

These results suggested that magnesium supplementation does not reduce BP and enhance insulin sensitivity in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight people. However, it appears that magnesium supplementation may lower BP in healthy adults with higher BP.

This study suggests that oral Mg(2+) supplementation is associated with small but consistent ambulatory BP reduction in patients with mild hypertension.

Adults who received oral Mg supplements showed improvement in objective measures of bronchial reactivity to methacholine and PEFR and in subjective measures of asthma control and quality of life.

The findings, however, suggest an association between magnesium status and sleep quality that needs further study to definitively determine whether a low magnesium status is a cause or an effect of poor sleep quality.

  • Olive leaf extract for the Cardiovascular System

Cholesterol levels decreased for all treatments with significant dose-dependent within-pair differences for LDL-cholesterol. None of the other parameters showed significant changes or consistent trends. Concluding, the study confirmed the antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering action of EFLA943 in humans.

In addition to reducing LDL oxidation, the intake of polyphenol-rich olive oil reduces CD40L gene expression, its downstream products, and related genes involved in atherogenic and inflammatory processes in vivo in humans. These findings provide evidence that polyphenol-rich olive oil can act through molecular mechanisms to provide cardiovascular health benefits. This trial was registered at as ISRCTN09220811.

In conclusion, Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract, at the dosage regimen of 500 mg twice daily, was similarly effective in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressures in subjects with stage-1 hypertension as Captopril, given at its effective dose of 12.5-25 mg twice daily.

In conclusion, olive oil phenolic content seems to modulate the LDL phenolic content and the postprandial oxidative stress promoted by 40 mL olive oil ingestion in humans.

In conclusion, the olive oil phenolic content modulated the oxidative/antioxidative status of healthy men who consumed a very low-antioxidant diet.

Olive oil is more than a monounsaturated fat. Its phenolic content can also provide benefits for plasma lipid levels and oxidative damage. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial number: ISRCTN09220811.

Supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols for 12 weeks significantly improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell secretory capacity in overweight middle-aged men at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome.

Sustained consumption of virgin olive oil with the high phenolic content was more effective in protecting LDL from oxidation and in rising HDL cholesterol levels than that of other type of olive oils. Dose-dependent changes in oxidative stress markers, and phenolic compounds in urine, were observed with the phenolic content of the olive oil administered. Our results support the hypothesis that virgin olive oil consumption could provide benefits in the prevention of oxidative processes.

Systolic blood pressure decreased after intake of VOO (p = 0.001) in hypertensive patients. No changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure, glucose, lipids, and antibodies against oxidized LDL. Consumption of VOO, rich in PC, could provide beneficial effects in CHD patients as an additional and complementary intervention to the pharmacological treatment.

The increase in the phenolic content of LDL could account for the increase of the resistance of LDL to oxidation, and the decrease of the in vivo oxidized LDL, observed in the frame of this trial. Our results support the hypothesis that a daily intake of virgin olive oil promotes protective LDL changes ahead of its oxidation.

  • Pycnogenol for the Cardiovascular System

Heart rate, electrolytes and blood urea nitrogen were not changed during treatment in both groups of patients. Unwanted effects observed in both groups were of mild and transient nature, such as gastrointestinal problems, vertigo, headache and nausea. Differences in rate of side effects were not statistically significant between the two groups. Study results support a supplementation with Pycnogenol for mildly hypertensive patients.

In conclusion, Pycnogenol offers an option for reduction of treatment costs and side effects by sparing antiinflammatory drugs.

In conclusion, Pycnogenol was found to be more efficacious than Venostasin for the treatment of CVI.

In conclusion, this study confirms the fast clinical efficacy of Pycnogenol in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and venous microangiopathy and its superiority-considering the evaluated parameters-to the combination of diosmin and hesperidin.

SNP-stimulated vasodilation was similar before and after 2 weeks of treatment in the control and Pycnogenol groups. The administration of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, completely abolished Pycnogenol-induced augmentation of the FBF response to ACh. These findings suggest that Pycnogenol augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing in NO production. Pycnogenol would be useful for treating various diseases whose pathogeneses involve endothelial dysfunction.

This study provides the first evidence that the antioxidant Pycnogenol improves endothelial function in patients with CAD by reducing oxidative stress.

However, this reduction was not significant at 12th week. After 12 weeks of supplementation, Pycnogenol resulted in improved diabetes control, lowered CVD risk factors, and reduced antihypertensive medicine use vs controls.

While the LDL changes reversed during washout, the HDL increase did not. There was no significant difference in LDL oxidizability or plasma lipid peroxides following PYC supplementation. Hence, following oral supplementation in humans, PYC significantly increases antioxidant capacity of plasma, as determined by ORAC, and exerts favorable effects on the lipid profile.

  • Pyrroloquinoline quinone for the Cardiovascular System

  • Reishi for the Cardiovascular System

The results showed no evidence of liver, renal or DNA toxicity with Lingzhi intake, and this is reassuring. The present study of the effects in healthy, well-nourished subjects provides useful, new scientific data that will support controlled intervention trials using at-risk subjects in order to assess the therapeutic effect of Lingzhi in the promotion of healthy ageing.

Urine catecholamines and cortisol, plasma antioxidant status and blood lymphocyte subsets showed no significant differences across treatments. Results indicate that Lingzhi might have mild antidiabetic effects and potentially improve the dyslipidaemia of diabetes, as shown previously in some animal studies. Further studies are desirable in patients with hyperglycaemia.

PHA responses after 12-week treatment with Ganopoly were enhanced in most patients, when compared to pretreatment baselines (P < 0.05). In addition, Ganopoly treatment resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean NK activity compared to baselines (34.5 +/- 11.8% vs 26.6 +/- 8.3%). The present study indicates that Ganopoly enhanced the immune responses in patients with advanced-stage cancer. Clinical evaluations of response and toxicity are ongoing.

These patients also reported less anxiety and depression and better quality of life. Immune markers of CRF were significantly lower and no serious adverse effects occurred during the study. This pilot study suggests that spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum may have beneficial effects on cancer-related fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy without any significant adverse effect.

  • Roselle for the Cardiovascular System

In conclusion, consuming ST infusion had positive effects on BP in type II diabetic patients with mild hypertension. This study supports the results of similar studies in which antihypertensive effects have been shown for ST.

In conclusion, the HsHMP exerted important antihypertensive effectiveness with a wide margin of tolerability and safety, while it also significantly reduced plasma ACE activity and demonstrated a tendency to reduce serum sodium (Na) concentrations without modifying potassium (K) levels. Further studies are necessary for evaluating the dose-dependency of HsHMP and for detecting lower effective doses.

It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect.

Significant differences in total cholesterol, HDL-c, and the TAG/HDL-c ratio were found when the means of absolute differences among treatments were compared (ANOVA p<0.02). Therefore, in addition to the well documented hypotensive effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa, we suggest the use of HSEP in individuals with dyslipidemia associated with MeSy.

