Digestive System – Cost Effective Supplements

Digestive System

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Digestive System definition

System to absorb nutrients and remove waste via the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines.

Digestive System conditions

Arsenic Poisoning
Canker Sores
Colic and crying
Colonic Diseases
Colorectal Cancer
Crohns Disease
Dry Mouth
Esophageal spasms
Fatty Liver Disease
Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Lead Poisoning
Liver Cancer
Liver Damage
Nausea and Vomiting
Oral Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
Parasitic Diseases
Peptic Ulcer
Ulcerative Colitis
Viral Infections

Digestive System supplements

  • Psyllium for the Digestive System

Bran had a greater effect on transit time than psyllium. Psyllium had a greater effect on the amount of water found in the stools and the total stool weight. On the days that stools were passed, 50% of the daily stool ratings were scored as "hard" when subjects received the control supplement. Less than 10% of the ratings were scored as "hard" when subjects received the high-fiber supplements. The type of marker used did not significantly affect the transit time measured.

In contrast with other viscous fibers that are fermented completely in the colon, a component of psyllium is not fermented. This gel provided lubrication that facilitated propulsion of colon contents and produced a stool that was bulkier and more moist than were stools resulting with use of comparable amounts of other bowel-regulating fiber sources.

Isogel was degraded preferentially to the food-derived fibre; in particular, cellulose in the faeces was increased during the experimental period. 6. Only one subject showed distinct decreases in the apparent digestibility of energy, N and fat in the diet. The results do not therefore agree with the generally held view that increased fibre in the diet decreases the apparent digestibility of the other nutrients.

Consumption of a high fibre diet retards intestinal gas transit by decreasing bolus propulsion to the rectum. Thus, in addition to increasing gas production by colonic flora, fibre ingestion may elicit gaseous symptoms by promoting gas retention.

Plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber) might be as effective as mesalamine to maintain remission in ulcerative colitis.

It increased the sensation of satiety and decreased hunger at the sixth hour after the meal. The association between echographic measurement and visual scales is a simple method of evaluating the relationship between the stomach and appetite. The pharmacodynamic effect of psyllium should be confirmed by longterm therapeutic trials.

The results obtained indicate a beneficial therapeutic effect of psyllium (Plantaben) in the metabolic control of type 2 diabetics as well as in lowering the risk of coronary heart disease. We also conclude that consumption of this fibre does not adversely affect either mineral or vitamin A and E concentrations. Finally, for a greater effectiveness, psyllium treatment should be individually evaluated.

There was no significant effect of breakfast type on total day energy intake. The results suggest that different types of fibre modulate the timecourse of appetite control and may produce alterations in the experience of motivation and patterns of eating without necessarily effecting total energy intake.

This plantago ovata containing product, which is already taken by many people world-wide to control bowel function, may be a useful supplement in weight control diets as it affects fat intake, and may have some effect on the subjective feeling of fullness.

  • Senna alexandria for the Digestive System

A combination of stimulant and softening laxatives was most likely to maintain normal bowel function at the lowest dose and least adverse effects. The mean final dose of lactulose was excessive for use in ill patients. Senna was associated with significantly more adverse effects than the other laxatives, mainly abdominal pain (P < 0.001). This model of constipation may provide a standardized means of assaying the clinical effectiveness of oral laxatives.

Bulk laxative plus senna (daily doses 14.8 g) produced more frequent (p < 0.05) bowel habits (4.5 vs. 2.2-1.9/week) than lactulose (daily doses 20.1 g). Both laxatives proved to be safe to use. Our study indicated bulk laxative plus senna to be more efficient in treating constipation in geriatric long-stay patients.

Gut transit time was assessed by dye and radio-opaque marker methods. 2 It was possible to demonstrate the effect of the anthracenes but not oxyphenisatin on gut transit time. 3 More sophisticated statistical techniques were required to demonstrate the retarding effect of the sympathomimetic amine and its reversal by senna. 4 Statistical analysis shows that assessment of intestinal transit time by dye or pellet methods gives identical information.

Laxative efficacy was analyzed through t test and analysis of variance. No difference was found between the laxatives in defecation-free intervals or in days with defecation. The final scores for general health status were similar in both groups. Given that the two treatments have similar efficacy and adverse effects, a recommendation is made for the use of senna because its cost is lower than lactulose.

Mechanical preparation before colonic or rectal resection with senna is better and easier than with polyethylene glycol and should be proposed in patients undergoing colonic or rectal resection, especially patients with stenosis.

Sodium Phosphate solution gave better bowel preparation, with the same compliance, than either senna or Polyethylene solution. In constipated patients Sodium Phosphate showed good efficacy resulting in good cleansing rates similar to that of non-constipated patients. The poor results obtained by Polyethylene were related to the little amount of solution taken even if associated to Bisacodyl.

The efficacy of senna is not equivalent to sodium phosphate solution in bowel preparation for colonoscopy, but senna may be considered an alternative laxative.

The regimen combining half doses of PEG-ES and senna provides high-quality bowel preparation and acceptable patient tolerance, with less abdominal pain compared with high-dose senna.

The use of senna with docusate decreases time to first BM in those undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery compared with placebo. Subjects using senna with docusate are also significantly less likely to use magnesium citrate.

This is significantly better than the success rates of 51% and 59% achieved in White and Coloured controls treated with a placebo. Minor abdominal cramps occurred in some 13% of the patients treated with standardized senna, and in 4% of the controls given the placebo. There is no evidence to suggest that standardized senna has any effect whatsoever on a breast-fed baby if taken by the mother.

  • Sodium Bicarbonate for the Digestive System

Accordingly, the cerebral metabolic ratio decreased equally during the Sal and Bicarb trials: from 5.8±0.6 at rest to 1.7±0.1 and 1.8±0.2, respectively. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bicarb eliminated metabolic acidosis during maximal exercise but that did not affect the cerebral lactate uptake and, therefore, the decrease in the cerebral metabolic ratio.

Administration of NaHCO3 from the start of the diet to the subjects in group 2 prevented both the metabolic acidosis and the increase in NH4+ N excretion and attenuated the increase in blood and urine 3-hydroxybutyrate. When NaCl replaced NaHCO3 during week 4, ammonium N excretion doubled. Urea N excretion was comparable in both groups and was unaffected by bicarbonate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Also, pulmonary O2 uptake and changes in muscle oxygenation as determined by near-infrared spectrophotometry during exercise were similar. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bic attenuated acidosis and in turn arterial desaturation during maximal exercise.

Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.

Analysis of exercise blood samples using ANOVA with repeated measures revealed that the linear increase in plasma lactate concentration during control was significantly greater than acidosis (p less than 0.01). Although plasma lactate values during alkalosis were consistently elevated above control there was no significant difference in the linear trend (p greater than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

As NaHCO3 ingestion does not increase resting muscle pH or beta(in vitro), it is likely that the improved performance is a result of the greater extracellular buffer concentration increasing H efflux from the muscles into the blood. The significant increase in posttest muscle [La] in NaHCO3 suggests that an increased anaerobic energy contribution is one mechanism by which NaHCO3 ingestion improved RSA.

Blood [HCO3-] was significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) during exercise for BIC compared to PLC. TIME-EX was not significantly different among treatments: BIC 287 (SEM 47.4)s; CIT 172.8 (SEM 29.7)s; and PLC 222.3 (SEM 39.7)s. Despite the fact that buffer ingestion produced favourable metabolic conditions during 30 min of high intensity steady-state exercise, a significant improvement in the subsequent maximal exercise run to exhaustion did not occur.

Blood free fatty acids (FFA) increased with NaHCO3, and FFA and glycerol decreased with NH4Cl and Arg-HCl, suggesting that FFA availability mediated the pH effects on hepatic ketogenesis. These results demonstrate that modest changes in systemic pH modify FFA availability and TK production rates.

Blood lactate concentration [La] progressively increased with the completion of each exercise set ([La] set 1-5: NaHCO3, 1.37 to 11.15; placebo, 1.31 to 9.81 mM); but were not significantly different between treatments. Repetitions performed in the final exercise set were not significantly different between groups (NaHCO3: 19.6 +/- 1.6, placebo: 18.2 +/- 1.1 repetitions).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Blood lactate, pH, SBC and BE were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) at post-exercise in NaHCO3 treatments. These data are in agreement with previous findings that during repeated bouts of exercise pre-exercise administration of NaHCO3 improves performance, possibly by facilitating the efflux of hydrogen ions from working muscles and thereby delaying the onset of fatigue.

Both acute and serial NaHCO3 loading significantly improved 4-minute cycling performance when compared with that in a placebo trial. However, serial NaHCO3 loading may provide a convenient and practical alternative approach for athletes preparing for competition.

