Endocrine System – Cost Effective Supplements

Endocrine System

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Endocrine System definition

Small organs throughout the body, which produce hormones that influence the activity of cells by interacting with the nervous system.

Endocrine System conditions

Diabetes Type 1
Diabetic Nerve Problems

Endocrine System supplements

  • Berberine for the Endocrine System

  • DHEA for the Endocrine System

Administration of low doses (25 mg) of DHEA positively modulates several endocrine parameters in early and late postmenopausal women, inducing the increase of the androgenic, estrogenic, and progestogenic milieu and reducing the climateric symptoms, similarly to estroprogestin replacement therapy. These data suggest that DHEA supplementation is a more effective replacement therapy than a simple "dietary supplement."

Androgen replacement therapy, with DHEA, to menopausal women increases serum androgen levels without any appreciable effect on muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, muscle function, or improvement in health-related QOL.

As far as well-being is concerned, DHEA replacement did not cause any relevant variation of subjective health scales and sexuality in both sexes. Our study confirms that DHEA may be beneficial for female patients with hypoadrenalism, mainly in restoring androgen levels. Concerning the health status, more sensitive and specific instruments to measure the effects of DHEA treatment could be necessary.

Chronic DHEA administration is capable of modifying circulating levels of androgens and progestins in both early and late postmenopausal women by modulating the age-related changes in adrenal function.

DHEA supplementation improved lower extremity strength and function in older, frail women involved in a gentle exercise program of chair aerobics or yoga. No changes were found in BMD either due to small sample size, short duration of study or no effect. The physical function findings are promising and require further evaluation as frail women are at high risk for falls and fracture.

DHEA supplementation in older women with cognitive impairment may have beneficial effects on cognitive function and ADL.

Patients were recruited from university employees attending for periodic health checks, with normal hepatic and renal function with endogenous DHEA-S level < 1500 ng/dl. Our results did not reveal any significant changes in study parameters, apart from a statistically significant increase in DHEA-S levels after therapy with active substance.

Serum concentrations of free and total testosterone, estrone, estradiol, estriol, lipids, and liver transaminases were unaffected by supplementation and training, while strength and lean body mass increased significantly and similarly (P < 0.05) in the men treated with placebo and DHEA. These results suggest that DHEA ingestion does not enhance serum testosterone concentrations or adaptations associated with resistance training in young men.

The results of this double-blind, randomized trial do not support the hypothesis that hormone replacement with DHEA and/or atamestane might improve the course of frailty.

The results of this study suggest that supplementation with 100 mg x d(-1) of either androstenedione or DHEA does not independently elicit a statistically significant increase in lean body mass, strength, or testosterone levels in healthy adult men over a 12-wk period.

This study did not suggest a clinical benefit of OTU or DHEA supplementation in men with hypoandrogenism and SD. The recommended dose of OTU may have been inadequate or poorly absorbed. Increased doses or an alternative T delivery form may result in a different response.

Total testosterone and DHEA-S dropped significantly until 24 h after HIIT for both age groups, while free testosterone of DHEA-supplemented middle-aged men remained unaffected. These results demonstrate acute oral DHEA supplementation can elevate free testosterone levels in middle-aged men and prevent it from declining during HIIT. Therefore, DHEA supplementation may have significant benefits related to HIIT adaptation.

Treatment with DHEA was associated with a progressive improvement of the Kupperman score in all groups, with major effects on the vasomotor symptoms in.

DHEA supplementation in older women, but not in men, improves spine BMD when co-administered with vitamin D and calcium. This trial was registered at as NCT00182975.

Stratifying the marker levels by age or baseline DHEA/DHEA-S levels did not affect the findings. We conclude that oral DHEA does not affect bone turnover in middle-aged to elderly men when used for a 6-month period at doses targeted to restore circulating levels of the steroid to that seen in young adults.

This study shows that short-term treatment with DHEA increased platelet cGMP production, a marker of NO production, in healthy elderly subjects. This effect is coupled with a decrease in PAI-1 and LDL cholesterol levels as well as an increase in testosterone and E(2) levels. These findings, therefore, suggest that chronic DHEA supplementation would exert antiatherogenic effects, particularly in elderly subjects who display low circulating levels of this hormone.

Treatment with DHEA resulted in a significant increase of total testosterone, estradiol and DHEA-S levels in treated subjects versus the placebo group (P < 0.05). Results of this study suggest that DHEA supplementation has no beneficial effects on body composition in young competitive athletes.

Twelve weeks of combined endurance and resistance training significantly improved body composition, physical performance, insulin sensitivity, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number and size, whereas DHEA had no additional benefits.

It was found that DHEA administration increased cortisol at several hours during the day. In the treatment group, cortisol was positively associated with cognition at study completion. An increase in negative associations between DHEA(S) levels and cognition was found at completion. Increased cortisol does not explain the cognitive deficits associated with DHEA, suggesting a direct negative effect of exogenous DHEA on cognition.

  • Fenugreek for the Endocrine System

  • Melatonin for the Endocrine System

After melatonin treatment, the median value of HOMA-IR was significantly reduced by 60% as compared to baseline values, whereas adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin plasma levels rose significantly by 119%, 33%, and 20%, respectively; the difference between pre-/posttreatment in plasma resistin levels was not significant. These findings make melatonin a suitable candidate for testing in patients with NASH in the large controlled clinical trials.

Plasma gastrin levels were raised in subjects given melatonin or tryptophan plus ASA, but not in those with ASA alone. We conclude that melatonin and its precursor tryptophan given orally significantly reduce gastric lesions induced by ASA possibly due to (a) direct gastroprotective action of exogenous melatonin or that generated from tryptophan and (b) gastrin released from the gastric mucosa by melatonin or tryptophan.

The present study showed that oral melatonin is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of GERD. It is an effective line of treatment in relieving epigastric pain and heartburn. However, further studies are required to confirm the efficacy and long-term safety of melatonin before being recommended for routine clinical use.

These data indicate that in young, healthy women the administration of 1 mg of melatonin greatly influences artery blood flow, decreases blood pressure, and blunts noradrenergic activation. Clinical implications of present data are worthy to be fully explored.

We conclude that MT or TRP added to omeprazole treatment, significantly accelerates healing rate of H. pylori infected chronic gastroduodenal ulcers over that obtained with omeprazole alone and this likely depends upon the significant rise in plasma MT and possibly also in leptin levels, both hormones involved in the mechanism of gastroprotection and ulcer healing.