The rates of therapeutic effectiveness were 0.7895 and 0.8438 with H. sabdariffa and captopril, respectively (chi2, p > 0.560), whilst the tolerability was 100% for both treatments. A natriuretic effect was observed with the experimental treatment. The obtained data confirm that the H. sabdariffa extract, standardized on 9.6mg of total anthocyanins, and captopril 50 mg/day, did not show significant differences relative to hypotensive effect, antihypertensive effectiveness, and tolerability.

The results of the present study showed that ST has a significant effect on blood lipid profile in patients with diabetes.

the treatments, with 10 and 20 mg of anthocyanins reduce triglycerides. The control treatment showed the greatest effect on lowering total cholesterol and fractions compared to experimental treatments.

These results suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers BP in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults and may prove an effective component of the dietary changes recommended for people with these conditions.

Three days after stopping the treatment, systolic blood pressure was elevated by 7.9%, and diastolic pressure was elevated by 5.6% in the experimental and control groups. This difference between the two groups was also significant. This study proves the public belief and the results of in vitro studies concerning the effects of sour tea on lowering high blood pressure. More extensive studies on this subject are needed.

  • Sodium Bicarbonate for the Cardiovascular System

Administration of NaHCO3 from the start of the diet to the subjects in group 2 prevented both the metabolic acidosis and the increase in NH4+ N excretion and attenuated the increase in blood and urine 3-hydroxybutyrate. When NaCl replaced NaHCO3 during week 4, ammonium N excretion doubled. Urea N excretion was comparable in both groups and was unaffected by bicarbonate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.

Analysis of exercise blood samples using ANOVA with repeated measures revealed that the linear increase in plasma lactate concentration during control was significantly greater than acidosis (p less than 0.01). Although plasma lactate values during alkalosis were consistently elevated above control there was no significant difference in the linear trend (p greater than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

As NaHCO3 ingestion does not increase resting muscle pH or beta(in vitro), it is likely that the improved performance is a result of the greater extracellular buffer concentration increasing H efflux from the muscles into the blood. The significant increase in posttest muscle [La] in NaHCO3 suggests that an increased anaerobic energy contribution is one mechanism by which NaHCO3 ingestion improved RSA.

Blood [HCO3-] was significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) during exercise for BIC compared to PLC. TIME-EX was not significantly different among treatments: BIC 287 (SEM 47.4)s; CIT 172.8 (SEM 29.7)s; and PLC 222.3 (SEM 39.7)s. Despite the fact that buffer ingestion produced favourable metabolic conditions during 30 min of high intensity steady-state exercise, a significant improvement in the subsequent maximal exercise run to exhaustion did not occur.

Blood free fatty acids (FFA) increased with NaHCO3, and FFA and glycerol decreased with NH4Cl and Arg-HCl, suggesting that FFA availability mediated the pH effects on hepatic ketogenesis. These results demonstrate that modest changes in systemic pH modify FFA availability and TK production rates.

Blood lactate concentration [La] progressively increased with the completion of each exercise set ([La] set 1-5: NaHCO3, 1.37 to 11.15; placebo, 1.31 to 9.81 mM); but were not significantly different between treatments. Repetitions performed in the final exercise set were not significantly different between groups (NaHCO3: 19.6 +/- 1.6, placebo: 18.2 +/- 1.1 repetitions).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Blood lactate, pH, SBC and BE were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) at post-exercise in NaHCO3 treatments. These data are in agreement with previous findings that during repeated bouts of exercise pre-exercise administration of NaHCO3 improves performance, possibly by facilitating the efflux of hydrogen ions from working muscles and thereby delaying the onset of fatigue.

Both acute and serial NaHCO3 loading significantly improved 4-minute cycling performance when compared with that in a placebo trial. However, serial NaHCO3 loading may provide a convenient and practical alternative approach for athletes preparing for competition.

Despite longer exercise duration in alkalosis, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations at exhaustion were reduced by 30 and 34%, respectively. These results indicate that alkalosis increased muscle lactate accumulation during exhaustive exercise. These changes were associated with a reduced blood catecholamine response to exercise.

Despite notably enhanced blood-buffering capacity, NaHCO3 ingestion had no effect on the W', the CP, or the overall performance during 3 min of all-out cycling. It is concluded that preexercise blood alkalosis had no influence on the power-duration relationship for all-out exercise.

Force decline rate was less (P < 0.05) during alkalosis-sustained maximal contraction and no differences were shown in central activation ratio. These data indicate that induced metabolic alkalosis can increase muscle fibre conduction velocity following prolonged submaximal cycling.

In conclusion, bicarbonate supplementation does not appear to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose control in non-diabetic older adults.

In conclusion, NaHCO3- ingestion had no effect on performance and RPE during a series of three WT simulating a BMX qualification series, possibly because of the short duration of each effort and the long recovery time used between the three WTs. On the contrary, NaHCO3- ingestion improved perceived readiness before each WT.

In conclusion, the addition of sodium bicarbonate to a normal diet proved to be of ergogenic benefit in the performance of short-term, high-intensity work.

It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

NaHCO3 administration for 5 d may prevent acid-base balance disturbances and improve performance during anaerobic exercise in a dose-dependent manner.

NaHCO3 ingestion resulted in a small muscle alkalosis but had no effect on muscle metabolism or intense endurance exercise performance in well-trained men.

NaHCO₃ supplementation increased blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and attenuated the decline in blood pH compared with placebo during high-intensity exercise in well-trained rugby players but did not significantly improve exercise performance. The higher incidence and greater severity of GI symptoms after ingestion of NaHCO₃ may negatively affect physical performance, and the authors strongly recommend testing this supplement during training before use in competitive situations.

Our findings suggest that training intensity, rather than the accumulation of H(+) during training, may be more important to improvements in beta m. The group ingesting NaHCO(3) before each training session had larger improvements in the LT and endurance performance, possibly because of a reduced metabolic acidosis during training and a greater improvement in muscle oxidative capacity.

Performance in 2000-m rowing ergometer trials may not substantially improve after acute or chronic bicarbonate loading. However, performances will be reliable with both acute and chronic bicarbonate loading protocols.

Pre-exercise alkalosis attenuates blood acid-base perturbations from supramaximal exercise to exhaustion, regardless of whether the recovery mode is active or passive. These findings suggest that individuals may benefit from introducing a pre-exercise alkalotic condition while including passive recovery during high-intensity training protocols.

Rating of perceived effort (RPE) was not influenced nor ratings of perceived readiness. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion modified significantly the blood acid-base balance, although the induced alkalosis did not improve the Wingate test performance, RPE and perceived readiness across three consecutive WTs in elite BMX cyclists.