Despite longer exercise duration in alkalosis, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations at exhaustion were reduced by 30 and 34%, respectively. These results indicate that alkalosis increased muscle lactate accumulation during exhaustive exercise. These changes were associated with a reduced blood catecholamine response to exercise.

Despite notably enhanced blood-buffering capacity, NaHCO3 ingestion had no effect on the W', the CP, or the overall performance during 3 min of all-out cycling. It is concluded that preexercise blood alkalosis had no influence on the power-duration relationship for all-out exercise.

Force decline rate was less (P < 0.05) during alkalosis-sustained maximal contraction and no differences were shown in central activation ratio. These data indicate that induced metabolic alkalosis can increase muscle fibre conduction velocity following prolonged submaximal cycling.

In conclusion, NaHCO3- ingestion had no effect on performance and RPE during a series of three WT simulating a BMX qualification series, possibly because of the short duration of each effort and the long recovery time used between the three WTs. On the contrary, NaHCO3- ingestion improved perceived readiness before each WT.

In conclusion, the addition of sodium bicarbonate to a normal diet proved to be of ergogenic benefit in the performance of short-term, high-intensity work.

It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

NaHCO3 administration for 5 d may prevent acid-base balance disturbances and improve performance during anaerobic exercise in a dose-dependent manner.

NaHCO3 ingestion resulted in a small muscle alkalosis but had no effect on muscle metabolism or intense endurance exercise performance in well-trained men.

NaHCO₃ supplementation increased blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and attenuated the decline in blood pH compared with placebo during high-intensity exercise in well-trained rugby players but did not significantly improve exercise performance. The higher incidence and greater severity of GI symptoms after ingestion of NaHCO₃ may negatively affect physical performance, and the authors strongly recommend testing this supplement during training before use in competitive situations.

Our findings suggest that training intensity, rather than the accumulation of H(+) during training, may be more important to improvements in beta m. The group ingesting NaHCO(3) before each training session had larger improvements in the LT and endurance performance, possibly because of a reduced metabolic acidosis during training and a greater improvement in muscle oxidative capacity.

Performance in 2000-m rowing ergometer trials may not substantially improve after acute or chronic bicarbonate loading. However, performances will be reliable with both acute and chronic bicarbonate loading protocols.

Pre-exercise alkalosis attenuates blood acid-base perturbations from supramaximal exercise to exhaustion, regardless of whether the recovery mode is active or passive. These findings suggest that individuals may benefit from introducing a pre-exercise alkalotic condition while including passive recovery during high-intensity training protocols.

Rating of perceived effort (RPE) was not influenced nor ratings of perceived readiness. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion modified significantly the blood acid-base balance, although the induced alkalosis did not improve the Wingate test performance, RPE and perceived readiness across three consecutive WTs in elite BMX cyclists.

Sodium bicarbonate did not further enhance rehydration or performance in lightweight rowers when undertaking recommended post-weigh-in nutritional recovery strategies.

Such a recovery profile is nonlinear, with 50% recovery occurring in approximately 12 min. Complete recovery of blood lactate can take longer than 60 min, with 50% recovery occurring in approximately 30 min. Induced alkalosis decreases metabolic acidosis and improves pH recovery compared to acidodic and placebo conditions. Although blood pH and lactate are highly correlated during recovery from acidosis, they recover at significantly different rates.

The increase in Tlim was accompanied by an increase in [HCO3-], suggesting that acidosis might be a limiting factor for exercise at CP. Prolonged NaHCO3 supplementation did not lead to a further increase in [HCO3-] due to the concurrent elevation in plasma volume. This may explain why Tlim remained unaltered despite the prolonged NaHCO3 supplementation period. Ingestion of one single NaHCO3 dose per day before the competition during multiday competitions or tournaments might be a valuable strategy for performance enhancement.

The intravascular volume expansion with NaHCO3 rather than the increase in blood buffer capacity may underlie the previously reported benefit of orally ingested bicarbonate in exercise performance.

The primary finding of this investigation was that orally-induced alkalosis does not significantly affect plasma epinephrine concentrations or performance following 90 s of maximal cycle exercise in untrained men.

The results indicate that subacute acid base changes do not affect proinsulin cleavage. Although acute calcium loading has no demonstrable effect, chronic hypercalcaemia may influence the mechanism of insulin secretion.

The results of this study suggest that ingestion of NaHCO(3) improves sprint performance during prolonged intermittent cycling.

The results of this study suggest that NaHCO3 ingestion can improve intermittent-sprint performance and may be a useful supplement for team-sport athletes.

The results of this study suggest that the ingestion of NaHCO(3) before intermittent type exercise was sufficient to induce metabolic alkalosis but did not significantly affect performance. However, because significant individual variations in performance were observed, an individual approach to bicarbonate ingestion is recommended based on the intensity and duration of the required performance.

The single 0.2 and 0.3 gxkg-1 NaHCO3 dosages appeared to be the most effective for increasing blood-buffering capacity. The 0.2 gxkg-1 dosage is best ingested 40 to 50 minutes before exercise and the 0.3 gxkg-1 dosage 60 minutes before exercise.

The subjects in E completed 950.9 (81.1) kJ of work, which was significantly more (F(2,27) = 5.28, P < 0.01) than during either the C [835.5 (100.2) kJ] or P [839.0 (88.6) kJ] trials. No differences were seen in peak power or in the power:mass ratio between these three groups. The results of this study suggest that sodium bicarbonate may be used to offset the fatigue process during high-intensity, aerobic cycling lasting 60 min.

There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

These data confirm previous data showing that the ingestion of a low-CHO diet reduces the capacity to perform high-intensity exercise, but it appears that the metabolic acidosis induced by the low-CHO diet is not the cause of the reduced exercise capacity observed during high-intensity exercise under these conditions.

These data suggest that successive 30-s high intensity performance may be improved when coupled with NaHCO3 supplementation.

Thigh muscle (vastus lateralis) pH measured immediately before the fifth cycling bout in four of the subjects revealed that the working muscles were less acid in the NaHCO3 trial (pH = 6.81) than during the NaCl treatment (pH = 6.73). Thus, the alkalizing influence of oral HCO3 supports the concept that the hydrogen ion concentration in blood and muscle has a direct influence on performance during repeated, supramaximal exercise.

This is likely because of the lower blood pH and slower recovery of blood HCO(3) post-TT1 after C ingestion. These findings suggest that the ergogenic benefit of taking C alone for repeated 200-m swimming performance appears limited. When combined with NaHCO(3), however, its negative impact on repeated maximal exercise performance is reversed.

This may be a result of a lower demand on the whole body metabolic system in comparison with that for other modes of exercise in which ergogenic effects have been found.

This study demonstrated that, although alkali ingestion resulted in significant shifts in the blood acid-base balance, it failed to affect the 600 m running performance.

This study demonstrates that alkali ingestion results in significant shifts in the acid-base balance of the blood, but has no effect on the power output during repeated bouts of brief maximal exercise.

This study examined the increase in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration after ingestion of a standard sodium bicarbonate solution. Peak blood pH and bicarbonate concentration occurred between 60 and 90 minutes. Values decreased over the remainder of the ingestion period although still elevated above preingestion levels.

Time to exhaustion at 100% of VO2max was not significantly different between treatments [mean (SE): 173 (42) s and 184 (44) s for T and P respectively]. A significant treatment effect was observed for plasma pH with values being significantly higher on T than on P Pre 70% [7.461 (0.007) vs 7.398 (0.008)], Pre 90% [7.410 (0.010) vs 7.340 (0.016)], and 10'Post [7.317 (0.032) vs 7.242 (0.036)].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

We would suggest using chronic ingestion as a means to improve high intensity work rather than the acute ingestion of sodium bicarbonate. The ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, over a period of six days, significantly improved work output two days after bicarbonate ingestion ceased.

When ingested individually, both CAFF and SB enhance high-intensity cycling TT performance in trained cyclists. However, the ergogenic effect of these 2 popular supplements was not additive, bringing into question the efficacy of coingesting the 2 supplements before short-duration high-intensity exercise. In this study there were no negative effects of combining CAFF and SB, 2 relatively inexpensive and safe supplements.

After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

Examinations postbaseline were performed after 2 and 4 weeks. The reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group vs the breath mint control was statistically significant at 2 weeks (P < .0002) and at 4 weeks (P < .0008). Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline for both groups. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 51% at 4 weeks.

Bicarbonated mineral waters 1 and 2 did not show any significant differences. Drinking sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral waters reduces postprandial lipaemia in healthy postmenopausal women compared to drinking a low mineral water.

However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

In conclusion, bicarbonate supplementation does not appear to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose control in non-diabetic older adults.

Results suggests an increase in insulin sensitivity after BMWs consumption. This effect is more marked in the women, who have higher HOMA values. These waters should be considered part of a healthy diet in order to prevent insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease.