Altering the melatonin rhythm may affect neuroendocrine function, influencing the nocturnal pattern of neurohypophysial hormone secretion, augmenting prolactin release and advancing the peak of cortisol release.

These results confirm that the nocturnal increase in melatonin could contribute to the patterns of oxytocin, vasopressin and growth hormone release seen over 24 h.

The administration of melatonin significantly reduced blood pressure, the pulsatility index in the internal carotid artery, and catecholamines levels within 90 minutes. The effect of melatonin on the artery pulsatility index was related to baseline values, being greater in men with higher baseline values. The present data indicate that melatonin may blunt the activity of the cardiovascular system and may have both physiopathologic and clinical implications.

The findings point to a primary action of melatonin on central nervous stimulus processing under conditions of stress and possibly on memory consolidation and exclude any substantial suppressive action of the substance on hormonal stress responses.

These findings indicate that melatonin administration increased cardiac vagal tone in the supine position in awake men. Melatonin administration also may exert suppressive effects on sympathetic tone.

  • Vitamin D for the Endocrine System

Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction.

The results indicate that a vitamin D supplement of 83 microg/d does not adversely affect weight loss and is able to significantly improve several cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight subjects with inadequate vitamin D status participating in a weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at as NCT00493012.

Vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training induced an early improvement in peak power, and elevated vitamin D status was associated with reduced waist-to-hip ratio.

Vitamin D(3) supplementation at 1000 IU/d increases 25(OH)D and decreases parathyroid hormone in children with average vitamin D intakes below the dietary recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. However, no significant effects of this change on calcium absorption occurred. This trial was registered at as NCT 00868738.

An association was found between low UVB irradiance and high incidence rates of type 1 childhood diabetes after controlling for per capita health expenditure. Incidence rates of type 1 diabetes approached zero in regions worldwide with high UVB irradiance, adding new support to the concept of a role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of the disease.

Bearing in mind that the main defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus are reduced FPIS and insulin resistance, and the favourable effect vitamin D3 had on them, we suggest vitamin D3 deficiency may at least partly contribute to the impairment of insulin secretion and probably of insulin action. Our results suggest that vitamin D3 supplementation could be an element in the complex treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus during the winter.

By contrast, there was no significant change in any testosterone measure in the placebo group. Our results suggest that vitamin D supplementation might increase testosterone levels. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.

In adults at risk of type 2 diabetes, short-term supplementation with cholecalciferol improved β cell function and had a marginal effect on attenuating the rise in Hb A(1c). This trial was registered at as NCT00436475.

Supplementation with 4000 IU/day vitamin D(3) successfully corrected vitamin D insufficiency and had divergent effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity with no overall effect on disposition index or glycaemia. In this study, vitamin D supplementation for 3 months did not change the pathophysiology of prediabetes in overweight and obese African Americans.

  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the Endocrine System

  • Amla for the Endocrine System

  • Ashwagandha for the Endocrine System

In conclusion, the intake of a standardized ashwagandha extract (Shoden beads) for 8 weeks was associated with increased levels of DHEA-S and testosterone, although no significant between-group differences were found in cortisol, estradiol, fatigue, vigor, or sexual well-being. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to substantiate the current findings.

The findings of this study suggest that a high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract safely and effectively improves an individual's resistance towards stress and thereby improves self-assessed quality of life.

Treatment resulted in a decrease in stress, improved the level of anti-oxidants and improved overall semen quality in a significant number of individuals. The treatment resulted in pregnancy in the partners of 14% of the patients.

A statistically significant (P<0.05) reduction in serum triglycerides and FBG was observed after 1 month of WS treatment compared to the placebo group. Patients of both groups reported feeling of isolation and depression.

Conclusions: A 500 mg dose of an aqueous extract of Ashwagandha improves upper and lower-body strength, supports a favorable distribution of body mass, and was well tolerated clinically in recreationally active men over a 12-week resistance training and supplementation period.

Decrease in blood glucose was comparable to that of an oral hypoglycemic drug. Significant increase in urine sodium, urine volume, significant decrease in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoproteins) and VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) cholesterol were observed indicating that root of W. somnifera is a potential source of hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic agents. Clinical observations revealed no adverse effects.

Furthermore, a significantly greater improvement and regulation were observed in serum hormone levels with the Ashwagandha treatment as compared to the placebo. The present study adds to the evidence on the therapeutic value of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), as attributed in Ayurveda for the treatment of oligospermia leading to infertility.

Organ function tests were in normal range before and after the intervention. Reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity was significant. Total body fat percentage showed a reduction trend. WS, in escalated dose, was tolerated well. The formulation appeared safe and strengthened muscle activity. In view of its traditional Rasayana use, further studies are planned to evaluate potential of this drug in patients of sarcopenia.

The results suggest that Withania somnifera may be used as an empirical therapy for clinical management and treatment of infertility.

The treatment with W. somnifera effectively reduced oxidative stress, as assessed by decreased levels of various oxidants and improved level of diverse antioxidants. Moreover, the levels of T, LH, FSH and PRL, good indicators of semen quality, were also reversed in infertile subjects after treatment with the herbal preparation.

This study reports that ashwagandha supplementation is associated with significant increases in muscle mass and strength and suggests that ashwagandha supplementation may be useful in conjunction with a resistance training program.

  • Banaba Leaf for the Endocrine System

  • Jiaogulan for the Endocrine System

  • Salacia reticulata for the Endocrine System

  • Spirulina for the Endocrine System

  • African Wild Mango for the Endocrine System

  • Alpha-GPC for the Endocrine System

  • Arginine for the Endocrine System

  • Bitter apple for the Endocrine System

  • Black cumin for the Endocrine System

  • Bladderwrack for the Endocrine System

  • Boron for the Endocrine System

  • Caffeine for the Endocrine System

Caffeine can decrease insulin sensitivity in healthy humans, possibly as a result of elevated plasma epinephrine levels. Because dipyridamole did not affect glucose uptake, peripheral adenosine receptor antagonism does not appear to contribute to this effect.

Caffeine has some potential to benefit training outcomes via the anabolic effects of the increase in testosterone concentration, but this benefit might be counteracted by the opposing catabolic effects of the increase in cortisol and resultant decline in the testosterone:cortisol ratio.

Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.

Caffeine treatment increased epinephrine, fatty acids, lactate and norepinephrine at different times during test session and led to insulin-resistance. Hence, caffeine ingestion elicits a similar metabolic response in elderly participants at 70 years old to that seen in younger subjects.

Carbohydrate oxidation was depressed, while serum glucose and blood lactate were elevated in this trial compared to cold-placebo. Thus, caffeine increases plasma epinephrine; cold increases oxygen consumption and carbohydrate metabolism, while decreasing lipid metabolism; and the combination of caffeine and cold during exercise increases plasma epinephrine and lipid metabolism, but decreases carbohydrate metabolism.

However, caffeine ingestion had no affect upon any of the marksmanship measures, although it did alleviate cold stress and tiredness. That caffeine ingestion did not affect target detection and rifle marksmanship is a finding that differs from other studies, and is explained by a beneficial arousal caused by the mild level of cold stress experienced by the participants.

In contrast, cortisol concentrations were not elevated until after the third exercise set; following the caffeine treatment cortisol was reduced by 21 ± 31% (ES -0.30; ± 0.34) relative to placebo. The acute ingestion of caffeine via chewing gum attenuated fatigue during repeated, high-intensity sprint exercise in competitive cyclists. Furthermore, the delayed fatigue was associated with substantially elevated testosterone concentrations and decreased cortisol in the caffeine trials.

Although no changes in glycemia and/or insulin sensitivity were observed after 8 weeks of coffee consumption, improvements in adipocyte and liver function as indicated by changes in adiponectin and fetuin-A concentrations may contribute to beneficial metabolic effects of long-term coffee consumption.

Caffeine ingestion also resulted in higher plasma epinephrine levels than placebo ingestion (P < 0.05). These data support our hypothesis that caffeine ingestion decreases glucose disposal and suggests that adenosine plays a role in regulating glucose disposal in resting humans.

In conclusion, the usually consumed amount of caffeinated coffee does not have short-term effects on appetite, energy intake, glucose metabolism, and inflammatory markers, but it increases circulating cortisol concentrations in healthy men.

The data suggest that caffeine intake induces a rise in blood glucose levels that is insulin independent.

  • Chia seeds for the Endocrine System

  • Chili extract for the Endocrine System

  • Chokeberry for the Endocrine System

  • Chromium for the Endocrine System

Acute chromium supplementation showed an effect on postprandial glucose metabolism in most but not all subjects. The response to Cr may be influenced by dietary patterns.

Biochemical parameters did not change in the placebo group except for LDL cholesterol which increased significantly. Body weight and medication profile remained stable throughout the study for both groups. In summary, chromium improved insulin resistance, metabolic abnormalities, and body composition in HIV+ patients. This suggests that chromium supplements alleviate some of the antiretroviral-associated metabolic abnormalities.

Calculated intakes of eight indicator nutrients were well above 100% of the RDA except for calcium. These healthy elderly persons, eating nutritious diets, are not at risk for Cr3+ deficiency as measured by the absence of a clinical response to CrCl3 or brewer's yeast supplementation. This study suggests that age per se is not a factor leading to Cr deficiency.

Chromium supplementation did not augment glycogen synthesis during recovery from high-intensity exercise and high-carbohydrate feeding, although there was a trend for lower PI 3-kinase activity.

Chromium supplementation does not appear to ameliorate insulin resistance or impaired glucose metabolism in patients at risk for type 2 diabetes and thus is unlikely to attenuate diabetes risk.

Chromium supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplementation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: response to Gunton et al.

Chromium supplementation gives better control of glucose and lipid variables while decreasing drug dosage in type 2 diabetes patients. A larger scale study is needed to help decide on the convenient chemical form, and dosage required to achieve optimal response.

Clinical response to Cr is more likely in insulin-resistant subjects who have more elevated fasting glucose and A(1c) levels. Chromium may reduce myocellular lipids and enhance insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who do respond clinically independent of effects on weight or hepatic glucose production. Thus, modulation of lipid metabolism by Cr in peripheral tissues may represent a novel mechanism of action.

Collectively, these data suggest that RT decreases the insulin response following an oral glucose challenge in older moderately overweight men and women without affecting glucose tolerance. The data also suggest that the decrease in circulating insulin may result from an increase in insulin clearance, not a decrease in insulin secretion. High-dose Cr-pic supplementation had no effect on any measure of glucose metabolism during RT.

Cr lowers FBS but does not affect HbA1c, lipids and BMI.

CrPic at 1000 microg/day does not improve key features of the metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic patients.

CrPic supplementation had a beneficial effect on glycemic control in patients with poorly controlled T2DM, without affecting the lipid profile. Additional studies are necessary to investigate the effect of long-term CrPic supplementation.

These initial findings support further larger trials to determine chromium's efficacy in maintaining normal glucose regulation, reducing binge eating and related psychopathology, promoting modest weight loss, and reducing symptoms of depression in individuals with BED.

In addition, fMRI indicated comparatively increased activation for the CrPic subjects in right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal, and bifrontal regions. These findings suggest that supplementation with CrPic can enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration.

In conclusion, chromium supplementation seems to improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients, which appears to be due to an increase in insulin action rather than stimulation of insulin secretion.

In conclusion, Cr brewer's yeast has a weak hypoglycemic potential, but does not affect body mass, blood biochemical profile, and microelement levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

Intake of milk powder containing 400 microg/d of chromium for 16 weeks in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus resulted in lowering of FPG, fasting insulin, and improvement of metabolic control in male patients.

Overall, taking chromium for 8 weeks among women with PCOS had beneficial effects on acne, hirsutism, hs-CRP, TAC, and MDA levels, but it did not affect endocrine profiles, NO, and GSH.

Plasma TAS and glutathione peroxidase were significantly higher for Cr and Cr + C + E groups relative to the placebo group. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation alone and combined of Cr together with vitamins C and E was effective for minimization of oxidative stress and improvement of glucose metabolism in type 2 DM patients.

Plasma total cholesterol also decreased after 4 months in the subjects receiving 19.2 micromol/day Cr. These data demonstrate that supplemental chromium had significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, glucose, insulin, and cholesterol variables in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The beneficial effects of chromium in individuals with diabetes were observed at levels higher than the upper limit of the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake.