Sodium bicarbonate did not further enhance rehydration or performance in lightweight rowers when undertaking recommended post-weigh-in nutritional recovery strategies.

Such a recovery profile is nonlinear, with 50% recovery occurring in approximately 12 min. Complete recovery of blood lactate can take longer than 60 min, with 50% recovery occurring in approximately 30 min. Induced alkalosis decreases metabolic acidosis and improves pH recovery compared to acidodic and placebo conditions. Although blood pH and lactate are highly correlated during recovery from acidosis, they recover at significantly different rates.

The increase in Tlim was accompanied by an increase in [HCO3-], suggesting that acidosis might be a limiting factor for exercise at CP. Prolonged NaHCO3 supplementation did not lead to a further increase in [HCO3-] due to the concurrent elevation in plasma volume. This may explain why Tlim remained unaltered despite the prolonged NaHCO3 supplementation period. Ingestion of one single NaHCO3 dose per day before the competition during multiday competitions or tournaments might be a valuable strategy for performance enhancement.

The intravascular volume expansion with NaHCO3 rather than the increase in blood buffer capacity may underlie the previously reported benefit of orally ingested bicarbonate in exercise performance.

The primary finding of this investigation was that orally-induced alkalosis does not significantly affect plasma epinephrine concentrations or performance following 90 s of maximal cycle exercise in untrained men.

The results indicate that subacute acid base changes do not affect proinsulin cleavage. Although acute calcium loading has no demonstrable effect, chronic hypercalcaemia may influence the mechanism of insulin secretion.

The results of this study suggest that ingestion of NaHCO(3) improves sprint performance during prolonged intermittent cycling.

The results of this study suggest that NaHCO3 ingestion can improve intermittent-sprint performance and may be a useful supplement for team-sport athletes.

The results of this study suggest that the ingestion of NaHCO(3) before intermittent type exercise was sufficient to induce metabolic alkalosis but did not significantly affect performance. However, because significant individual variations in performance were observed, an individual approach to bicarbonate ingestion is recommended based on the intensity and duration of the required performance.

The single 0.2 and 0.3 gxkg-1 NaHCO3 dosages appeared to be the most effective for increasing blood-buffering capacity. The 0.2 gxkg-1 dosage is best ingested 40 to 50 minutes before exercise and the 0.3 gxkg-1 dosage 60 minutes before exercise.

The subjects in E completed 950.9 (81.1) kJ of work, which was significantly more (F(2,27) = 5.28, P < 0.01) than during either the C [835.5 (100.2) kJ] or P [839.0 (88.6) kJ] trials. No differences were seen in peak power or in the power:mass ratio between these three groups. The results of this study suggest that sodium bicarbonate may be used to offset the fatigue process during high-intensity, aerobic cycling lasting 60 min.

There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

These data confirm previous data showing that the ingestion of a low-CHO diet reduces the capacity to perform high-intensity exercise, but it appears that the metabolic acidosis induced by the low-CHO diet is not the cause of the reduced exercise capacity observed during high-intensity exercise under these conditions.

These data suggest that successive 30-s high intensity performance may be improved when coupled with NaHCO3 supplementation.

Thigh muscle (vastus lateralis) pH measured immediately before the fifth cycling bout in four of the subjects revealed that the working muscles were less acid in the NaHCO3 trial (pH = 6.81) than during the NaCl treatment (pH = 6.73). Thus, the alkalizing influence of oral HCO3 supports the concept that the hydrogen ion concentration in blood and muscle has a direct influence on performance during repeated, supramaximal exercise.

This is likely because of the lower blood pH and slower recovery of blood HCO(3) post-TT1 after C ingestion. These findings suggest that the ergogenic benefit of taking C alone for repeated 200-m swimming performance appears limited. When combined with NaHCO(3), however, its negative impact on repeated maximal exercise performance is reversed.

This may be a result of a lower demand on the whole body metabolic system in comparison with that for other modes of exercise in which ergogenic effects have been found.

This study demonstrates that alkali ingestion results in significant shifts in the acid-base balance of the blood, but has no effect on the power output during repeated bouts of brief maximal exercise.

This study examined the increase in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration after ingestion of a standard sodium bicarbonate solution. Peak blood pH and bicarbonate concentration occurred between 60 and 90 minutes. Values decreased over the remainder of the ingestion period although still elevated above preingestion levels.

Time to exhaustion at 100% of VO2max was not significantly different between treatments [mean (SE): 173 (42) s and 184 (44) s for T and P respectively]. A significant treatment effect was observed for plasma pH with values being significantly higher on T than on P Pre 70% [7.461 (0.007) vs 7.398 (0.008)], Pre 90% [7.410 (0.010) vs 7.340 (0.016)], and 10'Post [7.317 (0.032) vs 7.242 (0.036)].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Treatment with a buffer, which effectively maintained pH above 7.40, significantly suppressed endorphin release (F = 3.07; P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate that acidosis rather than any other physiological change associated with high-intensity exertion is the primary stimulus for beta-endorphin release.

We would suggest using chronic ingestion as a means to improve high intensity work rather than the acute ingestion of sodium bicarbonate. The ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, over a period of six days, significantly improved work output two days after bicarbonate ingestion ceased.

When ingested individually, both CAFF and SB enhance high-intensity cycling TT performance in trained cyclists. However, the ergogenic effect of these 2 popular supplements was not additive, bringing into question the efficacy of coingesting the 2 supplements before short-duration high-intensity exercise. In this study there were no negative effects of combining CAFF and SB, 2 relatively inexpensive and safe supplements.

  • Soy lecithin for the Cardiovascular System

  • Spirulina for the Cardiovascular System

In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10-16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia.

In humans, Spirulina maxima intake decreases blood pressure and plasma lipid concentrations, especially triacylglycerols and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and indirectly modifies the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values.

It seems that spirulina supplementation is more effective in subjects with dyslipidemia. This study provides the evidence for beneficial effects of spirulina supplementation on blood lipid profiles, inflammatory variables, and antioxidant capacity in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The results suggest that spirulina is a promising agent as a functional food for diabetes management.

Spirulina supplementation at a dose of 1 g daily has powerful hypolipidaemic effects, especially on the triglyceride concentration in dyslipidaemic Cretan outpatients.

The level of apolipoprotein B registered a significant fall together with a significant increment in the level of apolipoprotein A1. Therefore, a significant and favorable increase in the ratio of A1:B was also noted. These findings suggest the beneficial effect of Spirulina supplementation in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving the lipid profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The results demonstrate that spirulina has favorable effects on lipid profiles, immune variables, and antioxidant capacity in healthy, elderly male and female subjects and is suitable as a functional food.

The Spirulina maxima showed a hypolipemic effect, especially on the TAG and the LDL-C concentrations but indirectly on TC and HDL-C values. It also reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Treatment had therapeutic effects as evidenced by ultrasonography and the aminotransferase data. Hypolipidemic effects were also shown. We conclude that Spirulina maxima may be considered an alternative treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and dyslipidemic disorder.