  • Spirulina for the Digestive System

Treatment had therapeutic effects as evidenced by ultrasonography and the aminotransferase data. Hypolipidemic effects were also shown. We conclude that Spirulina maxima may be considered an alternative treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and dyslipidemic disorder.

Our results could suggest a therapeutically feasible potential for Spirulina platensis in chronic HCV patients, worthy to conduct a larger sized and longer study to confirm these safety and efficacy encouraging results.

The Spirulina maxima showed a hypolipemic effect, especially on the TAG and the LDL-C concentrations but indirectly on TC and HDL-C values. It also reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Within one year of discontinuing supplements, 9 of 20 (45%) complete responders with SF developed recurrent lesions. Supplementation with SF did not result in increased serum concentration of retinol or beta-carotene, nor was it associated with toxicity. This is the first human study evaluating the chemopreventive potential of SF. More studies in different settings and different populations are needed for further evaluation.

After eight weeks, insulin sensitivity (IS) increased by 224.7% vs. 60% in the spirulina and soybean groups respectively (p < 0.001). One hundred per cent vs. 69% of subjects on spirulina versus soybean, respectively, improved their IS (p = 0.049) with a 1.45 (1.05-2.02) chance of improving insulin sensitivity on spirulina. This pilot study suggests that insulin sensitivity in HIV patients improves more when spirulina rather than soybean is used as a nutritional supplement.

Results show that spirulina extract (250 mg) plus zinc (2 mg) twice daily for 16 weeks may be useful for the treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning with melanosis and keratosis.

Spirulina supplementation induced a significant increase in exercise performance, fat oxidation, and GSH concentration and attenuated the exercise-induced increase in lipid peroxidation.

  • 5-HTP for the Digestive System

  • 7-Keto DHEA for the Digestive System

  • Chiretta for the Digestive System

  • Colostrum for the Digestive System

Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea.

Bovine colostrum enema shows potential as a novel therapy for left-sided colitis with additional benefits over using mesalazine alone. Further studies appear to be warranted.

ColoPlus may be an important alternative or additional treatment in HIV-associated diarrhoea.

No serious side effects were observed, and the medication was well tolerated. Thus, bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate, in powder form, appears promising in the treatment of severe diarrhea caused by C. parvum. The optimal dosage, duration of therapy, and overall efficacy need to be determined in placebo-controlled trials.

The mean daily stool frequency decreased from 7.4 to 2.2 at the end of the treatment. Eight HIV-infected patients showed no response. The diarrhoea recurred in 12 patients within 4 weeks (32.4%), while 19 patients were free of diarrhoea for at least 4 weeks (51.3%). In 5 patients intestinal cryptosporidiosis disappeared following oral LIG treatment. LIG treatment was also beneficial in 4 out of 5 GvHD patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

There was no difference in the incidence or severity of diarrhea among the 10 volunteers who received the bovine immunoglobulins and the 10 who received placebo. Either the specificity or titer of anti-colonization factor antibodies or the formulation of antibodies in this product was not adequate to provide passive protection against ETEC challenge.

This study shows that addition of colostrum-based supplement to standard therapy is effective in treatment of HIV-associated diarrhea.

We conclude from these preliminary results that milk immunoglobulin concentrate may be an effective prophylaxis against traveler's diarrhea.

Total cholesterol and TG levels decreased significantly in both the men and women after 4 weeks. Also, beta-hydroxybutyric acid level decreased with BC ingestion, but this was not significant. These results suggest that BC can decrease levels of blood glucose and ketones, as well as reduce cholesterol and TGs, all of which may cause complications in Type 2 diabetic patients.

  • Garlic for the Digestive System

Garlic supplementation may be beneficial in patients with HPS for the reversal of intrapulmonary shunts as well as reducing hypoxemia and mortality.

The frequency of side effects was significantly (p=0.023) higher in d-penicillamine than in the garlic group. Thus, garlic seems safer clinically and as effective as d-penicillamine. Therefore, garlic can be recommended for the treatment of mild-to-moderate lead poisoning.

The K:(M) for ADP-induced aggregation were approximately doubled after supplementation with AGE, whereas the maximum rate of aggregation was unaffected. No significant changes in plasma thromboxane B(2) and 6-ketoprostaglandin F(1alpha) concentrations or serum lipid profiles were observed. We conclude that AGE, when taken as a dietary supplement by normolipidemic subjects, may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease as a result of inhibiting platelet aggregation.

The obtained results are in good agreement with trials that have demonstrated the cardioprotective action of garlic preparations and may be due to the use of a time-released form of garlic powder tablets that provides a prolonged biological effect.

The present results have shown for the first time that the administration of AGE for 12 weeks increased plasma adiponectin levels in patients with MS. This suggests that AGE might be a useful, novel, nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention to increase adiponectin and to prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications in individuals with MS.

  • Ginger for the Digestive System

For women looking for relief from their nausea, dry retching, and vomiting, the use of ginger in early pregnancy will reduce their symptoms to an equivalent extent as vitamin B6.

Ginger can be considered as a useful treatment option for women suffering from morning sickness.

Ginger has efficacy in prevention of nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery.

Ginger has shown efficacy for prevention of nausea and borderline significance to prevention vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy at 6 hour post operation.

Ginger is effective for relieving the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

Ginger may be an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. However, more observational studies, with a larger sample size, are needed to confirm the encouraging preliminary data on ginger safety.

Ginger root powder was effective in reducing severity of acute and delayed CINV as additional therapy to ondensetron and dexamethasone in patients receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy ( identifier: NCT00940368).

No side effects were observed. The possible mutagenic and antimutagenic characters of ginger reported in a study of E. coli have not been evaluated with respect to any significance in humans. Powdered root of ginger in daily doses of 1 g during 4 days was better than placebo in diminishing or eliminating the symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum.

The ingestion of 1 g of ginger in syrup in a divided dose daily may be useful in some patients experiencing nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy.

The pooled absolute risk reduction for the incidence of postoperative nausea, however, indicated a non-significant difference between the ginger and placebo groups for ginger 1 g taken before operation (absolute risk reduction 0.052 (95% confidence interval -0.082 to 0.186)). One study was found for each of the following conditions: seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy-induced nausea. These studies collectively favoured ginger over placebo.

This meta-analysis demonstrates that a fixed dose at least 1 g of ginger is more effective than placebo for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting and postoperative vomiting. Use of ginger is an effective means for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

The results, showing enhanced thermogenesis and reduced feelings of hunger with ginger consumption, suggest a potential role of ginger in weight management. Additional studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

There was no difference between the groups in terms of total adverse events P = 0.55). On the basis of these results, it seems that ginger has the potential to decrease eicosanoid levels, perhaps by inhibiting their synthesis from arachidonic acid. Ginger also seemed to be tolerable and safe. Further investigation in people at high risk for CRC seems warranted.

Ginger accelerates gastric emptying and stimulates antral contractions in healthy volunteers. These effects could potentially be beneficial in symptomatic patient groups.

Ginger did not affect LES pressure at rest or esophageal contractile amplitude and duration when swallowing, but caused more relaxation of the LES and decreased the esophageal contraction velocity, which may cause more chance of gastric gas expel or antiflatulant effect.

Ginger stimulated gastric emptying and antral contractions in patients with functional dyspepsia, but had no impact on gastrointestinal symptoms or gut peptides.

The frequency of the electrogastrogram (EGG) was increased after M-III (tachygastria) and the normal increase in EGG amplitude after liquid ingestion was reduced in motion sick subjects. Although powdered ginger (500 mg) partially inhibited tachygastria in motion sickness, it did not enhance the EGG amplitude in motion sick subjects. We conclude that ginger does not possess antimotion sickness activity, nor does it significantly alter gastric function during motion sickness.

This study showed that gastric feed supplementation with ginger extract might reduce delayed gastric emptying and help reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in ARDS.

  • Ginseng for the Digestive System

  • Green Tea Extract for the Digestive System

In conclusion, a single dose of green tea extract taken with a test meal decreases starch digestion and absorption.

Acute GTE ingestion can increase fat oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise and can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy young men.

After training, the average respiratory exchange ratio during exercise remained unchanged in the PLA group (post-training: 0.834 ± 0.008 vs pre-training: 0.841 ± 0.004), whereas it was lower in the GTE group (post-training: 0.816 ± 0.006 vs pre-training: 0.844 ± 0.005, P<0.05). These results suggest that habitual GTE ingestion, in combination with moderate-intense exercise, was beneficial to increase the proportion of whole-body fat utilization during exercise.

Catechins or an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-caffeine mixture have a small positive effect on WL and WM. The results suggest that habitual caffeine intake and ethnicity may be moderators, as they may influence the effect of catechins.

In conclusion, catechin-caffeine mixtures or a caffeine-only supplementation stimulates daily energy expenditure dose-dependently by 0.4-0.5 kJ mg(-1) administered. Compared with placebo, daily fat-oxidation was only significantly increased after catechin-caffeine mixtures ingestion.