Short-term chromium supplementation shortens QTc interval in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Supplementation of 1000 microg of chromium picolinate alone, and in combination with nutritional education, did not affect weight loss in this population of overweight adults. Response to chromium did not vary with central adiposity.

The data confirm an ergogenic benefit of ingesting CHO during exercise designed to imitate sports like basketball, soccer, and hockey, but do not support the hypothesis that the addition of Cr would enhance this effect.

The titers were very stable within individuals and those of one individual rarely crossed over others, which was reflected in an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.00). There were no effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in this period. The results of this trial suggest that chromium (III) picolinate in a dose typically used for nutrient supplementation dose not increase oxidative DNA damage, as measured by anti-HMdU antibody levels.

There is no evidence that chromium in the form of chromium yeast is effective in improving glycemic control in Western patients with type 2 diabetes who are taking oral hypoglycemic agents.

These data demonstrate beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid variables in subjects with newly onset type-2 diabetes.

These data suggest CrPic has a role in food intake regulation, which may be mediated by a direct effect on the brain.

These data suggest that supplementation of well-controlled type 2 diabetics with Cr-enriched yeast is safe and can result in improvements in blood glucose variables and oxidative stress.

These results suggest that short-term chromium supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity and body composition in overweight children.

This study demonstrates that CrPic supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes who are taking sulfonylurea agents significantly improves insulin sensitivity and glucose control. Further, CrPic supplementation significantly attenuated body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation compared with the placebo group.

  • Citrulline for the Endocrine System

  • Clary Sage for the Endocrine System

  • Cocoa Extract for the Endocrine System

  • Coenzyme Q10 for the Endocrine System

  • Coffee bean extract for the Endocrine System

  • Colostrum for the Endocrine System

  • Creatine for the Endocrine System

Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.

Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.

Creatine supplementation combined with an exercise program improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. The underlying mechanism seems to be related to an increase in GLUT-4 recruitment to the sarcolemma.

Creatine supplementation may, in part, act through an increased rate of conversion of T to DHT. Further investigation is warranted as a result of the high frequency of individuals using creatine supplementation and the long-term safety of alterations in circulating androgen composition. STATEMENT OF CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although creatine is a widely used ergogenic aid, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood, particularly in relation to dihydrotestosterone, and therefore the long-term clinical safety cannot be guaranteed.

CT demonstrated significant decrease in OGTT area under the curve compared to PT (P = 0.034). There were no differences between groups or over time in fasting insulin or HOMA. The results suggest that creatine supplementation, combined with aerobic training, can improve glucose tolerance but does not affect insulin sensitivity, and may warrant further investigation with diabetic subjects.

Expected gender differences were observed. Of the comparisons made among supplementation groups, only two differences for creatinine and total protein (P < 0.05) were noted. All group means fell within normal clinical ranges. There were no differences in the reported incidence of muscle injury, cramps, or other side effects. These data suggest that long-term creatine supplementation does not result in adverse health effects.

However, a trend towards reduced blood glucose levels was present in males given creatine monohydrate (P = 0.051). 4. These preliminary data suggest that creatine monohydrate may modulate lipid metabolism in certain individuals. These observations may demonstrate practical efficacy to the hyperlipidaemic patient as well as providing possible new mechanistic insights into the cellular regulation of blood lipid concentrations.

In addition, creatine supplementation appears to be effective for maintaining muscular performance during the initial phase of high-volume resistance training overreaching that otherwise results in small performance decrements.

In resting conditions and at high dosages Cr enhances GH secretion, mimicking the response of strong exercise which also stimulates GH secretion. Acute body weight gain and strength increase observed after Cr supplementation should consider the indirect anabolic property of Cr.

It was concluded that supplementation of CHO and Cr could promote the recovery of physical performance and athletic abilities after athletics in basketball athletes.

No statistically significant differences in performance were observed between groups after long-term maintenance during training, although small differences were observed that might be meaningful for elite performers.

Resting testosterone concentrations were elevated in C, however, no other significant endocrine changes were noted. Results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of creatine and creatine plus beta-alanine on strength performance. Creatine plus beta-alanine supplementation appeared to have the greatest effect on lean tissue accruement and body fat composition.

This study shows that creatine supplementation may result in abnormalities in glucose homeostasis in the absence of changes in insulin secretion.

  • Curcumin for the Endocrine System

A 9-month curcumin intervention in a prediabetic population significantly lowered the number of prediabetic individuals who eventually developed T2DM. In addition, the curcumin treatment appeared to improve overall function of β-cells, with very minor adverse effects. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the curcumin intervention in a prediabetic population may be beneficial.

Compared with placebo, area under the curve (AUC) for change in blood glucose concentration was reduced by curcumin (36%, P = 0.003) and curcumin + fishoil (30%, 0.004), but not fish oil alone (p = 0.105). Both curcumin (P = 0.01) and curcumin + fishoil (P = 0.03) treatments significantly lowered postprandial insulin (AUC) by 26% in comparison with placebo. Curcumin, but not fish oil, reduces postprandial glycaemic response and insulin demand for glucose control.

Consumption of 98 mg of highly bioavailable curcuminoids with each principal meal sufficed to achieve curcuminoid accumulation in the blood, was safe, and did not alter blood lipids, inflammation, glucose, or iron homeostasis in healthy subjects with slightly elevated blood cholesterol and C-reactive protein.

Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder.

In all mentioned laboratory parameters, significant difference was not detected between curcumin and placebo. Although curcumin improved some of lipid profile components, it did not show appreciable effect on inflammatory markers in patients with CAD. Therefore, more detailed assessment of metabolic effects or anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin need to perform by extensive human study.

In conclusion, short-term curcumin intervention ablates DKD progress with activating Nrf2 anti-oxidative system and anti-inflammatory efficacies in patients with T2DM.

In conclusion, the present trial shows that supplementation with a phytosomal preparation of curcumin containing phosphatidylserine and piperine could improve glycemic factors, hepatic function and serum cortisol levels in subjects with overweight and impaired fasting glucose.

NC supplementation in overweight/obese NAFLD patients improved glucose indices, lipids, inflammation, WC, nesfatin, liver transaminases, and fatty liver degree. Accordingly, the proposed mechanism for ameliorating NAFLD with NC was approved by the increased serum nesfatin and likely consequent improvements in inflammation, lipids, and glucose profile. Further trials of nano-curcumin's effects are suggested.

