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Nervous System

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Nervous System definition

Collects and processes information from the senses via nerves and the brain and tells the muscles to contract to cause physical actions.

Nervous System conditions

Acute Mountain Sickness
Alcohol Use Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Brain Tumors
Breath Holding Spells
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Dizziness and Vertigo
Drug Use and Addiction
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Jet Lag
Mild Cognitive Impairment
Multiple Sclerosis
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Orthostatic Hypotension
Panic Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Prader-Willi Syndrome
Restless Legs
Sleep Deprivation
Sleep Terrors
Tardive Dyskinesia
Traumatic Brain Injury

Nervous System supplements

  • CBD for the Nervous System

Although double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are still necessary, these findings suggest that cannabidiol may be an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with refractory seizures in TSC.

Among children and adults with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, the addition of cannabidiol at a dose of 10 mg or 20 mg per kilogram per day to a conventional antiepileptic regimen resulted in greater reductions in the frequency of drop seizures than placebo. Adverse events with cannabidiol included elevated liver aminotransferase concentrations. (Funded by GW Pharmaceuticals; GWPCARE3 number, NCT02224560 .).

Our findings suggest that cannabidiol might reduce seizure frequency and might have an adequate safety profile in children and young adults with highly treatment-resistant epilepsy. Randomised controlled trials are warranted to characterise the safety profile and true efficacy of this compound.

Clonazepam was more sedative than CBD 300 and 900 mg and induced a smaller increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than CBD 300 mg. The results confirmed that the acute administration of CBD induced anxiolytic effects with a dose-dependent inverted U-shaped curve in healthy subjects, since the subjective anxiety measures were reduced with CBD 300 mg, but not with CBD 100 and 900 mg, in the post-speech phase.

Diazepam, on the other hand, was anxiolytic before and after the SPS test, but had no effect on the increase in anxiety induced by the speech test. Only ipsapirone attenuated the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by the test. Significant sedative effects were only observed with diazepam. The results suggest that ipsapirone and CBD have anxiolytic properties in human volunteers submitted to a stressful situation.

In contrast to previous studies, there was no evidence of any benefits of cannabidiol on anxiety or persecutory ideation in healthy volunteers with high trait paranoia. However, a larger sample will be required for a definitive study.

Our findings confirm the anxiolytic-like properties of CBD and are consonant with results of animal studies describing bell-shaped dose-response curves. Optimal therapeutic doses of CBD should be rigorously determined so that research findings can be adequately translated into clinical practice.

This antagonism does not appear to be caused by a general block of delta 9-THC effects, since no change was detected in the pulse-rate measurements. Several further effects were observed typical of CBD and of an opposite nature to those of delta 9-THC. These results suggest that the effects of CBD, as opposed to those of delta 9-THC, might be involved in the antagonism of effects between the two cannabinoids.

At the dose studied, CBD augmentation was not associated with an improvement in MCCB or PANSS scores in stable antipsychotic-treated outpatients with schizophrenia. Overall, CBD was well tolerated with no worsening of mood, suicidality, or movement side effects.

Cannabis medicinal extracts can improve neurogenic symptoms unresponsive to standard treatments. Unwanted effects are predictable and generally well tolerated. Larger scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

During this follow-up, CBD was well-tolerated, and there were no severe adverse effects. Plasma levels of tacrolimus were variable. Therefore, longer follow-up is required.

These findings suggest that CBD has beneficial effects in patients with schizophrenia. As CBD's effects do not appear to depend on dopamine receptor antagonism, this agent may represent a new class of treatment for the disorder.

This study demonstrated the safety and tolerability of CBD-rich hemp oil and the primary efficacy endpoint. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to characterize the safety profile and efficacy of this compound.

  • Coenzyme Q10 for the Nervous System

After CoQ10 treatment, the patient reported a significant improvement of clinical symptoms. At the cellular level, CoQ10 treatment restored mitochondrial dysfunction and the mtDNA copy number, decreased oxidative stress, and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our results suggest that CoQ10 could be an alternative therapeutic approach for FM.

Patients were evaluated clinically with Visual Analogical Scale of pain (VAS), and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Patients with CoQ(10) deficiency showed a statistically significant reduction on symptoms after CoQ(10) treatment during 9 months (300 mg/day). Determination of deficiency and consequent supplementation in FM may result in clinical improvement. Further analysis involving more scientifically rigorous methodology will be required to confirm this observation.

The results of this study suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the headache symptoms associated with FM. CoQ10 supplementation should be examined in a larger placebo controlled trial as a possible treatment in FM.

These results lead to the hypothesis that CoQ10 have a potential therapeutic effect in FM, and indicate new potential molecular targets for the therapy of this disease. AMPK could be implicated in the pathophysiology of FM.

This resulted in an increase in coenzyme Q10 levels and a decrease in %CoQ10. No changes were observed in FFA levels or their composition. However, plasma levels of FC and CE significantly decreased and the ratio of FC to CE also significantly decreased, suggesting that ubiquinol-10 supplementation improved cholesterol metabolism. Ubiquinol-10 supplementation also improved chronic fatigue scores as measured by the Chalder Fatigue Scale.

In conclusion, while only GH has significant effects on growth and body composition, GH and CoQ(10) therapy act equally on psychomotor development of PWS infants. However, improving psychomotor development may merely reflect an age-related phenomenon additionally depending on early diagnosis and introduction of appropriate care.

CoQ(10) supplementation provided a significant (P=0.01) mild symptomatic benefit on PD symptoms and a significantly (F((1,24))=8.48, P=0.008) better improvement of FMT performance compared with placebo. Our results indicate a moderate beneficial effect of oral CoQ(10) supplementation in PD patients.

Fatigue indexes decreased with CoQ10 supplementation, but these decreases did not differ from that seen with placebo supplementation. According to these results, CoQ10 may show performance-enhancing effects during the repeated bouts of supramaximal exercises and CoQ10 might be used as ergogenic aid.

In conclusion, we found no evidence that coenzyme Q(10) affects fatigue index, arterial stiffness, metabolic parameters, or inflammatory markers.

Oral administration of coenzyme Q10 improved subjective fatigue sensation and physical performance during fatigue-inducing workload trials and might prevent unfavorable conditions as a result of physical fatigue.

Overall, results of the study demonstrate that children and adolescents with migraine improved over time with multidisciplinary, standardized treatment regardless of supplementation with CoQ10 or placebo. There was no difference in headache outcomes between the CoQ10 and placebo groups at day 224. Due to the improvements seen in weeks 1-4, CoQ10 may lead to earlier improvement in headache severity, but given the sample size this conclusion warrants further investigation with a larger sample.

  • Feverfew for the Nervous System

  • Melatonin for the Nervous System

In conclusion, nightly treatment with PRM effectively induced sleep and improved perceived quality of sleep in patients with primary insomnia aged > or =55 years. Daytime psychomotor performance was not impaired and was consistently better with PRM compared with placebo. PRM was well tolerated with no evidence of rebound effects.

There was no evidence of rebound insomnia or withdrawal effects following treatment discontinuation. The incidence of adverse events was low and most side-effects were judged to be of minor severity. PR-melatonin is the first drug shown to significantly improve quality of sleep and morning alertness in primary insomnia patients aged 55 years and older-suggesting more restorative sleep, and without withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

This follow-up study demonstrates that melatonin treatment in children can be sustained over a long period of time without substantial deviation of the development of children with respect to sleep quality, puberty development and mental health scores, as compared with the general Dutch population.

This study provides Class I evidence that prolonged-release melatonin (2 mg 1 hour before bedtime) does not provide any significant effect over placebo as migraine prophylaxis.

Melatonin is remarkably effective in preventing or reducing jet-lag, and occasional short-term use appears to be safe.

In conclusion, Melatonin in combination with Sulodexide is, in our opinion, a viable treatment option for patients suffering from central or sensorineural tinnitus.

Melatonin has been shown to be useful in the treatment of subjective tinnitus. Patients with high THI scores and/or difficulty sleeping are most likely to benefit from treatment with melatonin. In light of its minimal side effects, melatonin should be a part of the physician's armamentarium in the treatment of tinnitus.

Melatonin is associated with a statistically significant decrease in tinnitus intensity and improved sleep quality in patients with chronic tinnitus. Melatonin is most effective in men, those without a history of depression, those who have not undergone prior tinnitus treatments, those with more severe and bilateral tinnitus, and those with a history of noise exposure.

Melatonin use is associated with improvement of tinnitus and sleep. There was an association between the amount of improvement in sleep and tinnitus. The impact of melatonin on sleep was greatest among patients with the worst sleep quality, but its impact on tinnitus was not associated with the severity of the tinnitus.

The findings point to a primary action of melatonin on central nervous stimulus processing under conditions of stress and possibly on memory consolidation and exclude any substantial suppressive action of the substance on hormonal stress responses.

  • Piracetam for the Nervous System

Complete blood count, biochemical profile, and urine analysis taken before and after treatment revealed no change from beginning to end and no difference between the 2 groups. It is suggested that piracetam is a safe and effective drug, with an incidence of side effects no different from that of placebo, for the treatment of breath-holding spells.

In conclusion, piracetam is a safe and effective drug for the treatment of breath-holding spells in children.

Piracetam is an effective prophylactic treatment for severe BHS.

A total of 135 patients, 45 in each group, completed the study. Combined therapy was most effective in patients whose baseline performance on memory tests was lowest. The best results were observed with 4.8 g of piracetam, especially when training sessions began after 6 weeks of drug treatment. This result was confirmed by the global impression of the principal investigator.

Fifty Patients completed the investigation (25 piracetam, 25 placebo). There were no significant statistical differences between the two groups of patients on all measures utilized except for the Clinical Global Evaluation, where 52% of the patients on piracetam showed minimal improvement versus 25% of the placebo group (P less than 0.05).

The effect of piracetam therapy with different dosages was studied in a double blind trial against placebo on its effect in psychoorganic syndrome of old age. 78 patients (61 females, 17 males) on the average of 73.2 years, showed statistically significant differences between piracetam therapy at a dosage of 3 X 1600 mg per day und placebo after a six week peroral therapy while no statistically significant differences between piracetam therapy at a dosage of 3X800 mg per day and placebo were found.