Older women appeared to benefit more rapidly from Spirulina supplements. Similarly, the majority of subjects manifested increased IDO activity and white blood cell count at 6 and 12 weeks of Spirulina supplementation. Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence in older subjects. We encourage large human studies to determine whether this safe supplement could prove beneficial in randomized clinical trials.

  • Taurine for the Cardiovascular System

  • TTA for the Cardiovascular System

  • Vitamin B2 for the Cardiovascular System

Although previously overlooked, homocysteine is highly responsive to riboflavin, specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677 TT genotype. Our findings might explain why this common polymorphism carries an increased risk of coronary heart disease in Europe but not in North America, where riboflavin fortification has existed for >50 years.

Despite the metabolic dependency of tHcy on riboflavin, it did not prove to be an effective homocysteine-lowering agent, even in the face of sub-optimal riboflavin status.

In this elderly group, we found that 10 mg/day oral riboflavin supplementation lowered plasma homocysteine concentrations in subjects with low riboflavin status.

Riboflavin supplementation (10 mg/day) to patients with MS does not improve disability status. It appears that this effect is not related to serum homocysteine levels.

In conclusion, these results show that riboflavin supplementation targeted at hypertensive individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype can decrease BP more effectively than treatment with current antihypertensive drugs only and indicate the potential for a personalized approach to the management of hypertension in this genetically at-risk group. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: Unique identifier: ISRCTN23620802.

Optimizing riboflavin status offers a low-cost targeted strategy for managing elevated BP in this genetically at-risk group. These findings, if confirmed in the general population, could have important implications for the prevention of hypertension.

Riboflavin is effective in reducing blood pressure specifically in patients with the MTHFR 677 TT genotype. The findings, if confirmed, may have important implications for the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  • Vitamin E for the Cardiovascular System

These data suggest that supplementation with vitamin E may reduce the risk of VTE in women, and those with a prior history or genetic predisposition may particularly benefit.

Analysis of secondary cardiovascular end points revealed that aspirin use was associated with no significant effect on the number of total MIs, fatal MIs, and nonfatal MIs, and a nonsignificant decrease in cardiovascular mortality. However, aspirin users did experience significantly fewer strokes, in particular ischemic strokes. Vitamin E had very little impact on the primary prevention of both cardiovascular events and cancer.

In patients with vascular disease or diabetes mellitus, long-term vitamin E supplementation does not prevent cancer or major cardiovascular events and may increase the risk for heart failure.

Increased DNA oxidative susceptibility, therefore, can occur in Type II diabetes without increased LDL oxidative susceptibility, but alpha-tocopherol supplementation in this regimen has no influence on DNA or LDL oxidative susceptibility in Type II diabetes or controls. Polymorphisms in the paraoxonase gene (position 192) are not associated with differences in oxidative susceptibility or responses to alpha-tocopherol.

Short-term daily oral supplementation with vitamin E improves EVF in both the conduit and resistance vessels of young subjects with type I DM.

The data from this large trial indicated that 600 IU of natural-source vitamin E taken every other day provided no overall benefit for major cardiovascular events or cancer, did not affect total mortality, and decreased cardiovascular mortality in healthy women. These data do not support recommending vitamin E supplementation for cardiovascular disease or cancer prevention among healthy women.

TRE at doses up to 320 mg daily were well tolerated. Treatment significantly increased alpha, delta, and gamma tocotrienol concentrations but did not significantly affect arterial compliance, plasma TAS, serum TC or LDL-C levels in normal subjects.

  • African Wild Mango for the Cardiovascular System

  • Amla for the Cardiovascular System

  • Arginine for the Cardiovascular System

Among persons with IGT and MS, the supplementation of l-arg for 18 months does not significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes but does significantly increase regression to NGT.

In patients with PAD, long-term administration of L-arginine does not increase nitric oxide synthesis or improve vascular reactivity. Furthermore, the expected placebo effect observed in studies of functional capacity was attenuated in the L-arginine-treated group. As opposed to its short-term administration, long-term administration of L-arginine is not useful in patients with intermittent claudication and PAD.

Long-term oral L-arginine treatment resulted in an additive effect compared with a diet and exercise training program alone on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, it improved endothelial function, oxidative stress, and adipokine release in obese type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance.

NO(2) Platinum increased plasma L-arginine levels; however, the effects observed in hemodynamics, brachial-artery blood flow, and NOx can only be attributed to the resistance exercise.

Oral two-month supplementation with L-arginine (3 x 2 g/day) had no effect on fasting glucose and HbA1 level in diabetic patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease of lower extremities at Fontaine's stage II. The supplementation of L-arginine led to substantial increase in NO concentration and TAS level in these patients, suggesting its indirect antioxidative effect.

Our data show for the first time that oral L-citrulline supplementation raises plasma L-arginine concentration and augments NO-dependent signalling in a dose-dependent manner.

Restoring NO formation and endothelium-dependent vasodilation by L-arginine improves the clinical symptoms of intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

The increase in central arterial stiffness and wave reflection was not attenuated by acute supplementation with L-arginine; furthermore, blood flow was not augmented with supplementation. On the basis of these data, l-arginine does not appear to change the hemodynamic and vascular responses to resistance exercise.

The vascular effects of L-arginine are closely correlated with its plasma concentrations. These data may provide a basis for the utilization of L-arginine in cardiovascular diseases.

There was no significant difference between the 2 trials in plasma nitrate and nitrite, lactate and ammonia concentrations and peak and average power in the exercise. The results of this study suggested that short-term arginine supplementation had no effect on nitric oxide production, lactate and ammonia metabolism and performance in intermittent anaerobic exercise in well-trained male athletes.

  • Arjuna for the Cardiovascular System

  • Artichoke for the Cardiovascular System

  • Bitter apple for the Cardiovascular System

  • Black cumin for the Cardiovascular System

According to the results of our present study it seems that N. sativa may have some beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, further investigations with a larger sample size are necessary.

although the other variables in the treatment group were not significantly different, we found them better than the control group, which can be a good sign for metabolic restoration in COM. It is suggested that larger dose and longer duration of NS consumption will give better results.

Favorable impact of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule was noted on almost all variables, but results were not statistically significant. A larger study with adequate sample size is recommended.

Meanwhile, NS extract caused a significant decline in the level of total and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol relative to baseline data. No complications caused by NS were observed. The results suggest that the daily use of NS seed extract for 2 months may have a blood pressure-lowering effect in patients with mild HT.

N. sativa administration in patients with HCV was tolerable, safe, decreased viral load, and improved oxidative stress, clinical condition and glycemic control in diabetic patients.

N. sativa oil was found to be effective as an add-on therapy in patients of insulin resistance syndrome. N. sativa oil has a significant activity in diabetic and dyslipidemic patients.