In conclusion, regular intake of EGCG had no effect on insulin resistance but did result in a modest reduction in diastolic blood pressure. This antihypertensive effect may contribute to some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with habitual green tea consumption. EGCG treatment also had a positive effect on mood. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings and investigate their mechanistic basis.

Intake of decaffeinated green tea for 6 months was associated with a slight reduction in body weight and improved HDL and glucose homeostasis in overweight breast cancer survivors.

It was concluded that green-tea extract offers no additional benefit to cyclists over and above those achieved by using caffeine.

Low EGCG increases postprandial fat oxidation in obese men and this to the same extent as 200 mg caffeine, whereas high EGCG does not exert this effect. Fasting fat oxidation is increased only by caffeine (with or without EGCG). There is no synergism of low EGCG and 200 mg caffeine. Energy expenditure is not affected by EGCG.

Short-term consumption of EGCG increased VO2max without affecting maximal cardiac output, suggesting that EGCG may increase arterial-venous oxygen difference.

The maximum observed effect on EE of about 2 % could still be meaningful for energy balance over much longer period of exposure. However, higher short-term effects reported in the literature may reflect variations in green tea extracts, added caffeine, or synergies with physical activity. The specific mechanisms and conditions that may underpin observed longer-term benefits of catechin-enriched green tea consumption on body composition remain to be confirmed.

These findings suggest that EGCG alone has the potential to increase fat oxidation in men and may thereby contribute to the anti-obesity effects of green tea. However, more studies with a greater sample size and a broader range of age and BMI are needed to define the optimum dose.

These findings suggest that green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced changes in abdominal fat and serum TG.

These findings suggest that ingestion of a catechin-rich beverage ameliorates serious obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors without raising any safety concerns in Japanese children.

This study found no statistical difference in any measured variable between the decaffeinated GTE and placebo groups; however, there were some statistically significant within-group changes detected. More research is required to determine whether a decaffeinated GTE standardized for EGCG content will provide any clinical benefits in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Trial Registration NO: NCT00567905.

This study showed no statistical difference in % reduction in BW, BMI and WC between the GTE and placebo groups after 12 weeks of treatment. The intake of GTE (491 mg catechins containing 302 mg EGCG) for 12 weeks is considered safe as shown by the results.

We also observed reductions in total body fat (GT2, 0.7 kg, P < 0.05) and body fat % (GT1, 0.6%, P < 0.05). We conclude that consumption of two servings of an extra high-catechin GT leads to improvements in body composition and reduces abdominal fatness in moderately overweight Chinese subjects.

The inverse relation between EGCG dose and fractional nonhaem iron absorption was linear (p = 0.0002). In this study the magnitude of the inhibitory action of EGCG on nonhaem iron absorption was found to be much lower than that reported in the literature for black tea and similar compounds. The doses of EGCG in supplements, which will be lower than those used in this study, are not expected to have any health relevant effects on iron absorption in subjects with normal iron stores.

  • Jiaogulan for the Digestive System

  • Magnolia Bark Extract for the Digestive System

  • Melatonin for the Digestive System

Plasma gastrin levels were raised in subjects given melatonin or tryptophan plus ASA, but not in those with ASA alone. We conclude that melatonin and its precursor tryptophan given orally significantly reduce gastric lesions induced by ASA possibly due to (a) direct gastroprotective action of exogenous melatonin or that generated from tryptophan and (b) gastrin released from the gastric mucosa by melatonin or tryptophan.

The present study showed that oral melatonin is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of GERD. It is an effective line of treatment in relieving epigastric pain and heartburn. However, further studies are required to confirm the efficacy and long-term safety of melatonin before being recommended for routine clinical use.

We conclude that MT or TRP added to omeprazole treatment, significantly accelerates healing rate of H. pylori infected chronic gastroduodenal ulcers over that obtained with omeprazole alone and this likely depends upon the significant rise in plasma MT and possibly also in leptin levels, both hormones involved in the mechanism of gastroprotection and ulcer healing.

After melatonin treatment, the median value of HOMA-IR was significantly reduced by 60% as compared to baseline values, whereas adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin plasma levels rose significantly by 119%, 33%, and 20%, respectively; the difference between pre-/posttreatment in plasma resistin levels was not significant. These findings make melatonin a suitable candidate for testing in patients with NASH in the large controlled clinical trials.

  • Oregano for the Digestive System

  • Peppermint for the Digestive System

A 4 weeks treatment with peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Furthermore, Colpermin significantly improved the quality of life. There was no significant adverse reaction. Colpermin is effective and safe as a therapeutic agent in patients with IBS suffering from abdominal pain or discomfort.

In a randomized, double-blind controlled trial, 42 children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were given pH-dependent, enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules or placebo. After 2 weeks, 75% of those receiving peppermint oil had reduced severity of pain associated with IBS. Peppermint oil may be used as a therapeutic agent during the symptomatic phase of IBS.

Our double-blind cross-overtrial shows that it reduces abdominal symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome.

So the study result concludes that peppermint oil is effective in reliving only abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently.

Symptom improvements after Colpermin were significantly better than after placebo (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). One patient on Colpermin experienced heartburn (because of chewing the capsules) and one developed a mild transient skin rash. There were no significant changes in liver function test results. Thus, in this trial, Colpermin was effective and well tolerated.

This data demonstrates that peppermint oil improves the manometric features of DES.

Overall satisfaction with postoperative nausea management was 86.9 +/- 4.1 mm and was independent of the treatment group. Aromatherapy effectively reduced the perceived severity of postoperative nausea. The fact that a saline "placebo" was as effective as alcohol or peppermint suggests that the beneficial effect may be related more to controlled breathing patterns than to the actual aroma inhaled.

Peppermint spirits may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of postoperative nausea. This study should be replicated with more participants, using a variety of aromatherapies to treat nausea in participants with different preoperative diagnoses.

Premedication with Colpermin was beneficial in terms of the time required for cecal intubation and total procedure time, reducing colonic spasm, increasing endoscopist satisfaction and decreasing pain in patients during colonoscopy.

They were found to be homogeneous for the purposes of the study. A statistically significant differences was demonstrated on the day of operation, using the Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0487. Using the Mann-Whitney test the difference was shown to be between the placebo and experimental group (U = 3; P = 0.02). The experimental group also required less traditional antiemetics and received more opioid analgesia postoperatively. The total cost of the treatment was 48 pence per person.

This study represents a successful example of the integration of a complementary therapy into mainstream midwifery practice and forms a basis for future research.

The decrease in the T lag and beta constant suggests acceleration of gastric emptying during the early phase. This study showed that peppermint oil enhances gastric emptying, suggesting the potential use of peppermint oil in clinical settings for patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  • Seaweed Extract for the Digestive System

  • TUDCA for the Digestive System

  • Vitamin B3 for the Digestive System

Short-term treatment with extended-release niacin causes a pronounced increase in adiponectin but fails to improve atheroprotective functions attributed to adiponectin, such as insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammation and endothelial function.

These results demonstrate that Niaspan causes skeletal muscle insulin resistance, independent of changes in body weight or body fat, and the Niaspan-induced increase in plasma adiponectin concentration might partially ameliorate Niaspan's adverse effect on insulin action in obese subjects with NAFLD.

In summary, our data suggest that (a) acute changes in plasma FFA produce acute changes in GNG and reciprocal changes in GL; (b) the decrease in EGP between 16 and 24 hours of fasting is due to a fall in GL; and (c) NA has no direct effect on GNG.

Fenofibrate and Niaspan decrease plasma VLDL-TG concentration without altering IHTG content. However, the mechanism responsible for the change in VLDL-TG concentration is different for each drug; fenofibrate increases plasma VLDL-TG clearance, whereas nicotinic acid decreases VLDL-TG secretion.

In these patients, the addition of laropiprant did not influence the effects of niacin on endothelial function. Based on these findings, short-term niacin treatment might improve endothelial function in patients with low HDL-C levels. identifier: NCT01942291.

These results suggest a short term reduction in insulin sensitivity with NA is not accompanied by a change in blood pressure. This may relate to the short duration of treatment, to a dissociation between insulin resistance and hypertension or to other homeostatic mechanisms which prevent blood pressure rising in subjects not predisposed to hypertension.

This effect was associated with an increase in diacylglycerol and a decrease in tri-glyceride contents that occurred in the absence of modification of DGAT2 expression and activity. Eight weeks of Niaspan(®) treatment in dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome induce hepatic insulin resistance. The mechanism could involve an accumulation of diacylglycerol and an alteration of insulin signaling in hepatocytes.

  • Vitamin C for the Digestive System

  • Vitamin D for the Digestive System

The evidence to date suggests that daily intake of 1000-2000 IU/day of vitamin D(3) could reduce the incidence of colorectal with minimal risk.