The results of the meta-analysis demonstrate a difference between those individuals treated with piracetam and those given placebo, both as significant odds ratio and as a favourable number needed to treat. While there may be problems in meta-analyses and the interpretation of the statistical results, the results of this analysis provide compelling evidence for the global efficacy of piracetam in a diverse group of older subjects with cognitive impairment.

Thirty subjects completed the 1-year study. No improvement occurred in either group, but our results support the hypothesis that long-term administration of high doses of piracetam might slow the progression of cognitive deterioration in patients with AD. The most significant differences concerned the recall of pictures series and recent incident and remote memory. The drug was well-tolerated.

Nootropyl (Piracetam) a drug reported to facilitate learning in animals was tested for its effect on man by administering it to normal volunteers. The subjects were given 3x4 capsules at 400 mg per day, in a double blind study. Each subject learned series of words presented as stimuli upon a memory drum. No effects were observed after 7 days but after 14 days verbal learning had significantly increased.

  • Agmatine for the Nervous System

  • Alpha-GPC for the Nervous System

  • Ashwagandha for the Nervous System

Although results are preliminary, WSE appears to improve auditory-verbal working memory (digit span backward), a measure of reaction time, and a measure of social cognition in bipolar disorder. Given the paucity of data for improving cognitive capacity in bipolar disorder, WSE offers promise, appears to have a benign side-effects profile, and merits further study.

Both NC and PT led to significant improvements in patients' anxiety. Group comparison demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety levels in the NC group over the PT group. Significant improvements in secondary quality of life measures were also observed in the NC group as compared to PT. The whole system of naturopathic care for anxiety needs to be investigated further including a closer examination of the individual components within the context of their additive effect.

Each subject was assessed at the start and at 4 and 8 weeks. The treatment with Ashwagandha resulted in significant improvements in primary and secondary measures. Also, the extract was found to be safe and tolerable. The outcome of this study suggests that Ashwagandha root extract can be used for body weight management in adults under chronic stress.

It is concluded that this ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera has useful anxiolytic potential and merits further investigation.

The findings of this study suggest that a high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract safely and effectively improves an individual's resistance towards stress and thereby improves self-assessed quality of life.

This early study suggests that adjunctive treatment with a standardized extract of Withania somnifera provides significant benefits, with minimal side effects, for negative, general, and total symptoms and stress in patients with recent exacerbation of schizophrenia.

W. somnifera extract may be beneficial as a safe and effective adjunct to SSRIs in the treatment of OCD.

Ashwagandha may be effective in enhancing both immediate and general memory in people with MCI as well as improving executive function, attention, and information processing speed.

Both the doses of an aqueous extract of W. somnifera produced significant reduction in outcome variables, with the 250 mg group showing significantly better response. In addition, the therapeutic response appears to be dose-dependent and free of any significant GI disturbances.

Conclusions: A 500 mg dose of an aqueous extract of Ashwagandha improves upper and lower-body strength, supports a favorable distribution of body mass, and was well tolerated clinically in recreationally active men over a 12-week resistance training and supplementation period.

In conclusion, the intake of a standardized ashwagandha extract (Shoden beads) for 8 weeks was associated with increased levels of DHEA-S and testosterone, although no significant between-group differences were found in cortisol, estradiol, fatigue, vigor, or sexual well-being. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to substantiate the current findings.

These results suggest that Withania somnifera extract can improve cognitive and psychomotor performance and may, therefore, be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive impairment.

Withania somnifera has potential against cancer-related fatigue, in addition to improving the quality of life. However, further study with a larger sample size in a randomized trial is warranted to validate our findings.

  • Bacopa monnieri for the Nervous System

Bacopa significantly improved memory acquisition and retention in healthy older Australians. This concurs with previous findings and traditional use. Bacopa caused GIT side-effects of increased stool frequency, abdominal cramps, and nausea.

SBME is efficacious in subjects with age-associated memory impairment.

The current study attempted to determine the chronic effects of single daily dose of 450 mg of Brahmi extract on cognitive performance and anxiety in healthy adults. The results of the current study are not in agreement with findings of some of the earlier studies which have found improvement both on cognitive parameters and a reduction of anxiety scores.

The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

The results show a significant effect of the Brahmi on a test for the retention of new information. Follow-up tests showed that the rate of learning was unaffected, suggesting that Brahmi decreases the rate of forgetting of newly acquired information. Tasks assessing attention, verbal and visual short-term memory and the retrieval of pre-experimental knowledge were unaffected. Questionnaire measures of everyday memory function and anxiety levels were also unaffected.

The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled independent group design in which subjects were randomly allocated to one of two treatment conditions, Bacopa monniera (300 mg) (n = 18) or placebo (n = 20). Neuropsychological testing was conducted before and 2 h after drug administration. No significant changes were found on any of the tests. The findings suggest that Bacopa monniera, at least for the dose administered, has no acute effects on cognitive functioning in normal healthy subjects.

These findings suggest that B. monniera may improve higher order cognitive processes that are critically dependent on the input of information from our environment such as learning and memory.

This study provides further evidence that B. monnieri has potential for safely enhancing cognitive performance in the aging.

  • Black cumin for the Nervous System

  • Boswellia serrata for the Nervous System

  • Caffeine for the Nervous System

Caffeine and opening the eyes have additive effects on two measures of arousal, increasing SCL and reducing global EEG alpha. However, the independent variable effects are not equivalent, suggesting that one or both measures reflect additional non-arousal processes.

We confirm that acute doses of caffeine, at levels typically found in a cup of coffee, produce stimulant-like subjective effects and enhance performance in light, nondependent caffeine users. These findings support the idea that the drug has psychoactive effects even in the absence of withdrawal.

Fatigue scores were greater postexercise (p = 0.001) compared to scores pre exercise across conditions. Caffeine ingestion enhances performance in short-term, resistance exercise to failure and may favorably change the mood state response to exercise compared to a placebo.

However, caffeine ingestion had no affect upon any of the marksmanship measures, although it did alleviate cold stress and tiredness. That caffeine ingestion did not affect target detection and rifle marksmanship is a finding that differs from other studies, and is explained by a beneficial arousal caused by the mild level of cold stress experienced by the participants.

In contrast, cortisol concentrations were not elevated until after the third exercise set; following the caffeine treatment cortisol was reduced by 21 ± 31% (ES -0.30; ± 0.34) relative to placebo. The acute ingestion of caffeine via chewing gum attenuated fatigue during repeated, high-intensity sprint exercise in competitive cyclists. Furthermore, the delayed fatigue was associated with substantially elevated testosterone concentrations and decreased cortisol in the caffeine trials.

Caffeine consumption led to significantly faster response times, but only for participants who typically consumed relatively little caffeine. We conclude that the TOVA can be administered to young adults outside the recommended time constraints without compromising the validity of test score interpretation but that the caffeine consumption of participants should be closely monitored.

Caffeine improved RSA, including next day performance, but had little effect on RAT or sleep parameters.

Caffeine ingestion may be beneficial to RA performance when athletes are fresh and fatigued.

Placebo administration in MH participants decreased alertness and increased headache. Caffeine did not increase alertness in NL participants. With frequent consumption, substantial tolerance develops to the anxiogenic effect of caffeine, even in genetically susceptible individuals, but no net benefit for alertness is gained, as caffeine abstinence reduces alertness and consumption merely returns it to baseline.

The results indicate that the synergistic effects of caffeine and glucose can benefit sustained attention and verbal memory, even with adequate levels of activation of the subjects. However, further studies are required, controlling for different levels of cognitive effort and also considering measurements of neural activity.

  • Chaste Tree for the Nervous System

  • Cissus quadrangularis for the Nervous System

  • Citrulline for the Nervous System

  • Colostrum for the Nervous System

  • Creatine for the Nervous System

Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.

Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.

Further study of creatine as an adjunctive treatment for adolescents with SSRI-resistant MDD is warranted.

In conclusion, creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) did not have an obvious benefit on the multiple markers of disease progression measured over nine months. We measured fatigue during isometric contraction and found no significant improvement despite anecdotal patient reports prior to and during the study. The trend toward improved survival was also found in another recently completed blinded trial using creatine monohydrate. Further investigation on the possible survival benefit of creatine in this patient population is ongoing.

More specific examinations including brain spectroscopy for in vivo evaluation of Cr can be done, in order to draw conclusions for the optimal duration and manner of Cr supply, as well as its possible role for the prevention of TBI complications, in double blind studies.

The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder.

There was significant difference at p<0.05 in the control group from training effect whereas there was significant difference at p<0.000 from training effect and creatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.

This small, preliminary, open study of creatine monohydrate suggests a beneficial effect of creatine augmentation in unipolar depression, but possible precipitation of a manic switch in bipolar depression.

Twenty patients received either Cr or placebo for 3 months. After 3 months, there were no significant differences of muscle strength as assessed by hand-held dynamometry, testing of maximum grip strength, Medical Research Council scoring, and the Neuromuscular Symptom Score between the two groups. Some measures indicated trends toward mild improvement with Cr. Myalgia improved in two patients.

Using double-blind placebo-controlled paradigm, we demonstrated that dietary supplement of creatine (8 g/day for 5 days) reduces mental fatigue when subjects repeatedly perform a simple mathematical calculation. After taking the creatine supplement, task-evoked increase of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin in the brains of subjects measured by near infrared spectroscopy was significantly reduced, which is compatible with increased oxygen utilization in the brain.

Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.

Although Cr influenced key modulators of brain 5-HT and DA function and reduced various thermophysiological parameters which all may have contributed to the reduced effort perception during exercise in the heat, performance was improved only in the "responders" to Cr supplementation. The present results may also suggest the demanding of the pre-experimental identification of the participants into "responders" and "non-responders" to Cr supplementation before performing the main experimentation. Otherwise, the possibility of the type II error may be enhanced.

CR supplementation improves physical function, lower limb lean mass, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with knee OA undergoing strengthening exercises.

Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.