The current study demonstrates the role of NS in enhancing memory, attention and cognition. Therefore, whether NS could be considered as potential food supplement for preventing or slow progressing of Alzheimer disease needs further investigations. However, study with Alzheimer's patients with large population size for longer period of time is recommended before using NS daily and extensive phytochemical investigations are recommended for novel drug discovery from NS for treating cognitive disorders.

the results of this study indicate that a dose of 2 gm/ day of Nigella sativa might be a beneficial adjuvant to oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetic patients.

The score of subjective feeling decreased over the course of treatment with black seed oil in all four studies. A slight decrease in plasma triglycerides and a discrete increase in HDL cholesterol occurred while the lymphocyte subpopulations, endogenous cortisol levels and ACTH release remained unchanged. Black seed oil therefore proved to be an effective adjuvant for the treatment of allergic diseases.

  • Blueberry for the Cardiovascular System

  • Boswellia serrata for the Cardiovascular System

  • Butcher's Broom for the Cardiovascular System

  • Caffeine for the Cardiovascular System

A caffeine dose of 3 mg x kg(-1) body mass appears to improve cycling performance in well-trained and familiarised athletes. Doubling the dose to 6 mg x kg(-1) body mass does not confer any additional improvements in performance.

A caffeine dose of at least 3 mg/kg in the form of an energy drink is necessary to significantly improve half-squat and bench-press maximal muscle power.

Although the effect of recovery duration on caffeine-induced responses to multiple sprint work requires further investigation, the results of the present study show that caffeine has ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance in both single and multiple sprint sports.

Fatigue scores were greater postexercise (p = 0.001) compared to scores pre exercise across conditions. Caffeine ingestion enhances performance in short-term, resistance exercise to failure and may favorably change the mood state response to exercise compared to a placebo.

In conclusion, acute caffeine ingestion significantly improved endothelial function assessed by brachial artery FMD in subjects with and without CAD and was associated with lower plasma markers of inflammation.

These data demonstrate the robustness of the lactate, ventilatory and heart rate variability thresholds when challenged by a physiological dose of caffeine.

We report for the first time that acute ingestion of 1,3-dimethylamylamine alone and in combination with caffeine results in an increase in SBP, DBP, and RPP without an increase in HR. The largest increase is observed at 60 minutes post-ingestion of C + G 75 mg. These changes cannot be explained by circulating NE and EPI.

Although no changes in glycemia and/or insulin sensitivity were observed after 8 weeks of coffee consumption, improvements in adipocyte and liver function as indicated by changes in adiponectin and fetuin-A concentrations may contribute to beneficial metabolic effects of long-term coffee consumption.

The results suggest that lactate and triglyceride production and increased vascular smooth muscle tone may be responsible for the major part of the thermogenic effect of caffeine.

Variability in the acute BP response to coffee may be partly explained by genetic polymorphisms of the adenosine A2A receptors and α(2)-adrenergic receptors. This trial is registered at as NCT01330680.

We confirm that acute doses of caffeine, at levels typically found in a cup of coffee, produce stimulant-like subjective effects and enhance performance in light, nondependent caffeine users. These findings support the idea that the drug has psychoactive effects even in the absence of withdrawal.

  • Cane Sugar Extract for the Cardiovascular System

Eight patients in the placebo group experienced a total of 10 serious adverse events, 8 of which were vascular events, compared with none in the policosanol group (p < 0.01). In addition, 3 patients in the policosanol group and 3 patients in the placebo group reported mild adverse events during the study. The present results demonstrate the long-term usefulness of policosanol therapy to treat patients with intermittent claudication.

In conclusion, although the tolerability profile remains excellent, according to the present results policosanol at a dose of 40 mg/day does not offer significant additional cholesterol-lowering efficacy over the 20 mg/day dose.

In conclusion, policosanol was effective and well tolerated in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women, showing additional benefits in the health perception of the study patients.

In conclusion, sugar cane policosanol at a dose of 10mg/d showed no lipid lowering effects in subjects with primitive, diet-resistant hypercholesterolaemia.

In conclusion, sugar cane policosanol at doses of 20 mg daily showed no lipid lowering effects in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia.

In conclusion, treatments of policosanol, not aspirin, for 10 weeks significantly increased walking distances, but modestly, in contrast with previous results. Therefore, the duration of treatments at the doses tested was too short for meaningful effects on the treadmill test.

Our findings corroborate recent studies conducted outside Cuba that have failed to find any lipid modulatory effects for policosanol.

Policosanol administered long term is effective in lowering LDL-C and TC as well as increasing HDL-C levels in older patients with hypertension and type II hypercholesterolaemia without a history of CHD or cerebrovascular disease. In addition, policosanol treatment also shows benefits in the occurrence of SAEs of vascular aetiology, on the general AE profile and the reduction of BP in treated patients compared with baseline.

Policosanol did not reduce LDL-C or total cholesterol levels either alone or in combination with atorvastatin. This observation supports the need for systematic evaluation of available products containing policosanol to determine their clinical lipid-lowering efficacy under rigorous experimental conditions. We propose that policosanol should be added to the list of nutritional supplements lacking scientific validity to support their use.

Policosanol does not alter the serum lipid profile over an 8-wk period in adults with mild hypercholesterolemia.

Present results show no beneficial effects of Cuban SCPs on lipid indicators in hypercholesterolemic persons and question the clinical usefulness of policosanol mixtures as cholesterol-lowering neutraceutical agents.

Subject body weights remained stable throughout the study and showed no significant correlation with LDL oxidation levels. Absolute levels of plasma LDL cholesterol were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL. The findings of the present study suggest that SCP do not significantly affect LDL oxidation. Our results align with results of recent policosanol research questioning the efficacy of these natural extracts as cardio-protective agents.

The findings of the present study fail to support previous research concerning efficacy and mechanism of action for policosanols.

The present study demonstrated that policosanol administered within its therapeutic dosage for lowering cholesterol (5 and 10 mg day(-1)), decreased the susceptibility of LDL-C to lipid peroxidation in vitro.

The utilization of MP when added to background statin therapy or as monotherapy resulted in no significant changes in major lipoproteins (all p > 0.05). The MP therapy was well tolerated with no major adverse events reported. Consistent with recent clinical trial data, MP demonstrated an excellent safety profile but produced no significant effects on major lipoproteins when used as monotherapy or when given with concomitant statin therapy.

This study shows that policosanol is effective, safe, and well tolerated in older hypercholesterolemic patients.