No difference in baseline flow-mediated dilation or other key dependent variables were detected among the groups. Flow-mediated dilation increased significantly and equally in the curcumin and exercise groups, whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Our results indicated that curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training can increase flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women, suggesting that both can potentially improve the age-related decline in endothelial function.

No significant changes were observed in other parameters between the two groups after intervention (p value < 0.05). Turmeric improved some fractions of lipid profile and decreased body weight in hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes. It had no significant effect on glycemic status, hs-CRP, and total antioxidant capacity in these patients.

Our data provide evidence for an enhanced bioavailable curcumin to improve homocysteine and high-density lipoprotein concentrations, which may promote favorable cardiovascular health in young, obese men. Improvements in endothelial function or blood pressure were not observed with curcumin supplementation, thus further investigation is warranted.

Our findings indicated that curcumin supplementation for 2 months improved and reduced the severity of DSPN in patients with T2DM.

Our results showed that daily intake of 1500 mg curcumin plus weight loss is not superior to weight loss alone in amelioration of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with NAFLD. Further studies with different dosages of curcumin are needed to be able to conclude about the effects of this dietary supplement on cardiovascular risk factors and NAFLD characteristics.

Reduction in insulin resistance and triglycerides by curcumin and LCn-3PUFA appears to be attractive strategies for lowering the risk of developing T2D. However, this study failed to demonstrate complimentary benefits of curcumin and LCn-3PUFA on glycaemic control.

Results of the present trial suggest that curcumin supplementation reduces serum lipids and uric acid concentrations in patients with NAFLD.

Short-term supplementation with curcuminoid-piperine combination significantly improves oxidative and inflammatory status in patients with MetS. Curcuminoids could be regarded as natural, safe and effective CRP-lowering agents.

The addition of curcumin to phytosterol therapy provides a complementary cholesterol-lowering effect that is larger than phytosterol therapy alone. Implications of these findings include the development of a single functional food containing both the active ingredients for enhanced lipid-lowering and compliance in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. ANZCTR identifier: 1261500095650.

The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period.

The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion.

The results of the present trial revealed a beneficial effect of curcuminoids plus piperine supplementation on glycemic and hepatic parameters but not on hs-CRP levels in T2D patients.

These data indicate that 4-week supplementation with RP or TM at culinary levels does not alter oxidative stress or inflammation in overweight/obese females with systemic inflammation, or cause a significant shift in the global metabolic profile.

These findings suggest a glucose-lowering effect of curcuminoids in type 2 diabetes, which is partially due to decrease in serum FFAs, which may result from promoting fatty acid oxidation and utilization.

These findings suggest an HbA1c lowering effect for Nano-curcumin in type-2 diabetes; also, it is partially decrease in serum LDL-C and BMI.

These results are associated with reduced levels of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride, uric acid, visceral fat and total body fat. In summary, a 6-month curcumin intervention in type 2 diabetic population lowered the atherogenic risks. In addition, the extract helped to improve relevant metabolic profiles in this high-risk population.

Turmeric supplementation as an adjuvant to T2DM on metformin treatment had a beneficial effect on blood glucose, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Turmeric supplementation improved glucose indexes and serum leptin levels and may be useful in the control of NAFLD complications.

  • D-Aspartic Acid for the Endocrine System

  • Ecklonia cava for the Endocrine System

  • Eleuthero for the Endocrine System

  • Fish Oil for the Endocrine System

FO supplements blunted the endocrine stress response and the increase in body temperature, but had no impact on cytokine production after LPS. These findings conflict with the postulated anti-inflammatory effects of FO on arachidonic acid metabolism and cytokine release. These results suggest that FO may exert beneficial effects in sepsis though non-inflammatory which require further investigations.

Having previously shown that the response to LPS was reproducible, this study shows that three FO doses blunted it to various degrees. The 0.2 g/kg perfusion immediately before LPS was the most efficient in blunting the responses, suggesting LPS capture in addition to the systemic and membrane effects.

The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces increases PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity in the recovery period after exercise.

The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.

Dietary administration with omega-3 PUFA decreased serum FSH levels in NW but not in obese women with normal ovarian reserve. This effect is intriguing and is directionally consistent with murine data whereby higher dietary omega-3 PUFA extends reproductive lifespan. Our results imply that this nutritional intervention should be tested in women with diminished ovarian reserve in an attempt to delay ovarian aging.

  • Forskolin for the Endocrine System

  • Ginkgo biloba for the Endocrine System

  • Ginseng for the Endocrine System

Accuracy of performing the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) was also improved following the glucose load. There was no evidence of a synergistic relationship between Panax ginseng and exogenous glucose ingestion on any cognitive outcome measure. Panax ginseng caused a reduction in blood glucose levels 1 hour following consumption when ingested without glucose. These results confirm that Panax ginseng may possess glucoregulatory properties and can enhance cognitive performance.

Comparing the results with a previously studied batch of KRG suggests a potential therapeutic dose range for ginsenosides. This observation should be clinically verified with acute screening and ginsenoside composition analysis.

Ginseng may be a useful therapeutic adjunct in the management of NIDDM.

Oral ginseng or ginsenoside Re therapy does not improve β-cell function or IS in overweight/obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or newly diagnosed diabetes. Poor systemic bioavailability might be responsible for the absence of a therapeutic effect.

Our data show that KRG can be an effective alternative to the invasive approaches for treating male ED.

Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.

Plasma CK level in RG was significantly lower than that in P 72 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), and IL-6 level was significantly decreased in RG during the 2 h and 3 h recovery period compared to that of P (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose and insulin responses in RG were significantly reduced compared to those of P (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that RG supplementation could reduce exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammatory responses, resulting in improvements in insulin sensitivity.

These results are not consistent with those reported for a diabetic sample (albeit using slightly different outcomes). These results would suggest that chronic use of Panax ginseng by non-diabetic individuals will have little long-term effect on glucose regulation. The benefits to glucose regulation associated with long-term ginseng use may only be present in populations with compromised glucose control; however, further research is needed to confirm such a speculation.

Three (3) months' treatment with KRG did not improve arterial stiffness in subjects with hypertension.