Creatine failed to improve muscle mass or function and QoL in colorectal cancer patients but improved bioimpedance parameters that are predictive of poor outcome. Creatine might therefore be useful in patients with milder chemotherapy in order to maintain or increase BCM whereas patients undergoing aggressive chemotherapy however are not likely to benefit.

Creatine monohydrate supplementation did not improve body composition or muscle strength when given before surgery, nor did it enhance recovery after TKA.

Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect (p < 0.0001) on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices), both tasks that require speed of processing. These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance.

Creatine supplementation led to increases in fat-free mass, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, health status, but not exercise capacity. Creatine may constitute a new ergogenic treatment in COPD.

Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.

In elderly women, short-term oral creatine supplementation does not improve endurance capacity but increases the ability to perform lower-body functional living tasks involving rapid movements.

Ingesting a low dose (≈2.3 g/d) of creatine for 6 wk significantly increased plasma creatine concentration and enhanced resistance to fatigue during repeated bouts of high-intensity contractions.

It was concluded that, during sleep deprivation with moderate-intensity exercise, creatine supplementation only affects performance of complex central executive tasks.

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Creatine (Cr) is an ergogenic compound that exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of PD. We conducted a 2-year placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the effect of Cr in 60 patients with PD. Cr improved patient mood and led to a smaller dose increase of dopaminergic therapy but had no effect on overall Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores or dopamine transporter SPECT.

Our pilot study suggests, that creatine supplementation should be further evaluated as a possible clinically beneficial adjuvant therapy for patients with CF to increase muscle strength, body-weight and well-being.

Randomly and under a double-blind procedure, subjects consumed either a placebo or 20 g of creatine supplement for 5 d. Creatine supplementation did not influence measures of verbal fluency and vigilance. However, in vegetarians rather than in those who consume meat, creatine supplementation resulted in better memory. Irrespective of dietary style, the supplementation of creatine decreased the variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task.

Short-term creatine supplementation inaddition to standard medication in patients with CHF leads to an increase in body weight and an improvement of muscle strength. This effect is restricted to the time of supplementation.

The adjusted mean posttest PWC(FT) values (covaried for pretest PWC(FT) values) for the b-Ala and CrBA groups were greater than those for the PLA group (p < or = 0.05). However, there were no differences between the CrM vs. PLA, CrBA vs. b-Ala, CrM vs. b-Ala, or CrM vs. CrBA groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that b-Ala supplementation may delay the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Furthermore, there appeared to be no additive or unique effects of CrM vs. b-Ala alone on PWC(FT).

The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s intervals for each 60-s work bout. Resulting slopes from each successive work bout were used to calculate EMG FT. A 2-way ANOVA, Group (Cr vs. Pl) x Time (pre vs. post), resulted in a nonsignificant (p > .05) interaction for supplement and time. In addition, a significant increase (p = .009) in weight was observed in the Cr group. These data suggest that there was a minimal influence of Cr loading on EMG FT for the participants in this study.

These findings suggest that 14 days of CR supplementation may increase upper body grip strength and increase physical working capacity by delaying neuromuscular fatigue in the elderly men and women in this study. While more research is needed, CR supplementation may improve upper body grip strength and lower body muscle endurance which may be important for maintaining health and independent living in elderly men and women.

These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.

This adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial shows that CrS does not augment the substantial training effect of multidisciplinary PR for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with (NO123138126).

Thus healthy human brain energetics is malleable and shifts with 7 days of Cr supplementation, with the regions of initially low PCr showing the largest increments in PCr. Overall, Cr supplementation appears to improve high-energy phosphate turnover in healthy brain and can result in either a decrease or an increase in high-energy phosphate concentrations.

  • Curcumin for the Nervous System

Active drug treatments comprising differing doses of curcumin and combined curcumin/saffron were effective in reducing depressive and anxiolytic symptoms in people with major depressive disorder.

Adjunctive curcumin has significant antidepressant effects in participants with MDD as evidenced by significant benefits occurring 12 and 16 weeks after treatment initiation. Curcumin administration was safe and well-tolerated even when combined with antidepressants. Future trials should include treatment-by-sex interactions to examine putative antidepressant effects of immune-modifying compounds.

Although there is no definitive proof that curcumin can induce an earlier beneficial effect of antidepressive agents, it seems like an extended study is needed to prove it, using higher therapeutic doses of curcumin.

C. domestica extracts are as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The side effect profile was similar but with fewer gastrointestinal AE reports in the C. domestica extracts group.

Curcumin has a potential anti-anxiety effect in individuals with obesity.

Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder.

In conclusion, the adjuvant therapy ofcurcumin with diclofenac has the potential beneficial effect in comparison with diclofenac alone, but no statistical significance.

In patients on treatment with Meriva, this would also translate into better control of acute pain, providing a rationale for the analgesic properties associated with this curcumin formulation.

More importantly, curcumin treatment was found to be safe and did not relate with any adverse events. Our study provides the first evidence for the safety and superiority of curcumin treatment in patients with active RA, and highlights the need for future large-scale trials to validate these findings in patients with RA and other arthritic conditions.

NR-INF-02 treated group showed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in use of rescue medication, along with clinical and subjective improvement compared to placebo. The tolerability and acceptability profile of NR-INF-02 was better during the trial period. The study demonstrates safety and efficacy of NR-INF-02 as a useful treatment option for patients with primary painful knee OA.

Partial support is provided for the antidepressant effects of curcumin in people with major depressive disorder, evidenced by benefits occurring 4 to 8 weeks after treatment.

The reduction from baseline in total WOMAC score (also subscale scores) and VAS score resulted in statistically significant difference when compared to placebo. It was also found to be safe and well tolerated as there was no incidence of treatment related AEs.

The results indicate that this novel curcumin in a turmeric matrix acts as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of RA at a dose as low as 250 mg twice daily as evidenced by significant improvement in the ESR, CRP, VAS, RF, DAS28, and ACR responses compared to placebo. Both doses of the study product were well tolerated and without side effects.

Theracurmin shows modest potential for the treatment of human knee osteoarthritis.

There were significantly greater reductions in total HADS score and subscales of anxiety and depression in the curcuminoids versus control group (p<0.001). Likewise, reductions in BDI-II total score and scores of somatic and cognitive subscales were found to be greater in the curcuminoids compared with control group (p<0.001). Co-administration of curcuminoids with piperine may be used as a safe and effective add-on to standard antidepressants in patients with MDD.

These results show that Meriva® is clinically effective in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis and suggest that the increased stability and better absorption of curcumin induced by complexation with phospholipids have clinical relevance, setting the stage for larger and more prolonged studies.

This represents the most ambitious attempt, to date, to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Significant improvements of both the clinical and biochemical end points were observed for Meriva compared to the control group. This, coupled with an excellent tolerability, suggests that Meriva is worth considering for the long-term complementary management of osteoarthritis.

This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders.

To conclude, curcuminoids represent an effective and safe alternative treatment for OA.

Turmeric (curcumin) improves postoperative pain- and fatigue-related PROs following LC.

Twelve-week use of curcumin complex or its combination with boswellic acid reduces pain-related symptoms in patients with OA. Curcumin in combination with boswellic acid is more effective. Combining Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in Curamin® increases the efficacy of OA treatment presumably due to synergistic effects of curcumin and boswellic acid.

  • Fish Oil for the Nervous System

Adjunctive ethyl-EPA is an effective and well-tolerated intervention in bipolar depression.

Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. identifier: NCT00385723.

Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation ( approximately 200 mg/d) for 4 months after the delivery prevented the usual decline in plasma phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid content of women who breastfeed but did not influence self-ratings of depression, diagnostic measures of depression, or information processing.

EPA-rich fish oil and DHA-rich fish oil supplementation did not prevent depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum.

In conclusion, we did not observe any significant net anti-inflammatory effect on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway from a daily supplement of 1.1g marine n-3 PUFA for 6 weeks.

It is not possible to distinguish whether E-EPA augments antidepressant action in the manner of lithium or has independent antidepressant properties of its own.

Omega-3 PUFAs may have therapeutic benefits in depression during pregnancy. In regard to the safety issue and psychotherapeutic effect, as well as health promotion to mothers and their newborns, it is worthy to conduct replication studies in a larger sample with a broad regimen of omega-3 PUFAs in pregnant women with depression.

Omega-3 supplementation is associated with an improvement of attentional and physiological functions, particularly those involving complex cortical processing. These findings are discussed in terms of the influence of Omega-3 on the central nervous system.

Our primary analyses suggest a small-to-modest, non-clinically beneficial effect of n-3PUFAs on depressive symptomology compared to placebo; however the estimate is imprecise, and we judged the quality of the evidence on which this result is based to be low/very low.

Patients in the omega-3 PUFA group had a significantly decreased score on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than those in the placebo group (P < 0.001). From the preliminary findings in this study, omega-3 PUFAs could improve the short-term course of illness and were well tolerated in patients with major depressive disorder.

Red blood cell incorporation of fatty acids indicated good compliance with oil supplementation, although this sample was not initially deficient in omega-3s. This particular dose and type of fish oil conferred no additional benefit to conventional treatment of depression in this sample. Future studies could target participants with pre-existing omega-3 deficiency and appraise alternate enriched types and higher doses of omega-3 supplementation.

St John's wort and regular exercise appear effective in the treatment of depression. Acupuncture appears ineffective for depression, but it might offer other health benefits. Other promising therapies include SAM-e, omega-3 fatty acid, and folic acid supplementation in selected patients; further study is warranted.

Supplementation of 220 mg/day DHA or DHA+AA (220 mg/day each) does not prevent peri-partum depressive symptoms, in a population based sample with low background DHA intake.

Supplements containing EPA ≥ 60% of total EPA + DHA, in a dose range of 200 to 2,200 mg/d of EPA in excess of DHA, were effective against primary depression. Translational studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of EPA's therapeutic benefit.

Symptoms generally improved with time but not significantly and there were no significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups. Pretreatment red-cell membrane (RBC) lipids of patients compared with age-and sex-matched normal controls showed no significant differences.