  • CDP-choline for the Cardiovascular System

  • Chia seeds for the Cardiovascular System

  • Chlorella for the Cardiovascular System

  • Chokeberry for the Cardiovascular System

  • Chromium for the Cardiovascular System

  • Cissus quadrangularis for the Cardiovascular System

  • Clary Sage for the Cardiovascular System

  • Coenzyme Q10 for the Cardiovascular System

Although it is possible that coenzyme Q(10) may improve BP control under some circumstances, any effects are likely to be smaller than reported in previous meta-analyses. Furthermore, our data suggest that coenzyme Q(10) is not currently indicated as adjunctive antihypertensive treatment for patients with the metabolic syndrome whose BP control is inadequate, despite regular antihypertensive therapy.

Coenzyme Q(10) supplementation improves endothelial function of conduit arteries of the peripheral circulation in dyslipidaemic patients with Type II diabetes. The mechanism could involve increased endothelial release and/or activity of nitric oxide due to improvement in vascular oxidative stress, an effect that might not be reflected by changes in plasma F(2)-isoprostane concentrations.

Coenzyme Q10 supplementation is associated with significant improvement in endothelial function. The current study supports a role for CoQ10 supplementation in patients with endothelial dysfunction.

CoQ(10) supplementation improved endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated type 2 diabetic patients, possibly by altering local vascular oxidative stress.

Improvements in the ED relaxation and endothelium-bound ecSOD activity might be related to CoQ(10) capability of enhancing endothelial functionality by counteracting nitric oxide oxidation. The enhancement of peak VO(2) and of O(2) pulse is likely due to the bioenergetic effect of CoQ(10); on the other end, the improved VO(2) could also depend on the observed enhanced peripheral endothelial function.

In conclusion, we found no evidence that coenzyme Q(10) affects fatigue index, arterial stiffness, metabolic parameters, or inflammatory markers.

In patients with ischaemic LVSD, 8 weeks supplement of CoQ improved mitochondrial function and FMD; and the improvement of FMD correlated with the change in mitochondrial function, suggesting that CoQ improved endothelial function via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with ischaemic LVSD.

One dose of CoQ10 does not have any effect on ECG variables and exhibits only mild and transient effect on systolic blood pressure in young, healthy people.

Oral CoQ(10) improves functional capacity, endothelial function, and LV contractility in CHF without any side effects. The combination of CoQ(10) and ET resulted in higher plasma CoQ(10) levels and more pronounced effects on all the abovementioned parameters. However, significant synergistic effect of CoQ(10) with ET was observed only for peak SWTI suggesting that ET amplifies the already described effect of CoQ(10) on contractility of dysfunctional myocardium.

Our results suggest CoQ may be safely offered to hypertensive patients as an alternative treatment option.

The mean interventricular septal thickness (IVS) showed a 22.4% reduction (p < 0.005). The mean posterior wall thickness showed a 23.1% reduction (p < 0.005). No patient in the treatment Group had ventricular tachycardia (VT) whereas 4 cases in the control group had VT. In both groups 1 patient was lost due to sudden cardiac death (SCD).

These results show that CoQ supplementation may improve blood pressure and long-term glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes, but these improvements were not associated with reduced oxidative stress, as assessed by F2-isoprostanes.

  • Coffee for the Cardiovascular System

  • Colostrum for the Cardiovascular System

  • Creatine for the Cardiovascular System

  • DHEA for the Cardiovascular System

Androgen replacement therapy, with DHEA, to menopausal women increases serum androgen levels without any appreciable effect on muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, muscle function, or improvement in health-related QOL.

As far as well-being is concerned, DHEA replacement did not cause any relevant variation of subjective health scales and sexuality in both sexes. Our study confirms that DHEA may be beneficial for female patients with hypoadrenalism, mainly in restoring androgen levels. Concerning the health status, more sensitive and specific instruments to measure the effects of DHEA treatment could be necessary.

In contrast, steady state plasma insulin did not change during the study in either group. The low dose DHEA supplementation improves vascular endothelial function and insulin sensitivity and decreases the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 concentration. These beneficial changes have the potential to attenuate the development of age-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease.

Patients were recruited from university employees attending for periodic health checks, with normal hepatic and renal function with endogenous DHEA-S level < 1500 ng/dl. Our results did not reveal any significant changes in study parameters, apart from a statistically significant increase in DHEA-S levels after therapy with active substance.

This study shows that short-term treatment with DHEA increased platelet cGMP production, a marker of NO production, in healthy elderly subjects. This effect is coupled with a decrease in PAI-1 and LDL cholesterol levels as well as an increase in testosterone and E(2) levels. These findings, therefore, suggest that chronic DHEA supplementation would exert antiatherogenic effects, particularly in elderly subjects who display low circulating levels of this hormone.

Twelve weeks of combined endurance and resistance training significantly improved body composition, physical performance, insulin sensitivity, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number and size, whereas DHEA had no additional benefits.

  • Eleuthero for the Cardiovascular System

  • Fenugreek for the Cardiovascular System

  • Ginger for the Cardiovascular System

  • Ginseng for the Cardiovascular System

Although preliminary, this study is the first to demonstrate that KRG may improve arterial stiffness as measured by AI. In addition, it appears that ginsenosides may be the principal pharmacologically active component of the root, rather than the polysaccharide fraction. This study supports the results seen with KRG in the preclinical studies and warrants further investigation on acute and long-term endothelial parameters.

KRG supplementation may attenuate lymphocyte DNA damage and LDL oxidation by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity.

Our data show that KRG can be an effective alternative to the invasive approaches for treating male ED.

RG could be an attractive herbal dietary supplement for relieving menopausal symptoms and conferring favorable effects on markers of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

Significant positive correlations were found between the numbers of circulating angiogenic cells at day 1 and the changes from baseline in CFR for CD34(+) , CXCR4(+) , CD117(+) and C-met(+) cells. Red ginseng extract increased CD34(+) , CXCR4(+) and CD117(+) circulating angiogenic cell mobilization and decreased inflammation in AMI patients, thereby improving CFR during the 8-month follow-up.

Three (3) months' treatment with KRG did not improve arterial stiffness in subjects with hypertension.

We found no evidence that KRG had an effect on blood pressure, lipid profile, oxidized low density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, or arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. These findings warrant subsequent longer-term prospective clinical investigations with a larger population.

  • Green Tea Extract for the Cardiovascular System

A beneficial effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) was demonstrated, with a significant reduction of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in eight weeks, in the patients studied.

In conclusion, regular intake of EGCG had no effect on insulin resistance but did result in a modest reduction in diastolic blood pressure. This antihypertensive effect may contribute to some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with habitual green tea consumption. EGCG treatment also had a positive effect on mood. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings and investigate their mechanistic basis.

In summary, green tea (400- and 800-mg EGCG as PPE; ∼5-10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers.

Intake of decaffeinated green tea for 6 months was associated with a slight reduction in body weight and improved HDL and glucose homeostasis in overweight breast cancer survivors.

Moderate consumption of tea substantially enhances endothelial-dependent vasodilation. This may provide a mechanistic explanation for the reduced risk of cardiovascular events and stroke observed among tea drinkers.