After adjusting for vitamin D intake, calcium and retinol intakes were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In two U.S. cohorts, higher intakes of vitamin D were associated with lower risks for pancreatic cancer. Our results point to a potential role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction.

Bearing in mind that the main defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus are reduced FPIS and insulin resistance, and the favourable effect vitamin D3 had on them, we suggest vitamin D3 deficiency may at least partly contribute to the impairment of insulin secretion and probably of insulin action. Our results suggest that vitamin D3 supplementation could be an element in the complex treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus during the winter.

Supplementation with 4000 IU/day vitamin D(3) successfully corrected vitamin D insufficiency and had divergent effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity with no overall effect on disposition index or glycaemia. In this study, vitamin D supplementation for 3 months did not change the pathophysiology of prediabetes in overweight and obese African Americans.

The results indicate that a vitamin D supplement of 83 microg/d does not adversely affect weight loss and is able to significantly improve several cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight subjects with inadequate vitamin D status participating in a weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at as NCT00493012.

The results indicate that orally administered high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and suggests that high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation might provide an inexpensive public health measure in preventing, or at least delaying, the progression from impaired fasting glucose to diabetes.

Vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training induced an early improvement in peak power, and elevated vitamin D status was associated with reduced waist-to-hip ratio.

  • Vitamin E for the Digestive System

Healthy status continued without any abnormal symptoms, and without any subjective complaints on the questionnaire. In the control group also, no changes occurred during the investigation. Gamma-tocopherol changes were measured in plasma and RBCs. As plasma and RBC tocopherol levels rose after administration, the isomer levels were suppressed in both plasma and RBCs.

It is concluded that megavitamin E supplements in this group produced no apparent toxic side effects and that subjective claims for beneficial effects were highly variable.

Our data suggest that the measurement of the level of plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 represents a possible method of distinguishing between non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and non-alcoholic fatty liver. Long-term alpha-tocopherol treatment may be safe and effective for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial is needed to confirm the full potential of alpha-tocopherol in the management of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Short-term vitamin E supplementation improves immune responsiveness in healthy elderly individuals; this effect appears to be mediated by a decrease in PGE2 and/or other lipid-peroxidation products.

Supplementation did cause a significant increase in serum vitamin E, and a small (5%) but significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma zinc in the vitamin E-supplemented group. Thus, short-term supplementation with 800 mg vitamin E/d has no adverse effect on healthy older adults.

There was no significant effect of vitamin E on serum nonspecific immunoglobulin concentrations or anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. The cytotoxic ability of neutrophils against Candida albicans was not compromised. Thus, 4 mo of supplementation with 60-800 IU vitamin E/d had no adverse effects. These results are relevant for determining risk-to-benefit ratios for vitamin E supplementation.

This preliminary report suggests that rectal d-alpha tocopherol may represent a novel therapy for mild and moderately active UC. The observed results might be due to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of vitamin E.

Two years or longer treatment can be expected to ameliorate NASH fibrosis, especially in those whose serum transaminase activities and insulin resistance can be improved.

Vitamin E was superior to placebo for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in adults without diabetes. There was no benefit of pioglitazone over placebo for the primary outcome; however, significant benefits of pioglitazone were observed for some of the secondary outcomes. ( number, NCT00063622.)

  • Vitamin K for the Digestive System

  • Yacon for the Digestive System

  • African Geranium for the Digestive System

  • African Wild Mango for the Digestive System

  • Aloe vera for the Digestive System

  • Alpha-GPC for the Digestive System

  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the Digestive System

  • Arginine for the Digestive System

  • Artichoke for the Digestive System

  • Ashwagandha for the Digestive System

Both NC and PT led to significant improvements in patients' anxiety. Group comparison demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety levels in the NC group over the PT group. Significant improvements in secondary quality of life measures were also observed in the NC group as compared to PT. The whole system of naturopathic care for anxiety needs to be investigated further including a closer examination of the individual components within the context of their additive effect.

Conclusions: A 500 mg dose of an aqueous extract of Ashwagandha improves upper and lower-body strength, supports a favorable distribution of body mass, and was well tolerated clinically in recreationally active men over a 12-week resistance training and supplementation period.

Each subject was assessed at the start and at 4 and 8 weeks. The treatment with Ashwagandha resulted in significant improvements in primary and secondary measures. Also, the extract was found to be safe and tolerable. The outcome of this study suggests that Ashwagandha root extract can be used for body weight management in adults under chronic stress.

Organ function tests were in normal range before and after the intervention. Reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity was significant. Total body fat percentage showed a reduction trend. WS, in escalated dose, was tolerated well. The formulation appeared safe and strengthened muscle activity. In view of its traditional Rasayana use, further studies are planned to evaluate potential of this drug in patients of sarcopenia.

This early study suggests that adjunctive treatment with a standardized extract of Withania somnifera provides significant benefits, with minimal side effects, for negative, general, and total symptoms and stress in patients with recent exacerbation of schizophrenia.

This study reports that ashwagandha supplementation is associated with significant increases in muscle mass and strength and suggests that ashwagandha supplementation may be useful in conjunction with a resistance training program.

  • Berberine for the Digestive System

  • Beta-Alanine for the Digestive System

  • Black cumin for the Digestive System

although the other variables in the treatment group were not significantly different, we found them better than the control group, which can be a good sign for metabolic restoration in COM. It is suggested that larger dose and longer duration of NS consumption will give better results.

Favorable impact of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule was noted on almost all variables, but results were not statistically significant. A larger study with adequate sample size is recommended.

Meanwhile, NS extract caused a significant decline in the level of total and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol relative to baseline data. No complications caused by NS were observed. The results suggest that the daily use of NS seed extract for 2 months may have a blood pressure-lowering effect in patients with mild HT.

N. sativa administration in patients with HCV was tolerable, safe, decreased viral load, and improved oxidative stress, clinical condition and glycemic control in diabetic patients.

The current study demonstrates the role of NS in enhancing memory, attention and cognition. Therefore, whether NS could be considered as potential food supplement for preventing or slow progressing of Alzheimer disease needs further investigations. However, study with Alzheimer's patients with large population size for longer period of time is recommended before using NS daily and extensive phytochemical investigations are recommended for novel drug discovery from NS for treating cognitive disorders.

  • Bladderwrack for the Digestive System

  • Blueberry for the Digestive System

  • Branched Chain Amino Acids for the Digestive System

  • Caffeine for the Digestive System

A caffeine dose of at least 3 mg/kg in the form of an energy drink is necessary to significantly improve half-squat and bench-press maximal muscle power.

Caffeine can decrease insulin sensitivity in healthy humans, possibly as a result of elevated plasma epinephrine levels. Because dipyridamole did not affect glucose uptake, peripheral adenosine receptor antagonism does not appear to contribute to this effect.

Caffeine treatment increased epinephrine, fatty acids, lactate and norepinephrine at different times during test session and led to insulin-resistance. Hence, caffeine ingestion elicits a similar metabolic response in elderly participants at 70 years old to that seen in younger subjects.

In conclusion, caffeine ingestion caused not only increases in TYMP and mT(b) through thermogenesis, but also an increased sweating sensitivity via changes in sudomotor activity.

The results suggest that lactate and triglyceride production and increased vascular smooth muscle tone may be responsible for the major part of the thermogenic effect of caffeine.

Although no changes in glycemia and/or insulin sensitivity were observed after 8 weeks of coffee consumption, improvements in adipocyte and liver function as indicated by changes in adiponectin and fetuin-A concentrations may contribute to beneficial metabolic effects of long-term coffee consumption.

Caffeine ingestion also resulted in higher plasma epinephrine levels than placebo ingestion (P < 0.05). These data support our hypothesis that caffeine ingestion decreases glucose disposal and suggests that adenosine plays a role in regulating glucose disposal in resting humans.

  • Caralluma fimbriata for the Digestive System

  • CBD for the Digestive System

  • CDP-choline for the Digestive System

  • Chia seeds for the Digestive System

  • Chromium for the Digestive System

  • Cissus quadrangularis for the Digestive System

  • Cocoa Extract for the Digestive System

Although HF consumption was shown to improve endothelial function, it did not enhance the effects of exercise on body fat and fat metabolism in obese subjects. However, it may be useful for reducing cardiometabolic risk factors in this population.

Daily consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa for 2 wk is not sufficient to reduce blood pressure or improve insulin resistance in human subjects with essential hypertension. This trial was registered at as NCT00099476.

Dark, but not white, chocolate decreases blood pressure and improves insulin sensitivity in healthy persons.