The current meta-analysis provides evidence that EPA may be more efficacious than DHA in treating depression. However, owing to the identified limitations of the included studies, larger, well-designed, randomized controlled trials of sufficient duration are needed to confirm these findings.

The meta-analytic findings provide strong evidence that bipolar depressive symptoms may be improved by adjunctive use of omega-3. The evidence, however, does not support its adjunctive use in attenuating mania.

There was no significant difference between omega-3 fatty acids and placebo in this study in which all participants received supportive psychotherapy. The manualized supportive psychotherapy warrants further study. The low intake of dietary omega-3 fatty acids among participants is of concern, in consideration of the widely established health advantages in utero and in infants.

These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis. identifier: NCT00519779.

This is formally a negative study, suggesting that there is no benefit for omega-3 fatty acids over placebo in treating PND. The reason could be that the study was underpowered due to recruitment difficulties and therefore we suggest that it may be unwise to interpret this result as conclusive. Omega-3 is a natural product that is a safe and well-tolerated treatment. Further research is therefore needed in this area to establish whether omega-3 fatty acids are an effective treatment for PND.

This study did not find overall evidence of efficacy for adjunctive treatment with EPA 6 g/day in outpatients with bipolar depression or rapid cycling bipolar disorder.

This trial failed to show a significant effect of DHA monotherapy in subjects with major depression.

To our knowledge, this is the first trial of n-3 supplementation in the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. In women with PD without MDE at baseline, the 8-wk changes in PD and depressive scales improved significantly more with E-EPA than with placebo. This trial was registered at as ISRCTN69617477.

Treatment with ethyl-eicosapentaenoate at a dosage of 1 g/d was effective in treating depression in patients who remained depressed despite adequate standard therapy.

A 4-month period of DHA supplementation (345 mg/d) does not decrease symptoms of ADHD.

A subgroup of children with ADHD who used n-3 PUFA supplements achieved and maintained symptom control. The data of the present study also supported n-3 PUFA safety and tolerability, but limited changes were noted in the FA profile in French Canadians with ADHD.

AA/EPA and mood state are differently influenced by diet and Omega-3, body fat is particularly reduced by Zone diet, while blood parameters such as triglycerides/HDL ratio, insulin and homocysteine are related to AA/EPA variations. These findings are discussed in terms of differences in the composition of the diets and the influences of Omega-3 on physiological functions.

Among older persons with AMD, oral supplementation with LCPUFAs or lutein/zeaxanthin had no statistically significant effect on cognitive function.

Despite preclinical studies suggesting that the effect of O3FA might be augmented with pyrimidines, add-on CYT did not substantially improve mood symptoms in BD. In addition, although a power analysis indicated that the sample size would be adequate to see beneficial effects similar to those previously reported, O3FA treatment by itself was not superior to placebo for BD.

Group differences in change scores all favored HUFA, reaching conventional significance levels for 3 out of 14 scales. (5) HUFA supplementation appears to reduce ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Given the safety and tolerability of this simple treatment, results from this pilot study strongly support the case for further investigations.

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, particularly with higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid, was modestly effective in the treatment of ADHD.

N-3 PUFAs improved scores on the control/perfectionism scale of the cognitive reactivity measure. No effects were found on the other cognitive tasks and no consistent effects on mood were observed. The present findings indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a selective effect on risky decision making in healthy volunteers, which is unrelated to impulsiveness.

Omega-3 fatty acids lowered T(2) values, consistent with the hypothesis that the fluidity of cell membranes was altered. Further studies are needed to clarify the significance of alterations in brain physiology induced by omega-3 fatty acids, as reflected in T(2) values.

Omega3 fatty acids were well tolerated and improved the short-term course of illness in this preliminary study of patients with bipolar disorder.

Supplementation with DHA-rich FO, in comparison with placebo, resulted in a significant increase in the concentrations of oxy-Hb and total levels of Hb, indicative of increased cerebral blood flow (CBF), during the cognitive tasks. In comparison, no effect on CBF was observed following supplementation with EPA-rich FO, where concentration changes in the chromophores followed the same pattern as placebo. These encouraging pilot data warrant further application of NIRS in this area.

Supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid mix increased EPA and DHA concentrations in erythrocyte membranes and improved working memory function, but had no effect on other cognitive measures and parent- and teacher-rated behavior in the study population. Improved working memory correlated significantly with increased EPA, DHA and decreased AA (arachidonic acid).

These results add to preliminary findings that ADHD-related problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity might respond to treatment with PUFAs and that improvements may continue with supplementation extending to 30 weeks.

This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD;

Thus, the results of this pilot study suggest the need for further research with both n-3 FA and vitamin E in children with behavioral disorders.

Twenty-four week supplementation with 900 mg/d DHA improved learning and memory function in ARCD and is a beneficial supplement that supports cognitive health with aging.

Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15-week EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement.

  • Ginkgo biloba for the Nervous System

Compared with placebo, the use of G. biloba, 120 mg twice daily, did not result in less cognitive decline in older adults with normal cognition or with mild cognitive impairment.

Due to its multiple pharmacological actions, EGb 761 provides an interesting response to the prevention of mountain sickness for moderate altitude (5400 m) with gradual exposure. It also decreased vasomotor disorders of the extremities, as demonstrated by plethysmography (p < 10(-8)) and a specific questionnaire (p < 10(-9)).

EGb 761® improved cognitive functioning, neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional abilities in both types of dementia.

EGb was safe and appears capable of stabilizing and, in a substantial number of cases, improving the cognitive performance and the social functioning of demented patients for 6 months to 1 year. Although modest, the changes induced by EGb were objectively measured by the ADAS-Cog and were of sufficient magnitude to be recognized by the caregivers in the GERRI.

GBT tablet can improve the therapeutic efficacy as well improve cognitive ability and cerebral blood flow supply of patients with VCIND.

In conclusion, treatment with EGb 761(®) at a once-daily dose of 240 mg was safe and resulted in a significant and clinically relevant improvement in cognition, psychopathology, functional measures and quality of life of patients and caregivers.

In this study, prophylactic acetazolamide therapy decreased the symptoms of AMS and trended toward reducing its incidence. We found no evidence of similar efficacy for Ginkgo biloba.

Long-term use of standardised ginkgo biloba extract in this trial did not reduce the risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease compared with placebo.

No differences in the number of (gastrointestinal) side effects were observed between placebo and verum groups. These results indicate that the use of Ginkgo extracts in elderly individuals with cognitive impairment might be promising. Further research using both subjective and objective measurements is recommended.

The data add further evidence on the safety and efficacy of EGb 761 in the treatment of cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of dementia.

The frequency of therapy responders in the two treatment groups differed significantly in favor of EGb 761, with p < 0.005 in Fisher's Exact Test. The intent-to-treat analysis of 205 patients led to similar efficacy results. Thus, the clinical efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in dementia of the Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia was confirmed. The investigational drug was found to be well tolerated.

The source and composition of GBE products may determine the effectiveness of GBE for prophylaxis of AMS.

These exploratory findings helped to develop three hypotheses that will have to be proven in further studies: (1) there is no significant difference in the efficiency between EGb 761(R) and donepezil, (2) a combination therapy will be superior to a mono-therapy with one of both substances and (3) there will be less side effects under a combination therapy than under mono-therapy with donepezil.

This is the first study to demonstrate that 1 day of pretreatment with ginkgo 60 mg TID may significantly reduce the severity of AMS prior to rapid ascent from sea level to 4205 m.

This study provides evidence supporting the use of G biloba in the prevention of AMS, demonstrating that 24 hours of pretreatment with G biloba and subsequent maintenance during exposure to high altitude are sufficient to reduce the incidence of AMS in participants with no previous high-altitude experience.

When compared with placebo, ginkgo is not effective at preventing acute mountain sickness. Acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily afforded robust protection against symptoms of acute mountain sickness.

Although the mechanisms by which Ginkgo biloba may contribute to overall enhancement of the parameters evaluated have not been specified, this plant extract certainly appears to be effective in the treatment of cognitive deficits in older people. Further research into its use is called for on the basis of the results obtained here.

At 8 weeks, there were significant differences in the mean decrease in SOD and CAT levels but not in GPX levels between treatment groups. The changes in SOD and CAT levels were correlated with the change in SAPS in group I, but not in the group II. The present study supported the findings of the previous study demonstrating that EGb might enhance the efficiency of antipsychotic in patients with schizophrenia, particularly on positive symptoms of the disorder.

Complexation with phosphatidylserine appears to potentiate the cognitive effects associated with a low dose of GBE. Further research is required to identify whether this effect is due to the complexation of the extracts, their mere combination, or the separate psychopharmacological actions of the two extracts.

Discontinuation of EGb reversed most of these effects. Based on the animal data, these results suggest that EGb may improve sleep continuity and enhance Non-REM sleep due to a weakening of tonic CRH-activity. The compensation of the deficient Non-REM component in depression by the EGb application may provide a new additional treatment strategy, especially in the treatment of the depressive syndrome with sleep disturbance.

EGb 761 (240 mg once daily) improves free recall of appointments in middle-aged healthy volunteers, which requires high demands on self-initiated retrieval of learned material. This function is known to be sensitive to normal aging, i.e., reduced in healthy middle-aged subjects. No effects are seen in a less demanding everyday memory task which does not tap this critical function. This ties in with previous studies which found specific patterns of benefit from EGb 761 in demanding cognitive tasks.

EGb produced a mean 7.9+/-7.0 point reduction in the total Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms score compared with a mean 1.8+/-3.5 point reduction in the placebo group (P=0.034). These preliminary data suggested that EGb was found useful for enhancing the effect of clozapine on negative symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

EGb treatment may enhance the effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs and reduce their extrapyramidal side effects.

Following ginkgo and the ginkgo/ginseng combination performance of both the Serial Threes and Serial Sevens, subtraction tasks was also improved at the later testing sessions. No modulation of the speed of performing attention tasks was evident. Improvements in self-rated mood was also found following ginkgo and to a lesser extent the combination product.