These findings suggest that ingestion of a catechin-rich beverage ameliorates serious obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors without raising any safety concerns in Japanese children.

This study showed no statistical difference in % reduction in BW, BMI and WC between the GTE and placebo groups after 12 weeks of treatment. The intake of GTE (491 mg catechins containing 302 mg EGCG) for 12 weeks is considered safe as shown by the results.

Short-term consumption of EGCG increased VO2max without affecting maximal cardiac output, suggesting that EGCG may increase arterial-venous oxygen difference.

These results demonstrate that a single dose of orally administered EGCG can modulate CBF parameters in healthy humans but that this is not associated with changes in cognitive performance or mood.

  • Guggul for the Cardiovascular System

  • Hoodia gordonii for the Cardiovascular System

  • Inositol for the Cardiovascular System

Myo-inositol might be considered one of the insulin-sensitizing substances in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

No significant changes were observed in serum triglyceride, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Insulin resistance (P < 0.01), analysed by homeostasis model assessment, was reduced significantly after therapy. Administration of oral myo-inositol significantly reduced hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and ameliorated the abnormal metabolic profile of women with hirsutism.

The combined administration of MI and DCI in physiological plasma ratio (40:1) should be considered as the first line approach in PCOS overweight patients, being able to reduce the metabolic and clinical alteration of PCOS and, therefore, reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome.

There was an inverse relationship between body mass and treatment efficacy. In fact a significant weight loss (and leptin reduction) (P < 0.01) was recorded in the myo-inositol group, whereas the placebo group actually increased weight (P < 0.05). These data support a beneficial effect of myo-inositol in women with oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovaries in improving ovarian function.

These data support a beneficial effect of inositol in improving ovarian function in women with oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovaries.

These results suggest that increased plasmalogen biosynthesis and/or serum levels are especially effective in improving MetS among hyperlipidemic subjects with MetS.

Treatment of PCOS patients with Myo-inositol provided a decreasing of circulating insulin and serum total testosterone as well as an improvement in metabolic factors.

We conclude that, in lean women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, D-chiro-inositol reduces circulating insulin, decreases serum androgens, and ameliorates some of the metabolic abnormalities (increased blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia) of syndrome X.

  • Iodine for the Cardiovascular System

  • Japanese Knotweed for the Cardiovascular System

  • Kava for the Cardiovascular System

  • Lavender for the Cardiovascular System

  • Medium-chain triglycerides for the Cardiovascular System

  • Melatonin for the Cardiovascular System

  • Microlactin for the Cardiovascular System

  • Nattokinase for the Cardiovascular System

  • Polypodium leucotomos for the Cardiovascular System

  • Pomegranate Extract for the Cardiovascular System

  • Pomegranate Seed Oil for the Cardiovascular System

  • Psyllium for the Cardiovascular System

Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males.

During the cereal-plus-diet phase, no significant effects on HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, or body weight were found within or between any cereal groups. These results support use of soluble-fiber cereals as an effective and well-tolerated part of a prudent diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.

Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels, showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05), whereas HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p < 0.01) following Psyllium treatment. Our results show that 5 g t.i.d. of Psyllium is useful, as an adjunct to dietary therapy, in patients with type II diabetes, to reduce plasma lipid and glucose levels, resolving the compliance conflict associated with the ingest of a great amount of fiber in customary diet.

However, a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in BP in overweight and obese subjects. Further research with hypertensive individuals is necessary to elucidate whether increased fibre consumption in the form of psyllium supplementation may provide a safe and acceptable means to reduce BP, vascular function and the risk of developing CVD.

Measures of growth (height, weight, and skin-fold thicknesses), and blood vitamin (folic acid; vitamins A, D, and E) and mineral (iron, zinc, and calcium) levels were not affected. In this study, psyllium fiber had no additional lowering effect on total cholesterol or LDL-C levels in children who were already following low total fat, low saturated fat, low cholesterol diets.

The results obtained indicate a beneficial therapeutic effect of psyllium (Plantaben) in the metabolic control of type 2 diabetics as well as in lowering the risk of coronary heart disease. We also conclude that consumption of this fibre does not adversely affect either mineral or vitamin A and E concentrations. Finally, for a greater effectiveness, psyllium treatment should be individually evaluated.

There were no postprandial differences in the lipoprotein profile between the two groups. Triglycerides were significantly lower in G1, but not in G2. Our study contributes toward elucidating the effects of psyllium on serum lipids, and suggests that psyllium treatment may help in reducing triglycerides (a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease) in type II diabetic patients.

  • Pterostilbene for the Cardiovascular System

  • Pueraria mirifica for the Cardiovascular System

  • Pyruvate for the Cardiovascular System

  • Quercetin for the Cardiovascular System

  • Red Clover Extract for the Cardiovascular System

  • Resveratrol for the Cardiovascular System

  • Rhodiola Rosea for the Cardiovascular System

  • Rooibos for the Cardiovascular System

  • Rose Essential Oil for the Cardiovascular System

  • Rose Hip for the Cardiovascular System

  • Royal Jelly for the Cardiovascular System

  • Safflower Oil for the Cardiovascular System

  • Saffron for the Cardiovascular System

  • Schisandra chinensis for the Cardiovascular System

  • Sea Buckthorn for the Cardiovascular System

  • Seaweed Extract for the Cardiovascular System

  • Serrapeptase for the Cardiovascular System

  • Sesamin for the Cardiovascular System

  • Shilajit for the Cardiovascular System

  • Stevia for the Cardiovascular System

  • Stinging Nettle for the Cardiovascular System

  • Tribulus terrestris for the Cardiovascular System

  • TUDCA for the Cardiovascular System

  • Vinpocetine for the Cardiovascular System

  • Vitamin B1 for the Cardiovascular System

  • Vitamin C for the Cardiovascular System

CI increased 40% after ascorbate as did peripheral flows. Peripheral resistances were increased (nearly double control) and decreased by nearly 50% after ascorbate. Calf capacitance and venous resistance were decreased compared with control but normalized with ascorbate. These data provide experimental support for the concept that oxidative stress and reduced NO possibly contribute to vasoconstriction and venoconstriction of LFP.

However, there was a significant beneficial effect of ascorbic acid on the FMD change over time after smoking. After smoking, the FMD dropped to less than half of the baseline value. Thereafter in the placebo group, FMD increased to 70% of baseline value in 90 minutes, but in the ascorbic acid group the FMD increased to 70% of baseline value in 46 minutes. Oral administration of ascorbic acid attenuates endothelial dysfunction after short-term cigarette smoking by shortening its duration.

In summary, it is concluded that, eight weeks of taking EPA + vitamin C supplementation improved the plasma levels of cardiovascular markers but didn't reduce BP.