DC but not WC decreased HOMA-IR (P<0.0001), but it improved QUICKI, ISI, and FMD. DC also decreased serum LDL cholesterol (from 3.4+/-0.5 to 3.0+/-0.6 mmol/L; P<0.05). In summary, DC decreased BP and serum LDL cholesterol, improved FMD, and ameliorated insulin sensitivity in hypertensives. These results suggest that, while balancing total calorie intake, flavanols from cocoa products may provide some cardiovascular benefit if included as part of a healthy diet for patients with EH.

Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.

In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

In patients with cirrhosis, dark chocolate blunted the postprandial increase in HVPG by improving flow-mediated hepatic vasorelaxation and ameliorated systemic hypotension. This trial was registered at as NCT01408966.

Our findings suggest that regular consumption of DC could be useful in maintaining a good atherogenic profile, due to the favourable effects on HDL cholesterol, lipoprotein ratios and inflammation markers.

Similarly, after white chocolate but not after dark chocolate, wave reflections, blood pressure, and endothelin-1 and 8-iso-PGF(2α) increased after OGTT. OGTT causes acute, transient impairment of endothelial function and oxidative stress, which is attenuated by flavanol-rich dark chocolate. These results suggest cocoa flavanols may contribute to vascular health by reducing the postprandial impairment of arterial function associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

Thus, FRDC ameliorated insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, decreased BP, and increased FMD in IGT hypertensive patients. These findings suggest flavanol-rich, low-energy cocoa food products may have a positive impact on CVD risk factors.

  • Coffee for the Digestive System

  • Coffee bean extract for the Digestive System

  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid for the Digestive System

  • Curcumin for the Digestive System

A 9-month curcumin intervention in a prediabetic population significantly lowered the number of prediabetic individuals who eventually developed T2DM. In addition, the curcumin treatment appeared to improve overall function of β-cells, with very minor adverse effects. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the curcumin intervention in a prediabetic population may be beneficial.

A pure curcumin preparation was administered in an open label study to five patients with ulcerative proctitis and five with Crohn's disease. All proctitis patients improved, with reductions in concomitant medications in four, and four of five Crohn's disease patients had lowered CDAI scores and sedimentation rates. This encouraging pilot study suggests the need for double-blind placebo-controlled follow-up studies.

A significant 40% reduction in ACF number occurred with the 4-g dose (P < 0.005), whereas ACF were not reduced in the 2-g group. The ACF reduction in the 4-g group was associated with a significant, five-fold increase in posttreatment plasma curcumin/conjugate levels (versus pretreatment; P = 0.009). Curcumin was well tolerated at both 2 g and 4 g. Our data suggest that curcumin can decrease ACF number, and this is potentially mediated by curcumin conjugates delivered systemically.

Breath-hydrogen concentrations were analyzed every 15 min for 6 h by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Curry with turmeric significantly increased the area under the curve of breath hydrogen and shortened small-bowel transit time, compared with curry not containing turmeric. These results suggested that dietary turmeric activated bowel motility and carbohydrate colonic fermentation.

Collectively, these results demonstrate that a low dose of a curcumin-lipid preparation can produce a variety of potentially health promoting effects in healthy middle aged people.

Consumption of 98 mg of highly bioavailable curcuminoids with each principal meal sufficed to achieve curcuminoid accumulation in the blood, was safe, and did not alter blood lipids, inflammation, glucose, or iron homeostasis in healthy subjects with slightly elevated blood cholesterol and C-reactive protein.

Curcumin seems to be a promising and safe medication for maintaining remission in patients with quiescent UC. Further studies on curcumin should strengthen our findings.

Curcuminoids at doses of 6000 mg/d in 3 divided doses are well tolerated and may prove efficacious in controlling signs and symptoms of oral lichen planus.

In conclusion, short-term curcumin intervention ablates DKD progress with activating Nrf2 anti-oxidative system and anti-inflammatory efficacies in patients with T2DM.

NC supplementation in overweight/obese NAFLD patients improved glucose indices, lipids, inflammation, WC, nesfatin, liver transaminases, and fatty liver degree. Accordingly, the proposed mechanism for ameliorating NAFLD with NC was approved by the increased serum nesfatin and likely consequent improvements in inflammation, lipids, and glucose profile. Further trials of nano-curcumin's effects are suggested.

Our data provide evidence for an enhanced bioavailable curcumin to improve homocysteine and high-density lipoprotein concentrations, which may promote favorable cardiovascular health in young, obese men. Improvements in endothelial function or blood pressure were not observed with curcumin supplementation, thus further investigation is warranted.

Our results showed that daily intake of 1500 mg curcumin plus weight loss is not superior to weight loss alone in amelioration of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with NAFLD. Further studies with different dosages of curcumin are needed to be able to conclude about the effects of this dietary supplement on cardiovascular risk factors and NAFLD characteristics.

The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period.

The reduction from baseline in total WOMAC score (also subscale scores) and VAS score resulted in statistically significant difference when compared to placebo. It was also found to be safe and well tolerated as there was no incidence of treatment related AEs.

The results of the present trial revealed a beneficial effect of curcuminoids plus piperine supplementation on glycemic and hepatic parameters but not on hs-CRP levels in T2D patients.

The results showed that curcumin administration increased body weight, decreased serum TNF-alpha levels, increased apoptotic tumor cells, enhanced expression of p53 molecule in tumor tissue, and modulated tumor cell apoptotic pathway. We conclude that the curcumin treatment improves the general health of patients with colorectal cancer via the mechanism of increased p53 molecule expression in tumor cells and consequently speeds up tumor cell apoptosis.

There were also significant reductions in body mass index and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin compared with the placebo group. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated during the course of trial. Findings of the present proof-of-concept trial suggested improvement of different features of NAFLD after a short-term supplementation with curcumin.

These findings suggest a glucose-lowering effect of curcuminoids in type 2 diabetes, which is partially due to decrease in serum FFAs, which may result from promoting fatty acid oxidation and utilization.

These results are associated with reduced levels of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride, uric acid, visceral fat and total body fat. In summary, a 6-month curcumin intervention in type 2 diabetic population lowered the atherogenic risks. In addition, the extract helped to improve relevant metabolic profiles in this high-risk population.

Turmeric supplementation as an adjuvant to T2DM on metformin treatment had a beneficial effect on blood glucose, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Turmeric supplementation improved glucose indexes and serum leptin levels and may be useful in the control of NAFLD complications.

  • Eleuthero for the Digestive System

  • Fenugreek for the Digestive System

  • Fish Oil for the Digestive System

  • Forskolin for the Digestive System

  • Glutamine for the Digestive System

  • Grains of Paradise for the Digestive System

  • Grape Seed Extract for the Digestive System

  • Green Coffee Extract for the Digestive System

  • Hesperidin for the Digestive System

  • HMB for the Digestive System

Although the IRM strength gains were not significantly different, HMB supplementation appears to increase peak isometric and various isokinetic torque values, and increase FFM and decrease plasma CPK activity. Lastly, it appears that higher doses of HMB (i.e., > 38 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) do not promote strength or FFM gains.

However, no statistically significant differences were observed in general markers of whole body anabolic/catabolic status, muscle and liver enzyme efflux, fat/bone-free mass, fat mass, percent body fat, or 1 RM strength. Results indicate that 28 d of HMB supplementation (3 to 6 g x d(-1)) during resistance-training does not reduce catabolism or affect training-induced changes in body composition and strength in experienced resistance-trained males.

In conclusion, changes in body composition can be accomplished in 70-y-old adults participating in a strength training program, as previously demonstrated in young adults, when HMB is supplemented daily.

In previously trained men, supplementation of HMB in conjunction with resistance training provides a substantial benefit to lower-body strength, but it has negligible effects on body composition.

Likewise, biochemical markers of muscle protein turnover and muscle damage were also unaffected by HMB supplementation. The data indicate that 6 weeks of HMB supplementation in either SH or TRH form does not influence changes in strength and body composition in response to resistance training in strength-trained athletes.

  • Horse Chestnut for the Digestive System

  • Inositol for the Digestive System

In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that MYO administration is more effective in obese patients with high fasting insulin plasma levels.

Inositol is as therapeutic in patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating as it is in patients with depression and panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders. This increases its parallelism with serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors.

MYO administration is a simple and safe treatment that ameliorates the metabolic profile of patients with PCOS, reducing hirsutism and acne.

Myo-inositol administration improves reproductive axis functioning in PCOS patients reducing the hyperinsulinemic state that affects LH secretion.

Myoinositol improves insulin resistance in patients with gestational diabetes.

Myo-inositol might be considered one of the insulin-sensitizing substances in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

No significant changes were observed in serum triglyceride, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Insulin resistance (P < 0.01), analysed by homeostasis model assessment, was reduced significantly after therapy. Administration of oral myo-inositol significantly reduced hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and ameliorated the abnormal metabolic profile of women with hirsutism.