Twenty age-matched volunteers were used as controls (group C). Use of Panax Ginseng extract showed an increase in spermatozoa number/ml and progressive oscillating motility, an increase in plasma total and free testosterone, DHT, FSH and LH levels, but a decrease in mean PRL. It is suggested that ginsenosides may have an effect at different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis.

We conclude that acute supplementation of 200 mg of PG did not affect the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners in the heat.

We found no evidence that KRG had an effect on blood pressure, lipid profile, oxidized low density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, or arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. These findings warrant subsequent longer-term prospective clinical investigations with a larger population.

  • Glutamine for the Endocrine System

  • Green Tea Extract for the Endocrine System

  • Holy Basil for the Endocrine System

  • Inositol for the Endocrine System

In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that MYO administration is more effective in obese patients with high fasting insulin plasma levels.

MYO administration is a simple and safe treatment that ameliorates the metabolic profile of patients with PCOS, reducing hirsutism and acne.

Myo-inositol might be considered one of the insulin-sensitizing substances in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

No significant changes were observed in serum triglyceride, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Insulin resistance (P < 0.01), analysed by homeostasis model assessment, was reduced significantly after therapy. Administration of oral myo-inositol significantly reduced hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and ameliorated the abnormal metabolic profile of women with hirsutism.

PCOS patients suffer from a systemic inflammatory status that induces erythrocyte membrane alterations. Treatment with MYO is effective in reducing hormonal, metabolic, and oxidative abnormalities in PCOS patients by improving IR.

The combined administration of MI and DCI in physiological plasma ratio (40:1) should be considered as the first line approach in PCOS overweight patients, being able to reduce the metabolic and clinical alteration of PCOS and, therefore, reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome.

There was an inverse relationship between body mass and treatment efficacy. In fact a significant weight loss (and leptin reduction) (P < 0.01) was recorded in the myo-inositol group, whereas the placebo group actually increased weight (P < 0.05). These data support a beneficial effect of myo-inositol in women with oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovaries in improving ovarian function.

These data support a beneficial effect of inositol in improving ovarian function in women with oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovaries.

These results suggest that increased plasmalogen biosynthesis and/or serum levels are especially effective in improving MetS among hyperlipidemic subjects with MetS.

Treatment of PCOS patients with Myo-inositol provided a decreasing of circulating insulin and serum total testosterone as well as an improvement in metabolic factors.

Myo-inositol administration improves reproductive axis functioning in PCOS patients reducing the hyperinsulinemic state that affects LH secretion.

  • Iodine for the Endocrine System

BMIC decreased in the first 6 mo in these iodine-deficient lactating women; supplementation with 75 or 150 μg I/d increased the BMIC but was insufficient to ensure adequate iodine status in women or their infants. The study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12605000345684.

In two of the iodide supplemented subjects thyrotrophin levels rose above the laboratory reference range and in a further three subjects initially elevated thyrotrophin values increased further. In contrast, no changes in thyroid function were observed in the placebo treated controls and none developed biochemical hypothyroidism. CONCLUSIONS Dietary iodide intakes of 750 micrograms/day or more may adversely affect thyroid function, especially in individuals with borderline hypothyroidism.

No changes in T3-charcoal uptake or serum T3 concentration occurred at any dose. Administration of 500 micrograms iodide/day resulted in a significant increase (P less than 0.005) in the serum TSH response to TRH, and the two larger iodide doses resulted in increases in both basal and TRH-stimulated serum TSH concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

These findings indicate that a small increase in dietary iodine can induce subtle changes (all values remaining within the normal range) in pituitary-thyroid function, probably by inhibiting thyroid hormone release. The smaller iodine supplements of 500 and 250 micrograms daily, quantities that may easily be achieved under normal conditions, did not, however, affect thyroid function.

  • L-Carnitine for the Endocrine System

It is concluded that LC supplementation induces changes in blood glucose handling/disposal during an OGTT, which is not influenced by GLP-1. The glucose handling/disposal response to oral LC is different between lean and overweight/obese suggesting that further investigation is required. LC effects on gastric emptying and/or direct 'insulin-like' actions on tissues should be examined in larger samples of overweight/obese and lean participants, respectively.

No other direct effects of LCLT supplementation were observed on the absolute concentrations of the hormones examined, but with more undamaged tissue, a greater number of intact receptors would be available for hormonal interactions. These data support the use of LCLT as a recovery supplement for hypoxic exercise and lend further insights into the hormonal mechanisms that may help to mediate quicker recovery.

These responses suggest that LC may induce subtle changes in substrate handling in metabolically active tissues when fatty-acid availability is increased, but it does not affect whole-body substrate utilization during short-duration exercise at the intensities studied.

Thus, the results of this pilot study suggest the need for further research with both n-3 FA and vitamin E in children with behavioral disorders.

Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.

Considering the role of caloric restriction in increasing the intestinal uptake of carnitine, the results suggest that oral L-carnitine administration, when associated with a hypocaloric feeding regimen, improves insulin resistance and may represent an adjunctive treatment for IFG and DM-2.

  • Lavender for the Endocrine System

  • Licorice for the Endocrine System

We suggest that the glycyrrhetinic acid constituent of liquorice increases circulating and thereby, salivary levels of unconjugated deoxycorticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone by inhibiting their conjugation at source within the adrenal cortex. This effect may contribute to the mineralocorticoid actions of glycyrrhetinic acid and gives substance to claims that liquorice also has androgenic properties.

In the actual study we treated more cases with the same amount of licorice and reproduced our previous data. The mean testosterone values decreased by 26 % after one week of treatment (p < 0.01). There was also a significant increase in 17-OHP and LH concentrations and a slight, but not significant decrease in free testosterone. Licorice treatment, in addition, did not affect the response of testosterone and 17-OHP to stimulation with beta-HCG.

licorice can increase serum PTH and urinary calcium levels from baseline value in healthy women after only 2 months of treatment. The effect of licorice on calcium metabolism is probably influenced by several components of the root, which show aldosterone-like, estrogen-like and antiandrogen activity.

Licorice can reduce serum testosterone probably due to the block of 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17-20 lyase. Licorice could be considered an adjuvant therapy of hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome.

Liquorice in moderate doses primarily affects the cortisol metabolism and only marginally the androgen hormones. Gender may influence the action of liquorice.