For this purpose we recruited 10 healthy volunteers of both sexes and recorded sleep polysomnograms in a randomised cross-over study, comparing sleep polysomnograms taken the night after a single evening dose of Li 1370 (240 mg) with sleep polysomnograms taken after an evening dose of placebo. No significant differences in sleep parameters (including REM sleep measures) were detected; however sleep efficiency measures and subjective sleep quality reports showed that Li 1370 was well tolerated.

It was safe and well tolerated and may thus be of particular value in elderly patients with anxiety related to cognitive decline.

nCBF measured by DSC-MRI has good intrasubject reproducibility. In this small cohort of normal elderly individuals, a mild increase in CBF is found in the left parietal-occipital WM after EGb, as well as a small but statistically significant increase in global CBF.

Not included were three subjects who dropped out after 6 weeks. A validated, sex (gender)-orientated questionnaire was recorded at - 1, 0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks, and a non-blind follow-up for a further 6-weeks on Ginkgo. Hamilton anxiety and depression ratings were made at 0, 6 and 12 weeks and simple global assessments of alertness and memory. There were some spectacular individual responses in both groups, but no statistically significant differences, and no differences in side-effects.

Overall, the results from both objective, standardized, neuropsychological tests and a subjective, follow-up self-report questionnaire provided complementary evidence of the potential efficacy of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 in enhancing certain neuropsychological/memory processes of cognitively intact older adults, 60 years of age and over.

Some improvement in quality of life and cognitive function were noted with Ginkgo biloba. However, treatment with Ginkgo biloba was associated with a high dropout rate.

Taken together, the findings from standardized neuropsychologic assessment and a subjective, self-report questionnaire suggested that relatively short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) utilization of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 may prove efficacious in enhancing certain neurocognitive functions/processes of cognitively intact older adults.

The BDNF system may be implicated in the pathophysiology of TD and its improvement with antioxidant treatment. Furthermore, patients with the genetic potential for greater BDNF release (Val/Val at 66) may obtain a greater reduction in TD from EGb-761 treatment.

The most striking result, however, was a highly significant and sustained increase in the number of Serial Sevens responses following 320 mg of the Ginkgo-Ginseng combination at all post-treatment testing times. This was accompanied by improved accuracy during Serial Sevens and Serial Threes following the 640 mg and the 960 mg dose, respectively. The paper concludes with speculation into the possible mechanisms underlying these effects.

The results of this study suggest that administration of G.biloba was less effective than methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD.

This activation was absent if they were treated with EGb 761. The performance in a short memory test with higher scores achieved by women remained unaffected by EGb 761 treatment. Thus, this study provides evidence that EGb 761 has an inhibitory action on blood pressure and it may influence cortisol release in response to some stress stimuli.

This newly developed, holistic fresh leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba is a safe, effective, and, at least, adjuvant treatment option for patients with mild cognitive impairments.

  • Inositol for the Nervous System

Because inositol is a natural compound with few known side effects, it is attractive to patients who are ambivalent about taking psychiatric medication. Continuing reports of inositol's efficacy in the treatment of depression, panic disorder, and OCD should stimulate replication studies.

Inositol is as therapeutic in patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating as it is in patients with depression and panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders. This increases its parallelism with serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors.

The authors conclude that inositol is effective in depression, panic, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, a spectrum of disorders responsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

The authors conclude that inositol's efficacy, the absence of significant side effects, and the fact that inositol is a natural component of the human diet make it a potentially attractive therapeutic for panic disorder.

The authors investigated the effect of a single dose of 20 g inositol on an m-CPP challenge in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial in panic-disorder patients. Seven patients had robust psychological, physiological and endocrine responses to 0.08 mg m-CPP i.v.; inositol had virtually no effect on these responses, although it had some acute effects during the evening before the challenge. A similar trial involving chronic inositol would be of interest.

In the present study, by using a new pharmaceutical formulation, we were able to clearly prove the efficacy of myo-inositol in PMDD.

No differences were found in primary pairwise comparison analyses of open-label augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, or risperidone. Post hoc secondary analyses suggest that lamotrigine may be superior to inositol and risperidone in improving treatment-resistant bipolar depression.

Some antidepressants, such as Lithium, can augment the antidepressant effect of serotonin selective uptake inhibitors (SSRI) in patients who have failed to respond to SSRI. Inositol has demonstrated antidepressant effects but in a controlled double blind augmentation trial did not improve depression in SSRI treatment failures.

These pilot data suggest a controlled study with an adequate sample size, and the appropriate rating scale may demonstrate efficacy for inositol in bipolar depression. The tolerability and the 'natural substance' aspect of inositol may be particularly appealing to subjects with bipolar depression.

This may be the first use of the precursor strategy for a second messenger rather than a neurotransmitter in treating depression. Although inositol had a significant antidepressant effect in this study, replication is crucial.

  • Kava for the Nervous System

Although the results show consistent advantages for WS 1490 over placebo in several psychiatric scales and indicate significant improvements in the patients' general well-being, the differences versus placebo were not as large as in previous trials which employed 300 mg/d of the same extract. WS 1490 was well tolerated, with no influence on liver function tests and only one trivial adverse event (tiredness) attributable to the study drug.

Compared with placebo, kava extract appears to be an effective symptomatic treatment option for anxiety. The data available from the reviewed studies suggest that kava is relatively safe for short-term treatment (1 to 24 weeks), although more information is required. Further rigorous investigations, particularly into the long-term safety profile of kava are warranted.

Forty patients (2x20) were included into the study. WS1490 was superior to placebo regarding the HAMA (P=0.01) and Bf-S (P=0.002) total scores and all secondary efficacy measures. The tolerance of WS1490 was not inferior to placebo. The study confirms the anxiolytic efficacy and good tolerance of WS1490 and shows that a further symptom reduction is possible after a change-over from benzodiazepine treatment.

HAMA subscores somatic and psychic anxiety, Clinical Global Impression, Self-Report Symptom Inventory-90 Items revised, and Adjective Mood Scale. Adverse events were rare and distributed evenly in both groups. These results support WS 1490 as a treatment alternative to tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines in anxiety disorders, with proven long-term efficacy and none of the tolerance problems associated with tricyclics and benzodiazepines.

Improvement was observed with both treatments but no differences were found in the principal analysis. Post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences based on baseline anxiety severity, whereby kava was superior on the SARA in low anxiety and placebo was superior on the HADS and SARA in high anxiety. Both treatments were well tolerated. Although kava was not superior to placebo, it would be premature to rule it out as efficacious in GAD.

It can be concluded that the applied 150 mg WS 1490 per day is an effective and safe treatment of non-psychotic anxiety syndromes in the described population.

The aqueous Kava preparation produced significant anxiolytic and antidepressant activity and raised no safety concerns at the dose and duration studied. Kava appears equally effective in cases where anxiety is accompanied by depression. This should encourage further study and consideration of globally reintroducing aqueous rootstock extracts of Kava for the management of anxiety.

Thus, unlike conventional benzodiazepine-type anxiolytics, which tend to impair cognitive performance and to increase the occurrence of negative affective states, Kava is a potent anxiolytic agent, which, additionally, can facilitate cognitive functioning and can increase positive affectivity related to exhilaration.

We conclude that sleep disturbances associated with non-psychotic anxiety disorders can be effectively and safely treated with kava extract WS 1490.

Individuals taking kava or valerian reported less pressure during the task at T2 relative to T1. There were no significant differences in BP, HR or subjective reports of pressure between T1 and T2 in the controls. Behavioural performance on the colour/word task did not change between the groups over the two time points. The results suggest that kava and valerian may be beneficial to health by reducing physiological reactivity during stressful situations.

The proportion of patients with no side-effects was 58% with each drug respectively and the 'commonest' effect was vivid dreams with valerian (16%), followed by dizziness with kava (12% ). These compounds may be useful in the treatment of stress and insomnia but further studies are required to determine their relative roles for such indications.

  • L-Carnitine for the Nervous System

L-carnitine therapy (50 mg/kilogram-bodyweight/day) administered for 3-months significantly improved several clinical measurements of ASD severity, but subsequent studies are recommended.

Acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine showed beneficial effect on fatigue and attention concentration. Less improvement was found by the combined treatment. Acetylcarnitine had main effect on mental fatigue and propionylcarnitine on general fatigue.

Administration of levocarnitine to healthy elderly subjects resulted in a reduction of total fat mass, an increase of total muscle mass, and appeared to exert a favourable effect on fatigue and serum lipids.

Also, after the physical load, the subjective feeling of fatigue assessed with a visual analogue scale was lower in the citric acid group than in the placebo group. In contrast, l-carnitine had no effect on chromogranin A or subjective fatigue. These results suggest that citric acid reduces physiological stress and attenuates physical fatigue, whereas l-carnitine does not.

Although this experience deserves further studies, these results indicate that LAC may be of benefit in patients with FMS, providing improvement in pain as well as the general and mental health of these patients.

However, we observed a stronger reduction of hyperactivity and improvement of social behavior in patients treated with LAC, compared with the placebo group, as determined by the Conners' Global Index Parents and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Our results show that LAC (20-50 mg/kg/day) represents a safe alternative to the use of stimulant drugs for the treatment of ADHD in FXS children.

It is concluded that during submaximal exercise after glycogen depletion (i.e., at a high lipid flux) substrate metabolism is not influenced by L-carnitine supplementation.

L-Carnitine therapy is safe and effective in ameliorating fatigue in celiac disease. Since L-carnitine is involved in muscle energy production its decreased absorption due to OCTN2 reduction might explain muscular symptoms in celiac disease patients. The diet-induced OCTN2 increase, improving carnitine absorption, might explain the L-carnitine treatment efficacy.

Our data show that administering ALC may reduce both physical and mental fatigue in elderly and improves both the cognitive status and physical functions.

Our study indicates that oral administration of levocarnitine produces a reduction of total fat mass, increases total muscular mass, and facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions.

Patients with HE treated with ALC showed a decrease in the severity of both mental and physical fatigue and an increase in physical activity. This trial was registered at as NCT01223742.