PCOS patients suffer from a systemic inflammatory status that induces erythrocyte membrane alterations. Treatment with MYO is effective in reducing hormonal, metabolic, and oxidative abnormalities in PCOS patients by improving IR.

The combined administration of MI and DCI in physiological plasma ratio (40:1) should be considered as the first line approach in PCOS overweight patients, being able to reduce the metabolic and clinical alteration of PCOS and, therefore, reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome.

There was an inverse relationship between body mass and treatment efficacy. In fact a significant weight loss (and leptin reduction) (P < 0.01) was recorded in the myo-inositol group, whereas the placebo group actually increased weight (P < 0.05). These data support a beneficial effect of myo-inositol in women with oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovaries in improving ovarian function.

These data support a beneficial effect of inositol in improving ovarian function in women with oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovaries.

These results suggest that increased plasmalogen biosynthesis and/or serum levels are especially effective in improving MetS among hyperlipidemic subjects with MetS.

Treatment of PCOS patients with Myo-inositol provided a decreasing of circulating insulin and serum total testosterone as well as an improvement in metabolic factors.

We conclude that, in lean women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, D-chiro-inositol reduces circulating insulin, decreases serum androgens, and ameliorates some of the metabolic abnormalities (increased blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia) of syndrome X.

  • Jujube for the Digestive System

  • Kelp for the Digestive System

  • Korean Black Raspberry for the Digestive System

  • Kutki for the Digestive System

  • L-Carnitine for the Digestive System

Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.

Considering the role of caloric restriction in increasing the intestinal uptake of carnitine, the results suggest that oral L-carnitine administration, when associated with a hypocaloric feeding regimen, improves insulin resistance and may represent an adjunctive treatment for IFG and DM-2.

Conversely REE increased significantly for all subjects, but no between group differences existed. Five of the L-C group experienced nausea or diarrhea and consequently did not complete the study. Eight weeks of L-C ingestion and walking did not significantly alter the TBM or FM of overweight women, thereby casting doubt on the efficacy of L-C supplementation for weight loss.

L-Carnitine orally administered for a period of 4 weeks did not modify insulin sensitivity or the lipid profile.

L-carnitine supplementation to diet is useful for reducing TNF-alpha and CRP, and for improving liver function, glucose plasma level, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and histological manifestations of NASH.

Our study indicates that oral administration of levocarnitine produces a reduction of total fat mass, increases total muscular mass, and facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions.

Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.

  • Lactobacillus reuteri for the Digestive System

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although L reuteri may be effective as treatment for crying in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, there is still insufficient evidence to support probiotic use to manage colic, especially in formula-fed infants, or to prevent infant crying. Results from larger rigorously designed studies applicable to all crying infants will help draw more definitive conclusions.

Exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants with infantile colic benefit from the administration of L reuteri DSM 17938 compared with placebo.

In our cohort, L. reuteri improved colicky symptoms in breastfed infants within 1 week of treatment, compared with simethicone, which suggests that probiotics may have a role in the treatment of infantile colic.

L reuteri DSM 17938 did not benefit a community sample of breastfed infants and formula fed infants with colic. These findings differ from previous smaller trials of selected populations and do not support a general recommendation for the use of probiotics to treat colic in infants.

L. reuteri DSM 17 938 at a dose of 10(8) colony-forming units per day in early breastfed infants improved symptoms of infantile colic and was well tolerated and safe. Gut microbiota changes induced by the probiotic could be involved in the observed clinical improvement.

L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not affect the global composition of the microbiota. However, the increase of Bacteroidetes in the responder infants indicated that a decrease in colicky symptoms was linked to changes of the microbiota.

Prophylactic use of L reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life reduced the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders and reduced private and public costs for the management of this condition.

  • Lavender for the Digestive System

  • Leucic Acid for the Digestive System

  • Licorice for the Digestive System

  • Magnesium for the Digestive System

  • Medium-chain triglycerides for the Digestive System

Replacement of LCT by MCT in the VLCD increased the rate of decrease of body fat and body weight and has a sparing effect on FFM. The intensity of hunger feelings was lower and paralleled the higher increase of ketone bodies. These effects gradually declined, indicating subsequent metabolic adaptation. Further studies are required to confirm the protein-sparing and appetite-suppressing effects of MCT supplementation during the first 2 weeks of VLCD treatment.

Results from this longest controlled MCT feeding study to date suggest that short-term feeding of MCT-enriched diets increases TEE, but this effect could be transient with continued feeding.

Results suggest that between day 7 and day 14 feeding of MCT vs. LCT at these levels, TEE is not affected and that increases seen in energy expenditure following MCT feeding may be of short duration. Thus, compensatory mechanisms may exist which blunt the effect of MCT on energy components over the longer term.

The capacity of MCT to increase endogenous oxidation of LCSFA suggests a role for MCT in body weight control over the long term.

These changes were associated with an involuntary reduction in energy intake in the MCT group (P < .05, repeated measures). A between-group comparison also shows reduced body weight, WC, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in the MCT group compared with the LCT group at the end of the study. Collectively, our results suggest a link between moderate consumption of MCT and improved risk factors in moderately overweight humans in a low-cost, free-living setting.

  • Milk Protein for the Digestive System

  • N-Acetylcysteine for the Digestive System

  • Olive leaf extract for the Digestive System

  • Pterostilbene for the Digestive System

  • Pycnogenol for the Digestive System

  • Reishi for the Digestive System

  • Resveratrol for the Digestive System

  • Rose Hip for the Digestive System

  • Roselle for the Digestive System

  • Saffron for the Digestive System

  • SAME for the Digestive System

  • Sea Buckthorn for the Digestive System

  • Stevia for the Digestive System

  • Synephrine for the Digestive System

  • TMG for the Digestive System

A hypoenergetic diet with betaine supplementation (6 g daily for 12 wk) decreased the plasma homocysteine concentration but did not affect body composition more than a hypoenergetic diet without betaine supplementation did.

Betaine had no effect on serum lipid profile in long term in young healthy subjects. The lowering effect on plasma homocysteine concentration was weak.

Betaine is a safe and well tolerated drug that leads to a significant biochemical and histological improvement in patients with NASH. This novel agent deserves further evaluation in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Compared to placebo, betaine did not improve hepatic steatosis but may protect against worseningsteatosis [corrected]. High-dose betaine supplementation failed to reduce S-adenosylhomocysteine and did not positively affect any of the second hit mechanisms postulated to contribute to NASH that we studied. Although betaine has been proven effective in treating hepatic steatosis in several animal models, translating novel therapeutic options noted in animal studies to humans with NASH will prove challenging.

In conclusion, all the mildly flavoured toothpastes used in this study were well accepted by the xerostomic subjects. Thus, other toothpaste components may be more mucosa-irritating than just SLS, or else they enhance the effect of SLS. The detergent-free, BET-containing toothpaste appeared to be associated with relief of some symptoms of dry mouth.

No clinically significant adverse events were observed. These data suggest that the daily use of topical dry mouth products containing olive oil, betaine and xylitol is safe and effective in relieving symptoms of dry mouth in a population with polypharmacy-induced xerostomia.

No study-induced significant changes were observed in the microbiologic variables (plaque index, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, Candida species) or in the appearance of the oral mucosa. The use of the betaine-containing toothpaste was, however, associated with a significant relief of several subjective symptoms of dry mouth. Betaine appears thus to be a promising ingredient of toothpastes in general and especially of toothpastes designed for patients with dry mouth.

The daily use of a night guard and BET-containing mouthwash was seen to improve dry mouth during the 4-week duration of the study.

  • Tongkat Ali for the Digestive System

  • Whey Protein for the Digestive System

A higher protein intake during caloric restriction maintains muscle relative to weight lost, which in turn enhances physical function in older women.

In conclusion, a minor advantage of protein supplementation over carbohydrate supplementation during resistance training on mechanical muscle function was found. However, the present results may have relevance for individuals who are particularly interested in gaining muscle size.

Intestinal permeability and morphology improved significantly in both glutamine and ACG.

Milk reduced subsequent EI more than isocaloric drinks containing only whey or casein. A small but significant increase in lipid oxidation was seen after casein compared with whey.

Significant increases in 1RM bench press and leg press were observed in all groups after 10 weeks. In this study, the combination of whey and casein protein promoted the greatest increases in fat-free mass after 10 weeks of heavy resistance training. Athletes, coaches, and nutritionists can use these findings to increase fat-free mass and to improve body composition during resistance training.

Significant main effects were also seen in both upper and lower body peak and mean power, but no significant differences were seen between groups. No changes in body mass or percent body fat were seen in any of the groups. Results indicate that the time of protein-supplement ingestion in resistance-trained athletes during a 10-wk training program does not provide any added benefit to strength, power, or body-composition changes.

The present study demonstrated that supplementation with whey proteins improves fasting lipids and insulin levels in overweight and obese individuals.