The increase in Q was prominent (p<0.0001) and correlated to the rise in BP (p=0.02). The rise in BP was not dependant on age, the change in plasma renin activity or weight. We conclude that patients with essential HT are more sensitive to the inhibition of 11 beta-HSD by liquorice than NT subjects, and that this inhibition causes more clinical symptoms in women than in men.

We twice attempted to replicate this effect of liquorice but could not. We identified differences between our methods and those of the previous study and possible statistical anomalies (including inappropriate use of statistical tests) in the earlier report.

  • Magnesium for the Endocrine System

An increase in plasma Mg concentration irrespective of medication was associated with a tendency to a decrease in diastolic pressure (increased plasma Mg vs no increase: -4.0 +/- 10.1 vs +2.5 +/- 12.0 mmHg, p = 0.059). Three months' oral Mg supplementation of insulin-requiring patients with Type 2 DM increased plasma Mg concentration and urinary Mg excretion but had no effect on glycaemic control or plasma lipid concentrations.

Logistic regression analysis shows that longer duration of diabetes (p < 0.006) and low Mgrbc (p < 0.05) are the major determinants of PNP evolution. Under stable metabolic control long term Mg supplementation is able to restore a normal Mg status and influence favourably the natural evolution of PNP as compared to non supplemented T1dm controls.

Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile did not show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimization of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes.

MgCl(2) 2·5 g daily improves the ability of beta-cells to compensate for variations in insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals with significant hypomagnesaemia.

Oral supplementation with MgCl(2) solution restores serum magnesium levels, improving insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients with decreased serum magnesium levels.

Serum cortisol was lower in the Mg-orotate group before and after the test compared with the controls. CK catalytic concentration after the test was elevated 140% in the controls compared with 122% Mg-orotate group. The stress-induced modifications of energy and hormone metabolism described in this study indicate altered glucose utilization after Mg-Orotate supplementation and a reduced stress response without affecting competitive potential.

Significant difference was determined in the glucose values of 1st and 2nd groups supplemented with magnesium in comparison to their first measurements (p<0.05). Insulin values a decrease in all of the 3 groups occurred with exercise both before and after the supplementation (p<0.05). Magnesium supplementation has an important effect on glucose levels whereas it has no effect on insulin levels.

The adjusted odds ratio between serum magnesium and BP was 2.8 (95%CI: 1.4-6.9). Oral magnesium supplementation with MgCl(2) significantly reduces SBP and DBP in diabetic hypertensive adults with hypomagnesaemia.

These results suggested that magnesium supplementation does not reduce BP and enhance insulin sensitivity in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight people. However, it appears that magnesium supplementation may lower BP in healthy adults with higher BP.

  • Olive leaf extract for the Endocrine System

  • Psyllium for the Endocrine System

During the cereal-plus-diet phase, no significant effects on HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, or body weight were found within or between any cereal groups. These results support use of soluble-fiber cereals as an effective and well-tolerated part of a prudent diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.

Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels, showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05), whereas HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p < 0.01) following Psyllium treatment. Our results show that 5 g t.i.d. of Psyllium is useful, as an adjunct to dietary therapy, in patients with type II diabetes, to reduce plasma lipid and glucose levels, resolving the compliance conflict associated with the ingest of a great amount of fiber in customary diet.

Psyllium supplementation might be an additional therapeutic option for people with T2DM who are already receiving diabetes medication and who still experience elevated PPG concentrations. Further well-designed clinical trials and adjustment for confounding variables are needed to determine the role of a low glycemic index diet in the treatment of T2DM.

The results obtained indicate a beneficial therapeutic effect of psyllium (Plantaben) in the metabolic control of type 2 diabetics as well as in lowering the risk of coronary heart disease. We also conclude that consumption of this fibre does not adversely affect either mineral or vitamin A and E concentrations. Finally, for a greater effectiveness, psyllium treatment should be individually evaluated.

Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males.

  • Resveratrol for the Endocrine System

  • Rose Essential Oil for the Endocrine System

  • Royal Jelly for the Endocrine System

  • Safflower Oil for the Endocrine System

  • Saffron for the Endocrine System

  • Shilajit for the Endocrine System

  • Soy lecithin for the Endocrine System

  • Stevia for the Endocrine System

  • Theaflavins for the Endocrine System

  • TMG for the Endocrine System

  • Tribulus terrestris for the Endocrine System

  • Vanadium for the Endocrine System

  • Velvet Bean for the Endocrine System

  • Vitamin B3 for the Endocrine System

Fenofibrate and Niaspan decrease plasma VLDL-TG concentration without altering IHTG content. However, the mechanism responsible for the change in VLDL-TG concentration is different for each drug; fenofibrate increases plasma VLDL-TG clearance, whereas nicotinic acid decreases VLDL-TG secretion.

Human aging is associated with impaired beta-cell sensitivity to glucose and impaired beta-cell compensation to insulin resistance.

In summary, our data suggest that (a) acute changes in plasma FFA produce acute changes in GNG and reciprocal changes in GL; (b) the decrease in EGP between 16 and 24 hours of fasting is due to a fall in GL; and (c) NA has no direct effect on GNG.

Short-term treatment with extended-release niacin causes a pronounced increase in adiponectin but fails to improve atheroprotective functions attributed to adiponectin, such as insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammation and endothelial function.

These results demonstrate that Niaspan causes skeletal muscle insulin resistance, independent of changes in body weight or body fat, and the Niaspan-induced increase in plasma adiponectin concentration might partially ameliorate Niaspan's adverse effect on insulin action in obese subjects with NAFLD.

These results suggest a short term reduction in insulin sensitivity with NA is not accompanied by a change in blood pressure. This may relate to the short duration of treatment, to a dissociation between insulin resistance and hypertension or to other homeostatic mechanisms which prevent blood pressure rising in subjects not predisposed to hypertension.

In these patients, the addition of laropiprant did not influence the effects of niacin on endothelial function. Based on these findings, short-term niacin treatment might improve endothelial function in patients with low HDL-C levels. identifier: NCT01942291.

  • Vitamin C for the Endocrine System

ACTH level was increased at the second and sixth hours, which was statistically significant, but at twelfth and twenty-forth hours, they were close to control group levels. As a result, we conclude that AA given before anaesthesia achieved by etomidate is not sufficient for the prevention of surgical stress response and that AA induction before anaesthesia should be preferred, particularly for the prevention of decrease in osteocalcin levels.