Six patients withdrew from the study because of adverse reactions (five on amantadine and one on ALCAR). Statistical analysis showed significant effects of ALCAR compared with amantadine for the Fatigue Severity Scale (p = 0.039). There were no significant effects for any of the secondary outcome variables. The results of this study show that ALCAR is better tolerated and more effective than amantadine for the treatment of MS-related fatigue.

The benefits of ALC in comparison with placebo are demonstrated in greater reductions in serum ammonia levels, as well as in improvements of neuropsychological functioning.

The improvement of cognitive deficits, the reduction of ammonia, and the modification of EEG in patients treated with ALC suggest that ALC could represent a new tool in the treatment of severe hepatic encephalopathy.

The results of this study suggest that ALC can reduce craving and the time to first drink. ALC use was safe. Further studies are needed to clarify to confirm, over longer periods, these short-term outcome benefits.

This study shows that ALC treatment is associated with significant improvement in patient energy levels, general functioning and well-being. The improvement of quality of life is associated with reduction of anxiety and depression.

Treatment with carnitine significantly decreased the attention problems and aggressive behavior in boys with ADHD.

We hypothesize that correction of carnitine depletion, either by levocarnitine supplementation or by valproate dose reduction, may enhance recovery from hypocarnitinemia-associated encephalopathy in psychiatric patients. Our findings also suggest that ethnic traits may affect carnitine bioavailability as well as cognitive outcomes in this clinical context. Further studies of carnitine metabolism and supplementation in psychiatric patients are warranted.

  • Lavender for the Nervous System

Although anxiety about future dental visits seems to be unaffected, lavender scent reduces state anxiety in dental patients.

Anxiety, mood, alertness and calmness were assessed while patients waited for dental treatment. Statistical analyses revealed that compared to control condition both ambient odors of orange and lavender reduced anxiety and improved mood in patients waiting for dental treatment. These findings support the previous opinion that odors are capable of altering emotional states and may indicate that the use of odors is helpful in reducing anxiety in dental patients.

In conclusion, our results demonstrate that silexan is as effective as lorazepam in adults with GAD. The safety of silexan was also demonstrated. Since lavender oil showed no sedative effects in our study and has no potential for drug abuse, silexan appears to be an effective and well tolerated alternative to benzodiazepines for amelioration of generalised anxiety.

Lavandula oil preparation silexan is both efficacious and safe for the relief of anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. It has a clinically meaningful anxiolytic effect and alleviates anxiety related disturbed sleep.

The results in this trial justify to further investigate Silexan in disorders with accompanying restlessness caused by sub-threshold anxiety. Adverse reactions, predominantly gastrointestinal complaints, were judged as mild or moderate.

According to the study results, it can be concluded that the lavender fragrance had a beneficial effect on insomnia and depression in women college students. Repeated studies are needed to confirm effective proportions of lavender oil and carrier oil for insomnia and depression.

Lavender also increased stage 2 (light) sleep, and decreased rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep and the amount of time to reach wake after first falling asleep (wake after sleep onset latency) in women, with opposite effects in men. Thus, lavender serves as a mild sedative and has practical applications as a novel, nonphotic method for promoting deep sleep in young men and women and for producing gender-dependent sleep effects.

Quality of sleep in ischemic heart disease patients was significantly improved after aromatherapy with lavender oil. Therefore, using aromatherapy can improve the quality of their sleep and health.

The findings provided evidence the relaxing effect of inhaling lavender oil.

The methodology for this pilot study appeared to be appropriate. Outcomes favor lavender, and a larger trial is required to draw definitive conclusions.

The present study suggests that inhalation of lavender essential oil may be an effective and safe treatment modality in acute management of migraine headaches.

Their infants looked at them a greater percentage of the bath time and cried less and spent more time in deep sleep after bath. The cortisol levels of this group of mothers and infants significantly decreased, confirming the behavioral data showing increased relaxation of the mothers and their infants. These findings support a body of research showing the relaxing and sleep-inducing properties of lavender aroma.

  • Lemon Balm for the Nervous System

Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies.

These results suggest that the potential for M. officinalis to mitigate the effects of stress deserves further investigation.

Our study demonstrates, for the first time that chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. relieves stress-related effects. It is critical that further studies incorporate a placebo and investigate physiological stress markers.

The changes as observed after the application of this herbal composition are therefore in line with the idea of having induced a state of relaxation and regeneration. This interpretation suggests that one could expect from the ingestion of this lozenge to better cope with psychological and emotional stress. The data are further proof that recording computer aided quantitative EEG is a very fruitful and promising approach in psychophysiology.

These results suggest that doses of Melissa officinalis at or above the maximum employed here can improve cognitive performance and mood and may therefore be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The results also suggest that different preparations derived from the same plant species may exhibit different properties depending on the process used for the sample preparation.

  • Noopept for the Nervous System

  • Peppermint for the Nervous System

A significant analgesic effect with a reduction in sensitivity to headache was produced by a combination of peppermint oil and ethanol. The essential plant oil preparations often used in empiric medicine can thus be shown by laboratory tests to exert significant effects on mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of headache.

Simultaneous application of 1,000 mg of acetaminophen and 10% peppermint oil in ethanol solution leads to an additive effect which remains below the significance threshold, however. The patients reported no adverse events. This controlled study showed for the first time that a 10% peppermint oil in ethanol solution efficiently alleviates tension-type headache. Peppermint oil thus proves to be a well-tolerated and cost-effective alternative to usual therapies.

Furthermore, Colpermin significantly improved the quality of life. There was no significant adverse reaction. Colpermin is effective and safe as a therapeutic agent in patients with IBS suffering from abdominal pain or discomfort.

In terms of subjective mood peppermint increased alertness and ylang-ylang decreased it, but significantly increased calmness. These results provide support for the contention that the aromas of essential oils can produce significant and idiosyncratic effects on both subjective and objective assessments of aspects of human behavior. They are discussed with reference to possible pharmacological and psychological modes of influence.

Premedication with Colpermin was beneficial in terms of the time required for cecal intubation and total procedure time, reducing colonic spasm, increasing endoscopist satisfaction and decreasing pain in patients during colonoscopy.

  • PRL-8-53 for the Nervous System

  • Red Clover Extract for the Nervous System

  • Rhodiola Rosea for the Nervous System

Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise capacity in young healthy volunteers. This response was not altered by prior daily 4-week Rhodiola intake.

After 1 week of supplementation, the Rhodiola group showed a significant decrease (p = 0.027) in photon emission in comparison with the placebo group. Furthermore, after supplementation, a significant decrease (p = 0.049) concerning the experienced level of fatigue in the Rhodiola group was observed compared with the placebo group. No significant changes were observed between the ADAPT-232 and the placebo group.

Improvements were observed even after 3 days of treatment, as were continuing improvements after 1 and 4 weeks. Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 was safe and generally well tolerated. Adverse events were mostly of mild intensity and no serious adverse events were reported. Rhodiola extract at a dose of 200 mg twice daily for 4 weeks is safe and effective in improving life-stress symptoms to a clinically relevant degree.

It is concluded that the standardized extract SHR-5 shows anti-depressive potency in patients with mild to moderate depression when administered in dosages of either 340 or 680 mg/day over a 6-week period.

ln conclusion is that the study drug gave significant results compared to the placebo group but that the dose level probably was suboptimal.

R. rosea may have beneficial effects on physical performance, mental performance, and certain mental health conditions. There is, however, a lack of independent replications of the single different studies. Five of the 10 RCTs reached more than three points on the Jadad score (i.e., good quality). More research seems warranted.

The perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions mentioned above were investigated using 5 different tests. A statistically significant improvement in these tests was observed in the treatment group (RRE) during the first two weeks period. No side-effects were reported for either treatment noted. These results suggest that RRE can reduce general fatigue under certain stressful conditions.

The verum groups had AFI mean values of 1.0385 and 1.0195, 2 and 3 capsules respectively, whilst the figure for the placebo group was 0.9046. This was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001) for both doses (verum groups), whilst no significant difference between the two dosage groups was observed. There was a possible trend in favour of the lower dose in the psychometric tests. No such trend was found in the physiological tests.

  • Saffron for the Nervous System

At 6 weeks, Crocus sativus produced a significantly better outcome on the Hamilton depression rating scale than the placebo (d.f. = 1, F = 18.89, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the two groups in terms of the observed side effects. The results of this study indicate the efficacy of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. A large-scale trial is justified.

At the end of trial, petal of C. sativus was found to be effective similar to fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression (F=0.03, d.f.=1, P=0.84). In addition, in the both treatments, the remission rate was 25%. There were no significant differences in the two groups in terms of observed side effects. The present study is supportive of other studies which show antidepressant effect of C. sativus.

Findings from clinical trials conducted to date indicate that saffron supplementation can improve symptoms of depression in adults with MDD. Larger clinical trials, conducted by research teams outside of Iran, with long-term follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be made regarding saffron's efficacy and safety for treating depressive symptoms.

It seems saffron may safely and effectively improve some of the fluoxetine-induced sexual problems including arousal, lubrication, and pain.

Saffron at this dose was found to be effective similar to fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression (F = 0.13, d.f. = 1, P = 0.71). There were no significant differences in the two groups in terms of observed side effects. The results of this study indicate the efficacy of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. A large-scale trial is justified.

Saffron is a tolerable and efficacious treatment for fluoxetine-related erectile dysfunction.

The main overall finding from this study is that saffron may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. To the best of our knowledge this is the first clinical trial that supports this indication for saffron. A large-scale trial with placebo control is warranted.

The results of this study indicate the efficacy of C. sativus L. in the treatment of PMS. However, a tolerable adverse effects profile of saffron may well confirm the application of saffron as an alternative treatment for PMS. These results deserved further investigations.

The results of this study indicate the efficacy of petal of C. sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. A large-scale trial is justified.

The present findings support the existence of physiological and psychological effects of saffron odor in women. Our results indicate that saffron odor exert some effects in the treatment of PMS, dysmenorrhea and irregular menstruation. This is the first report to suggest that saffron odor may be effective in treating menstrual distress.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests that at least in the short-term, saffron is both safe and effective in mild to moderate AD. Larger confirmatory randomized controlled trials are called for.