Individuals with type 2 diabetes experienced improved postprandial and 24-hour glycaemia and decreased BP after 4 months of AA supplementation as compared to placebo. These findings offer evidence for the proposed use of AA as an adjunct therapy to improve glycaemic and BP control in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

It is concluded that LC supplementation induces changes in blood glucose handling/disposal during an OGTT, which is not influenced by GLP-1. The glucose handling/disposal response to oral LC is different between lean and overweight/obese suggesting that further investigation is required. LC effects on gastric emptying and/or direct 'insulin-like' actions on tissues should be examined in larger samples of overweight/obese and lean participants, respectively.

No significant changes in fasting glucose (156 +/- 11 mg/dl), insulin (14 +/- 2 microU/ml), SI(Clamp) [2.71 +/- 0.46 x 10(-4) dl x kg(-1) x min(-1)/(microU/ml)], or forearm blood flow in response to ACh, SNP, or insulin were observed after vitamin C treatment. We conclude that high-dose oral vitamin C therapy, resulting in incomplete replenishment of vitamin C levels, is ineffective at improving endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes.

No significant differences in any of the parameters measured were seen, when comparing results following AA or placebo treatment. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR, clearance of 125I-iothalamate) was unchanged while effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, clearance of 131I-hippuran) tended to decline in both groups.

Oral glucose load impairs endothelium dependent dilation and hyperaemia at microcirculation, probably via oxidative stress; ascorbic acid can prevent it.

Our study suggests that if vitamin C does have anti-atherosclerotic effects in diabetes, it does not exert them through the traditional pathways identifiable by established surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk.

The vitamin E effect was not significant. In summary, treatment with vitamin C but not vitamin E significantly reduced CRP among individuals with CRP > or =1.0 mg/L. Among the obese, 75% had CRP > or =1.0 mg/L. Research is needed to determine whether reducing this inflammatory biomarker with vitamin C could reduce diseases associated with obesity. But research on clinical benefits of antioxidants should limit participants to persons with elevations in the target biomarkers.

Therefore, ascorbic acid may have potential therapeutic use in clinical situations where acute hyperglycaemia may be a complication.

This is to our knowledge the first randomized trial in humans that has demonstrated that short-term vitamin C supplementation could significantly reduce resistin levels, independent of changes in inflammatory or metabolic variables. Future investigations of resistin participation in oxidative processes are warranted.

Vitamin C (500 mg twice daily) has potential effects in alleviating inflammatory status by reducing hs-CRP, IL-6, and FBG in hypertensive and/or diabetic obese patients.

Vitamin C did not affect plasma FFA concentrations. Glyceryl trinitrate responsiveness was unchanged during FFA elevation, with or without vitamin C. These data suggest that FFA-induced vascular oxidative stress could contribute to endothelial dysfunction in insulin-resistant patients. High concentrations of antioxidants are able to reverse the local effects of FFA on endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

VitC supplementation reduced the MBP and restored peripheral vasodilatation response during mental stress in obese children.

These data indicate that vitamin C supplementation in carbohydrate-fed runners does not serve as a countermeasure to oxidative and immune changes during or after a competitive ultramarathon race.

These data provide preliminary evidence that vitamin C status may influence fatigue, heart rate, and perceptions of exertion during moderate exercise in obese individuals.

These data suggest that vitamin C supplementation can decrease postexercise cortisol in individuals performing exercise similar to that of a half-marathon or marathon in hot conditions. However, no changes in s-IgA and URTI were evident, possibly due to previous moderate training and reduced physical and psychological stress compared with athletes participating in ultramarathons.

These findings are the first to suggest that oral vitamin C supplementation provides an effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in human diabetic blood.

  • Vitamin D for the Cardiovascular System

Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.

Evidence from limited data suggests that vitamin D supplements at moderate to high doses may reduce CVD risk, whereas calcium supplements seem to have minimal cardiovascular effects. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of these supplements in CVD prevention.

High levels of vitamin D among middle-age and elderly populations are associated with a substantial decrease in cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. If the relationship proves to be causal, interventions targeting vitamin D deficiency in adult populations could potentially slow the current epidemics of cardiometabolic disorders.

Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A causal relationship has yet to be proved by intervention trials using vitamin D.

The results indicate that a vitamin D supplement of 83 microg/d does not adversely affect weight loss and is able to significantly improve several cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight subjects with inadequate vitamin D status participating in a weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at as NCT00493012.

Vitamin D status, which is amenable to intervention by safely increasing sun exposure or vitamin D supplementation, was associated inversely with BP in a large sample representative of the US population.

We found weak evidence to support a small effect of vitamin D on blood pressure in studies of hypertensive patients.

  • Whey Protein for the Cardiovascular System

  • Yacon for the Cardiovascular System

  • Yerba mate for the Cardiovascular System

  • Yohimbine for the Cardiovascular System

  • Zinc for the Cardiovascular System

  • Black Cohosh for the Cardiovascular System

  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid for the Cardiovascular System

At biweekly visits, subjects completed a questionnaire evaluating side effects and adverse events. Blood was taken for assay of liver function, glucose, insulin, serum lipids, blood counts, and general chemistry. Overall, body composition did not differ between groups. Laboratory tests showed no adverse effects of CLA. Adverse events and side effects were less in the CLA group compared to placebo. We conclude that CLA as Clarinol is safe for use in obese humans for at least one year.

In conclusion, oil containing trans-10,cis-12 CLA has several adverse effects on classical and novel markers of coronary vascular disease, whereas the c9,t11 CLA isomer is more neutral, except for a small but significant increase in lipid peroxidation compared with olive oil.

In conclusion, when given as part of a diet rich in butter, a mixture of CLA isomers increased lipid peroxidation but did not affect risk markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, or fasting insulin and glucose concentrations.

It was shown that both CLA and exercise were effective in improvement of body composition and these effects were cumulated when they have been used together. CLA supplementation alone or with exercise seems effective on serum glucose and insulin concentrations but ineffective on endurance performance.

Results from this study fail to support the role of milk enriched naturally with CLA containing c-9, t-11 or synthetically with c-9, t-11 and t-10, c-12 CLA isomers in modulation of lipid profiles or body composition in moderately overweight, borderline hyperlipidemic individuals.

The CLA concentration in blood was significantly increased by CLA ingestion and reached 36 µmol/L. The CLA concentration in blood one week after the intake period was significantly lower than that at the end of CLA intake. The 10t12c-CLA level in plasma decreased faster than that of 9c11t-CLA. This suggests faster metabolism (fatty acid β oxidation) of 10t12c-CLA compared with 9c11t-CLA.

The supplementation of milk with 3 g CLA over 12 weeks results in a significant reduction of fat mass in overweight but not in obese subjects. CLA supplementation was not associated with any adverse effects or biological changes.

We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women.

  • Dill for the Cardiovascular System

  • Vanadium for the Cardiovascular System

What are the general functions of the Cardiovascular System?

Heart health
Overall health
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