Fifty diabetic patients took part in a four-month, double-blind crossover study comparing 500 mg of vitamin C daily with placebo. No significant difference was observed between vitamin C and placebo therapy in fasting whole blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.

In conclusion, greater reduction in glucose concentrations observed in patients with diabetes, older individuals and with more prolonged supplementation. Personalised interventions with vitamin C may represent a feasible future strategy to enhance benefits and efficacy of interventions. Nevertheless, results need to be interpreted cautiously due to limitations in the primary studies analysed.

In conclusion, oral supplementation of vitamin C with metformin reverses ascorbic acid levels, reduces FBS, PMBG, and improves HbA1c. Hence, both the drugs in combination may be used in the treatment of type 2 DM to maintain good glycemic control.

In summary, it is concluded that, eight weeks of taking EPA + vitamin C supplementation improved the plasma levels of cardiovascular markers but didn't reduce BP.

In summary, oral AA supplementation ameliorates skeletal muscle oxidative stress during hyperinsulinaemia and improves insulin-mediated glucose disposal in people with type 2 diabetes. Findings implicate AA supplementation as a potentially inexpensive, convenient, and effective adjunct therapy in the treatment of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes.

Individuals with type 2 diabetes experienced improved postprandial and 24-hour glycaemia and decreased BP after 4 months of AA supplementation as compared to placebo. These findings offer evidence for the proposed use of AA as an adjunct therapy to improve glycaemic and BP control in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

It is concluded that LC supplementation induces changes in blood glucose handling/disposal during an OGTT, which is not influenced by GLP-1. The glucose handling/disposal response to oral LC is different between lean and overweight/obese suggesting that further investigation is required. LC effects on gastric emptying and/or direct 'insulin-like' actions on tissues should be examined in larger samples of overweight/obese and lean participants, respectively.

No significant changes in fasting glucose (156 +/- 11 mg/dl), insulin (14 +/- 2 microU/ml), SI(Clamp) [2.71 +/- 0.46 x 10(-4) dl x kg(-1) x min(-1)/(microU/ml)], or forearm blood flow in response to ACh, SNP, or insulin were observed after vitamin C treatment. We conclude that high-dose oral vitamin C therapy, resulting in incomplete replenishment of vitamin C levels, is ineffective at improving endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes.

No significant differences in any of the parameters measured were seen, when comparing results following AA or placebo treatment. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR, clearance of 125I-iothalamate) was unchanged while effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, clearance of 131I-hippuran) tended to decline in both groups.

Our study suggests that if vitamin C does have anti-atherosclerotic effects in diabetes, it does not exert them through the traditional pathways identifiable by established surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk.

The results demonstrated that Vitamin C may have beneficial effects on HDL-C in diabetic patients without significant effects on plasma glucose or other lipid parameters; however, its role for the treatment of low HDL-C patients should be evaluated in larger studies.

These data indicate that elevated plasma AA delays the insulin response to a glucose challenge in normoglycemic adults, thereby prolonging the postprandial hyperglycemia. These effects might be partially explained by the competitive inhibition of glucose transfer into pancreatic beta cells by high concentrations of circulating AA.

These data indicate that vitamin C supplementation in carbohydrate-fed runners does not serve as a countermeasure to oxidative and immune changes during or after a competitive ultramarathon race.

These findings are the first to suggest that oral vitamin C supplementation provides an effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in human diabetic blood.

This is to our knowledge the first randomized trial in humans that has demonstrated that short-term vitamin C supplementation could significantly reduce resistin levels, independent of changes in inflammatory or metabolic variables. Future investigations of resistin participation in oxidative processes are warranted.

Vitamin C (500 mg twice daily) has potential effects in alleviating inflammatory status by reducing hs-CRP, IL-6, and FBG in hypertensive and/or diabetic obese patients.

Vitamin C did not affect plasma FFA concentrations. Glyceryl trinitrate responsiveness was unchanged during FFA elevation, with or without vitamin C. These data suggest that FFA-induced vascular oxidative stress could contribute to endothelial dysfunction in insulin-resistant patients. High concentrations of antioxidants are able to reverse the local effects of FFA on endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

  • Vitamin E for the Endocrine System

  • Whey Protein for the Endocrine System

  • Yerba mate for the Endocrine System

  • Zinc for the Endocrine System

Besides lifestyle modification, zinc supplementation might be considered as a useful and safe additional intervention treatment for improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors related to childhood obesity.

Findings of our study demonstrate that exhaustion exercise led to a significant inhibition of both thyroid hormones and testosterone concentrations, but that 4-week zinc supplementation prevented this inhibition in wrestlers. In conclusion, physiological doses of zinc administration may benefit performance.

Improving the zinc status in patients with type 2 diabetes with normal zinc levels did not have any impact on oxidative damage and vascular function, and such supplementation may not be generally beneficial in these individuals.

Nine wives became pregnant, six within 3 months and three within 2 months of a second trial. In the second group (T greater than or equal to 4.8 ng/ml; 15 patients), T and sperm count were unaffected by zinc, while DHT increased significantly. There was no conception observed. The rationale of this treatment and the significance of the results are discussed.

The results indicate that exercise decreases thyroid hormones and testosterone in sedentary men; however, zinc supplementation prevents this decrease. Administration of a physiologic dose of zinc can be beneficial to performance.

These results are particularly important in light of the deleterious consequences of childhood obesity and early changes in markers of inflammatory and oxidative stress. We suggest exploring the direct clinical application of zinc supplementation in childhood obesity in future studies.

These results suggest that although zinc administration did not have a definite effect on hemodialysis patients with sexual dysfunction, it can cause increase in the serum level of sex hormones which may improve the sexual function of the patients in some aspects.

Zinc may influence serum leptin levels, possibly by increasing the production of IL-2 and TNF-alpha.

  • 5-HTP for the Endocrine System

  • Blueberry for the Endocrine System

  • Sea Buckthorn for the Endocrine System

  • Sodium Bicarbonate for the Endocrine System

  • Vitamin K for the Endocrine System

  • Yacon for the Endocrine System

  • Yohimbine for the Endocrine System

What are the general functions of the Endocrine System?

Joint support
Mental health
Weight loss
Overall health
Insulin control
Emotional health
Muscle building
Sleep quality
Women's health
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