This phase II study provides preliminary evidence of a possible therapeutic effect of saffron extract in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT138711051556N1).

  • SAME for the Nervous System

One patient experienced mild nausea, and another two patients developed mild diarrhea, which resolved spontaneously. The mean HDS score before treatment was 27.09 +/- 6.04 (mean +/- standard deviation) and was 9.55 +/- 7.29 after SAM treatment (p < 0.0001). Although uncontrolled and preliminary, this study suggests that SAM is well tolerated and may be a safe and effective alternative to the antidepressant agents currently used in patients with Parkinson's disease.

SAMe administered orally at a dose of 1,200 mg daily was shown to exert the same analgesic activity as naproxen at a dose of 750 mg daily. Both drugs were more effective than placebo (p less than 0.01).

SAMe has a slower onset of action but is as effective as celecoxib in the management of symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Longer studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of SAMe and the optimal dose to be used.

These preliminary results provide encouraging evidence for the use of SAMe in the treatment of MDD. Histamine and carnitine serum level may not necessarily moderate response to SAMe.

These preliminary results suggest that SAMe can be an effective, well-tolerated, and safe adjunctive treatment strategy for SRI nonresponders with major depressive disorder and warrant replication.

SAMe appears to be as effective as NSAIDs in reducing pain and improving functional limitation in patients with OA without the adverse effects often associated with NSAID therapies.

These preliminary data suggest that SAMe can improve memory-related cognitive symptoms in depressed patients, and warrant replication.

Psychometric tests concerning noopsychic and thymopsychic measures as well as critical flicker fusion frequency generally demonstrated a lack of differences between SAMe and placebo, which reflects a good tolerability of the drug in elderly subjects. This was corroborated by the findings on side effects, pulse and blood pressure.

  • Sarcosine for the Nervous System

Sarcosine treatment can benefit schizophrenic patients treated by antipsychotics including risperidone. The significant improvement with the sarcosine further supports the hypothesis of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia. Glycine transporter-1 is a novel target for the pharmacotherapy to enhance N-methyl-D-aspartate function.

Sarcosine treatment was better than d-serine in effect sizes for all outcome measures. Sarcosine also surpassed placebo in most of the measures of five PANSS factors and five SANS subscales. All treatments were well tolerated. These findings suggest that the GlyT-1 inhibitor is more efficacious than the NMDA/glycine site agonist in treatment for schizophrenia, including life quality and global function, at the dosages tested.

This first short-term treatment study on NMDA receptor-enhancing agents suggests that sarcosine, superior to D-serine, can benefit not only patients with long-term stable disease but also acutely ill persons with schizophrenia. This finding indicates that a glycine transporter 1 inhibitor may be more efficacious than NMDA-glycine site agonists for adjuvant treatment of schizophrenia, at least during the acute phase. Further studies are needed.

Unlike patients treated with other antipsychotics, patients who received clozapine treatment exhibit no improvement by adding sarcosine or agonists at the NMDA-glycine site. Clozapine possesses particular efficacy, possibly related to potentiation of NMDA-mediated neurotransmission. This may contribute to the clozapine's unique clinical efficacy and refractoriness to the addition of NMDA-enhancing agents.

  • Velvet Bean for the Nervous System

  • Vitamin B2 for the Nervous System

A 50% or greater reduction in headaches was seen in 14/21 patients in the placebo group and 12/27 patients in the riboflavin group (not significant P = .125). There were no differences between riboflavin and placebo for primary or secondary outcome variables. These results suggest that riboflavin is not an effective therapy for preventing migraine in children. A high placebo responder rate was seen, with implications for other studies of migraine in children.

In conclusion, riboflavin seems to be a well-tolerated, effective, and low-cost prophylactic treatment in children and adolescents suffering from migraine.

In this group of children with migraine, there is no evidence that 50 mg riboflavin has a prophylactic effect on migraine attacks. We found some evidence that 50 mg riboflavin may have a prophylactic effect on interval headaches that may correspond to mild migraine attacks or tension-type headache attacks in children with migraine.

In this pharmacogenetic study, riboflavin appears to be more effective in patients with migraine with non-H mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but could be related to the association of haplogroup H with increased activity in complex I, which is a major target for riboflavin. Our results may have ethnic implications, since haplogroup H is chiefly found in the European population.

None was serious. Because of its high efficacy, excellent tolerability, and low cost, riboflavin is an interesting option for migraine prophylaxis and a candidate for a comparative trial with an established prophylactic drug.

Riboflavin 25 mg showed an effect comparable to a combination of riboflavin 400 mg, magnesium 300 mg, and feverfew 100 mg. The placebo response exceeds that reported for any other placebo in trials of migraine prophylaxis, and suggests that riboflavin 25 mg may be an active comparator. There is at present conflicting scientific evidence with regard to the efficacy of these compounds for migraine prophylaxis.

We could demonstrate a significant reduction of headache frequency following riboflavin treatment. In addition, the number of abortive anti-migraine tablets was reduced. In line with previous studies our findings show that riboflavin is a safe and well-tolerated alternative in migraine prophylaxis.

  • Vitamin D for the Nervous System

  • Vitamin E for the Nervous System

  • Zinc for the Nervous System

Women who took MV and Zn showed a significant reduction in anger-hostility score (P=0.009) and depression-dejection score (P=0.011) in the Profile of Moods State (POMS) and a significant increase in serum Zn concentration (P=0.008), whereas women who took only MV did not. Our results suggest that Zn supplementation may be effective in reducing anger and depression.

Zinc monotherapy improves mood in overweight or obese subjects most likely through increasing BDNF levels.

Zinc supplementation augments the efficacy and speed of onset of therapeutic response to imipramine treatment, particularly in patients previously nonresponsive to antidepressant pharmacotherapies. These data suggest the participation of disturbed zinc/glutamatergic transmission in the pathophysiology of drug resistance.

Zinc supplementation in conjunction with antidepressant drugs might be beneficial for reducing depressive symptoms. However, its effect does not appear to be mediated through impact of zinc on inflammatory processes.

In the elderly, zinc supplementation accelerated the serum IGF-I response to EAA-W protein by 1 week and decreased a biochemical marker of bone resorption.

It can be concluded that patients with tinnitus may have low blood zinc levels (31%) and clinical and subjective improvement can be achieved by oral zinc medication. However, it remains to be seen whether the longer duration of treatment has more significant results.

Supplementation of ayurvedic zinc and zinc-rich foods are effective in improving cognitive performance and the recognition threshold for salt of adolescent girls.

The normalization of Zn2+ intake in stroke patients with low mineral intake may enhance neurological recovery.

The results show that zinc, as adjuvant agent for obsessive-compulsive disorder, produces improved outcomes.

These results suggest that zinc does not benefit mood in healthy older people.

  • 5-HTP for the Nervous System

  • African Geranium for the Nervous System

EPs 7630 proved to be an efficacious and well-tolerated option for the treatment of acute bronchitis in children and adolescents outside the strict indication for antibiotics.

EPs 7630 was shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment of acute bronchitis in children and adolescents outside the strict indication for antibiotics with patients treated with EPs 7630 perceiving a more favorable course of the disease and a good tolerability as compared with placebo.

EPs 7630 was superior in efficacy compared to placebo in the treatment of adults with acute bronchitis. Treatment with EPs 7630 clearly reduced the severity of symptoms and shortened the duration of working inability for nearly 2 days.

EPs 7630 was superior in efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of adults with acute bronchitis. It may therefore offer an effective alternative for acute bronchitis unless antibiotics are clearly indicated.

EPs 7630-solution is a well tolerated and effective treatment for acute bronchitis in adults outside the very restricted indication for an antibiotic therapy.

EPs represents an effective treatment of the common cold. It significantly reduces the severity of symptoms and shortens the duration of the common cold compared with placebo. The herbal drug is well tolerated.

EPs-7630 is effective in acute bronchitis outside the strict indication for antibiotics in 6-18 years old patients, with a dose of 60 mg or 90 mg daily offering the best benefit/risk ratio. EPs-7630 significantly reduces the severity of symptoms, leads to a more favourable course of the disease and a faster recovery from acute bronchitis compared with the placebo, and is well tolerated.

In conclusion, EPs 7630 is an effective and well tolerated treatment of acute bronchitis in adults, children and infants outside the strict indication for antibiotic treatment.

In conclusion, EPs 7630 is superior to placebo in the treatment of acute bronchitis and leads to faster remission of bronchitis related symptoms.

The onset of action appeared after two days on average. Adverse events occurred in a total of 16 patients. There were no serious adverse events. Altogether, 78% of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment.

This study demonstrated statistically significant and clinically relevant superiority of all three tested dosages of EPs 7630 over placebo. All dosages of EPs 7630 were well-tolerated. Taking into account both efficacy and safety, the results of this study indicate that the 20 mg tablets of EPs 7630 taken three times daily constitute the optimal dose with respect to the benefit-risk ratio.

  • Alanylglutamine for the Nervous System

  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the Nervous System

  • Beta-Alanine for the Nervous System

In conclusion, beta-alanine supplementation appears to improve submaximal cycle ergometry performance and TTE in young women, perhaps as a result of an increased buffering capacity due to elevated muscle carnosine concentrations.

In conclusion, despite a trend toward lower fatigue rates during 60 seconds of maximal exercise, 3 weeks of beta-alanine supplementation did not result in significant improvements in fatigue rates during high-intensity anaerobic exercise. However, higher training volumes and lower subjective feelings of fatigue in BA indicated that as duration of supplementation continued, the efficacy of beta-alanine supplementation in highly trained athletes became apparent.

Prior to and following supplementation, participants performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO(2peak), time to exhaustion (TTE), and power output, VO(2), and percent VO(2peak) associated with VT and LT. No significant group effects were found. However, within groups, a significant time effect was observed for CrBa on 5 of the 8 parameters measured. These data suggest that CrBA may potentially enhance endurance performance.

Results show that BA improved high-intensity cycling capacity. However, despite a 6-s (∼4%) increase in TTE with the addition of SB, this did not reach statistical significance, but magnitude-based inferences suggested a ∼70% probability of a meaningful positive difference.