The results indicate that oral supplementation of cysteine-rich whey protein isolate leads to improvements in liver biochemistries, increased plasma GSH, total antioxidant capacity and reduced hepatic macrovesicular steatosis in NASH patients. The results support the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of this disease.

Through yet-unknown mechanisms, different sources of dietary protein may differentially facilitate weight loss and affect body composition. Dietary recommendations, especially those that emphasize the role of dietary protein in facilitating weight change, should also address the demonstrated clinical potential of supplemental WP.

WPS improves hepatic steatosis and plasma lipid profiles in obese non diabetic patients, without adverse effects on glucose tolerance or creatinine clearance.

  • Yerba mate for the Digestive System

  • Zinc for the Digestive System

Besides lifestyle modification, zinc supplementation might be considered as a useful and safe additional intervention treatment for improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors related to childhood obesity.

In conclusion, Zinc sulfate did not have any clinical benefits in prevention or reduction of severity, and duration of high-dose chemotherapy-induced mucositis in patients undergoing HSCT.

In this study, we determined that low dose Zn supplementation could prevent deterioration of clinical status of cirrhosis and prevent excess Cu accumulation in non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Zn supplementation produces metabolic effects and trends towards improvements in liver function, hepatic encephalopathy, and nutritional status. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT201106122017N4.

It can be concluded that zinc sulfate might decrease the intensity of mucositis.

It was concluded that zinc sulfate administered during head and neck radiation therapy produced no significant benefit in relieving radiation-induced oral mucositis and pharyngitis with acceptable side effects.

Oral zinc supplementation may contribute to the prevention of dental caries in low socioeconomic level primary school healthy children.

Zinc treatment is effective in patients in whom this trace metal increases synthesis/secretion of gustin/CAVI and ineffective in those in whom it does not.

Supplementation of ayurvedic zinc and zinc-rich foods are effective in improving cognitive performance and the recognition threshold for salt of adolescent girls.

The zinc dose was 220 mg orally twice daily (equivalent of 50 mg elemental zinc twice daily). There was no statistically significant improvement in loss or distortion of taste or smell with the addition of zinc. There was a trend toward improvement over time in all groups, except in the zinc group where there was a nonsignificant worsening in loss of smell over time. Zinc at standard doses did not provide significant benefit to taste or smell in patients receiving chemotherapy.

These results are particularly important in light of the deleterious consequences of childhood obesity and early changes in markers of inflammatory and oxidative stress. We suggest exploring the direct clinical application of zinc supplementation in childhood obesity in future studies.

Zinc sulfate is beneficial in decreasing the severity of radiation-induced mucositis and oral discomfort. These results should be confirmed by additional evaluation in randomized studies with a larger number of patients.

Elevated intakes of zinc do not interfere with erythrocyte incorporation of iron in premature formulas.

In conclusion, according to the results from this study, it appears that the addition of zinc up to 20 mg/L does not significantly inhibit iron absorption from milk fortified with 10 mg/L of iron.

In conclusion, zinc administration combined with iron in an aqueous solution leads to the inhibition of iron bioavailability, which occurs in a dose-dependent way. This negative interaction should be considered for supplementation programs with both microminerals.

The inhibitory effect of Zn on Fe bioavailability depends on the total amount of both minerals present in the intestinal lumen. This fact should be considered when designing a supplementation program if Fe and Zn are to be provided together.

  • Hoodia gordonii for the Digestive System

  • Quercetin for the Digestive System

  • Red Clover Extract for the Digestive System

  • Creatine for the Digestive System

8 weeks of CrM supplementation had no negative effects on blood and urinary clinical health markers in football players. Properties of CrM may, however, be associated with an increase in CK activity, improving the efficiency for ATP resynthesis, a phenomenon indirectly confirmed by the decreasing tendency in uric acid concentration. Furthermore, CrM seems to slightly influence glucoregulation in trained subjects.

Any beneficial effect of creatine at 5 g per day in ALS must be small. Other agents should be considered in future studies of therapeutic agents to address mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS. In addition, motor unit number estimation may be a useful outcome measure for future clinical trials in ALS.

Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.

Cr supplementation increased AWC 13-15% in both genders compared to PL (1.1%- 3.0% decline); although this result was not statistically significant, it may have some practical significance.

Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.

Creatine supplementation led to increases in fat-free mass, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, health status, but not exercise capacity. Creatine may constitute a new ergogenic treatment in COPD.

Despite widespread use as an ergogenic aid in sport, the results of this study suggest that creatine monohydrate supplementation conveys no benefit to multiple sprint running performance.

Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.

ES was greater for changes in lean body mass following short-term CS, repetitive-bout laboratory-based exercise tasks < or = 30 s (e.g., isometric, isokinetic, and isotonic resistance exercise), and upper-body exercise. CS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. There is no evidence in the literature of an effect of gender or training status on ES following CS.

However, a trend towards reduced blood glucose levels was present in males given creatine monohydrate (P = 0.051). 4. These preliminary data suggest that creatine monohydrate may modulate lipid metabolism in certain individuals. These observations may demonstrate practical efficacy to the hyperlipidaemic patient as well as providing possible new mechanistic insights into the cellular regulation of blood lipid concentrations.

However, the change in the rate of fatigue of total work was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the creatine supplementation group than in the placebo group, indicating a reduced fatigue rate in subjects supplementing with creatine compared with the placebo. Although the results of this study demonstrated reduced fatigue rates in patients during high-intensity sprint intervals, further research is necessary in examining the efficacy of low-dose, short-term creatine supplementation.

In conclusion, our preliminary results have demonstrated that supplementation temporary increases maximal isometric power in ALS patients so it may be of potential benefit in situations such as high intensity activity and it can be proposed as a symptomatic treatment.

In conclusion, we reported that betaine supplementation does not augment muscle PCr content. Furthermore, we showed that betaine supplementation combined or not with creatine supplementation does not affect strength and power performance in untrained subjects.

In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.

No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

No significant treatment (p > 0.05) or treatment by test interaction effects (p > 0.05) were observed for peak or minimum power output (W), peak or minimum running velocity (m.s(-1)), or fatigue index (%). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found postsupplementation for body mass and percentage body fat. Although statistical significance was not achieved for any of the measured parameters, there were small improvements in performance that may be of benefit to rugby players.

No statistically significant differences in performance were observed between groups after long-term maintenance during training, although small differences were observed that might be meaningful for elite performers.

Results (2 x 5 ANOVA) showed no significant differences between groups for AWC at any time point; however, BW was significantly increased at 10 days in the CPS group (1.0 kg) vs. PL (0.0 kg), and remained elevated for the duration of the study. These findings suggest that a single 5 g x d(-1) dose of CPS for 30 days increases BW but is not effective for increasing AWC in men.

Sprint performance was enhanced by Cr loading. Peak power and mean power were significantly higher during the intermittent sprint exercise test following 6 days of Cr supplementation. It appears that ingestion of Cr for 6 days does not produce any different thermoregulatory responses to intermittent sprint exercise and may augment sprint exercise performance in the heat.

The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s intervals for each 60-s work bout. Resulting slopes from each successive work bout were used to calculate EMG FT. A 2-way ANOVA, Group (Cr vs. Pl) x Time (pre vs. post), resulted in a nonsignificant (p > .05) interaction for supplement and time. In addition, a significant increase (p = .009) in weight was observed in the Cr group. These data suggest that there was a minimal influence of Cr loading on EMG FT for the participants in this study.

The PL resulted in no significant changes in AWC following supplementation; however, Cr increased AWC by 22.1% after 5 days of loading (p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect for body weight (BW), however, there was no significant increase in BW due to Cr supplementation. These results suggest that Cr supplementation is effective for increasing AWC in women following 5 days of loading without an associated increase in BW.

The present results suggest short term Cr supplementation has no detectable negative effect on cardiac structure or function. Additionally, Cr ingestion improves submaximal cycling efficiency. These results suggest that the increase in efficiency may be related to peripheral factors such an increase in muscle phosphocreatine, rather than central changes.

These data suggest that 21 days of CS produced significant effects on gross and/or propelling efficiency during swimming in female athletes. However, CS did not influence performance, body weight and body composition.

These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.

This adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial shows that CrS does not augment the substantial training effect of multidisciplinary PR for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with (NO123138126).

This study provides definite evidence that prolonged creatine supplementation in humans does not increase muscle or whole-body oxidative capacity and, as such, does not influence substrate utilization or performance during endurance cycling exercise. In addition, our findings suggest that prolonged creatine ingestion induces an increase in fat-free mass.

We conclude that between-day differences in FFM estimation were within acceptable limits, with the possible exception of ANTHRO. In addition, all 5 methods provided similar measures of FFM change during acute Cr supplementation.

What are the general functions of the Digestive System?

Skin, hair and nails
Heart health
Weight loss
Overall health
Insulin control
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