The adjusted mean posttest PWC(FT) values (covaried for pretest PWC(FT) values) for the b-Ala and CrBA groups were greater than those for the PLA group (p < or = 0.05). However, there were no differences between the CrM vs. PLA, CrBA vs. b-Ala, CrM vs. b-Ala, or CrM vs. CrBA groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that b-Ala supplementation may delay the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Furthermore, there appeared to be no additive or unique effects of CrM vs. b-Ala alone on PWC(FT).

We suggest that BA supplementation, by improving intracellular pH control, improves muscle endurance in the elderly. This, we believe, could have importance in the prevention of falls, and the maintenance of health and independent living in elderly men and women.

  • Black Cohosh for the Nervous System

  • Black Turmeric for the Nervous System

  • Blueberry for the Nervous System

  • Branched Chain Amino Acids for the Nervous System

As a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in short-term memory performance was observed only in the CON group. These data indicate that an offshore sailing race enhances the feeling of fatigue, and decreases short-term memory performance. These detrimental consequences are reduced by a high-protein diet with BCAA.

In addition, the effects of exercise on the plasma concentration of the aromatic amino acids were altered when a BCAA supplement was given during the marathon.

It is concluded that BCAA supplementation might be recommended in sport activities that change in intensity and require quick responses to external signals (e.g., soccer and other team games).

Peak power output recorded during an incremental bicycle exercise decreased in C subjects but did not change significantly in BCAA subjects. Results of this study demonstrate that neither changes in body composition related to the ski mountaineering program nor muscular performance during isometric contraction was significantly affected by BCAA administration.

There was no difference in the physical performance between the two trials measured as the amount of work done during the last 20 min of exercise when the subjects performed at their maximum. The plasma concentration ratio of free tryptophan/BCAAs, which increased by 45% during exercise and by 150% 5 min after exercise in the placebo trial, remained unchanged or even decreased when BCAAs were ingested.

VJ after walking remained unchanged compared with the baseline in AA (P > 0.2), while it was reduced by ~10% in PL (P < 0.01), although with no significant difference in the reduction between the groups (P > 0.4). The responses of other variables were not significantly different between groups (all, P > 0.2). Thus, trail walking in the mountains required a high-intensity effort for older people, while the effects of BCAA and arginine supplementation were modest in this condition.

  • Bromelain for the Nervous System

  • CDP-choline for the Nervous System

  • Chlorella for the Nervous System

  • Chromium for the Nervous System

  • Cocoa Extract for the Nervous System

  • Coconut Oil for the Nervous System

  • Coffee bean extract for the Nervous System

  • D-Serine for the Nervous System

DSR treatment was well tolerated and resulted in increased DSR serum levels (p=0.001) and significantly reduced UPDRS (p=0.02), SAS (p=0.009) and PANSS (0.05) total scores. These preliminary findings suggest that DSR treatment may be beneficial in PD. Larger-sized studies with optimized DSR dosages are warranted.

DSR treatment was well tolerated and resulted in significantly (p=0.03) increased DSR serum levels. Compared with placebo administration, DSR treatment resulted in significantly reduced HAMA (p=0.007) and MISS (p=0.001) scores and a trend (p=0.07) towards improved CAPS total scores. These preliminary findings indicate that NMDAR glycine site-based pharmacotherapy may be effective in PTSD and warrant larger-sized clinical trials with optimized DSR dosages.

Sarcosine treatment was better than d-serine in effect sizes for all outcome measures. Sarcosine also surpassed placebo in most of the measures of five PANSS factors and five SANS subscales. All treatments were well tolerated. These findings suggest that the GlyT-1 inhibitor is more efficacious than the NMDA/glycine site agonist in treatment for schizophrenia, including life quality and global function, at the dosages tested.

The findings are relevant to translational research of NMDAR function and the development of NMDAR-glycine site treatments for specific psychiatric entities. Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Co-agonist D-serine in Healthy Humans;; NCT02051426.

The significant improvement with the D-serine further supports the hypothesis of NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia. Given the effects of D-serine on positive symptoms, a trial of D-serine alone in schizophrenia should be considered.

These findings 1) indicate that risperidone and olanzapine efficacy might be augmented with D-serine adjuvant treatment; 2) confirm D-serine efficacy against main schizophrenia symptom domains; and 3) warrant the assessment of D-serine antipsychotic monotherapy for this illness.

These findings support double-blind investigation of D-serine at doses> or =60 mg/kg/d, and suggest effectiveness in treatment of both persistent symptoms and neurocognitive dysfunction.

This first short-term treatment study on NMDA receptor-enhancing agents suggests that sarcosine, superior to D-serine, can benefit not only patients with long-term stable disease but also acutely ill persons with schizophrenia. This finding indicates that a glycine transporter 1 inhibitor may be more efficacious than NMDA-glycine site agonists for adjuvant treatment of schizophrenia, at least during the acute phase. Further studies are needed.

This study did not find a significant difference between drug and placebo. However, the results are limited by a relatively large placebo response and somewhat lower-achieved doses than in prior studies. Future studies will administer higher doses and will attempt to affect the NMDA receptor using other mechanisms, such as agonists of the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor or glycine reuptake inhibitors.

  • DHEA for the Nervous System

  • Eleuthero for the Nervous System

  • Folic Acid for the Nervous System

  • Forskolin for the Nervous System

  • Ginger for the Nervous System

  • Ginseng for the Nervous System

Accuracy of performing the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) was also improved following the glucose load. There was no evidence of a synergistic relationship between Panax ginseng and exogenous glucose ingestion on any cognitive outcome measure. Panax ginseng caused a reduction in blood glucose levels 1 hour following consumption when ingested without glucose. These results confirm that Panax ginseng may possess glucoregulatory properties and can enhance cognitive performance.

Ginseng may be a useful therapeutic adjunct in the management of NIDDM.

KRG showed good efficacy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease; however, further studies with larger samples of patients and a longer efficacy trial should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of KRG.

Our results suggest the administration of FG could improve the FNE in humans. The improvement may be related to an anxiolytic effect of FG which acts via GABAergic modification.

Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.

P. ginseng improves aspects of mental health and social functioning after 4 weeks of therapy, although these differences attenuate with continued use.

The positive effects of ginseng on health-related QoL in menopausal women should be further investigated. This study shows, however, that the beneficial effects of ginseng are most likely not mediated by hormone replacement-like effects, as physiological parameters such as FSH and estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, maturity index and vaginal pH were not affected by the treatment.

The present findings do not support claims that chronic ginseng supplementation--at either its clinically recommended level or at twice that level--enhances affect or mood in healthy young adults.

We found no evidence of additional benefits, nor attenuation of acute effects following repeated ingestion of Panax ginseng (G115).

Following ginkgo and the ginkgo/ginseng combination performance of both the Serial Threes and Serial Sevens, subtraction tasks was also improved at the later testing sessions. No modulation of the speed of performing attention tasks was evident. Improvements in self-rated mood was also found following ginkgo and to a lesser extent the combination product.

  • Glucosamine for the Nervous System

Compared with placebo, glucosamine, chondroitin, and their combination do not reduce joint pain or have an impact on narrowing of joint space. Health authorities and health insurers should not cover the costs of these preparations, and new prescriptions to patients who have not received treatment should be discouraged.

Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate alone or in combination did not reduce pain effectively in the overall group of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Exploratory analyses suggest that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate may be effective in the subgroup of patients with moderate-to-severe knee pain. ( number, NCT00032890.).

Heterogeneity among trials of glucosamine is larger than would be expected by chance. Glucosamine hydrochloride is not effective. Among trials with industry involvement, effect sizes were consistently higher. Potential explanations include different glucosamine preparations, inadequate allocation concealment, and industry bias.

It is concluded that glucosamine sulfate may be a safe and effective symptomatic Slow Acting Drug for OA.

Long-term treatment with glucosamine sulfate retarded the progression of knee osteoarthritis, possibly determining disease modification.

Our results suggest that although glucosamine appears to be safe, it is no more effective than placebo in treating the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis.

Our study demonstrates the structural efficacy of glucosamine and indistinguishable symptomatic efficacies for both compounds. Regarding the relatively sparse data on glucosamine and joint space narrowing and the absence of data on structural effects of chondroitin, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship among time, dose, patient baseline characteristics, and structural efficacy for an accurate, disease-modifying characterization of these 2 compounds.

The findings of this study indicate that glucosamine sulfate at the oral once-daily dosage of 1,500 mg is more effective than placebo in treating knee OA symptoms. Although acetaminophen also had a higher responder rate compared with placebo, it failed to show significant effects on the algofunctional indexes.

  • Glycine for the Nervous System

  • Gotu kola for the Nervous System

  • Green Tea Extract for the Nervous System

  • Holy Basil for the Nervous System

  • Horse Chestnut for the Nervous System

  • Huang Qi for the Nervous System

  • Iron for the Nervous System

  • Kanna for the Nervous System

  • Krill Oil for the Nervous System

  • Kudzu for the Nervous System

  • L-Tyrosine for the Nervous System

Administration of tyrosine significantly improved matching accuracy at the longest delay interval most affected by cold exposure, such that matching accuracy in the cold following tyrosine was at the same level as matching accuracy following placebo or tyrosine administration at 22 degrees C. Tyrosine administered prior to 22 degrees C exposure had no effect on DMTS performance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

The group supplied with the tyrosine-rich drink performed better on a memory and a tracking task than the group supplied with the carbohydrate-rich drink. In addition, the supplementation of tyrosine decreased systolic blood pressure. No effects on mood were found. These findings suggest that supplementation with tyrosine may, under operational circumstances characterized by psychosocial and physical stress, reduce the effects of stress and fatigue on cognitive task performance.

The improvements lasted on the order of 3 h. The results of this study also suggest that tyrosine is a relatively benign treatment at this dose. After further testing with other doses and timing of administration, tyrosine may prove useful in counteracting performance decrements during episodes of sustained work coupled with sleep loss.

Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design we investigated whether tyrosine (100 mg/kg) would protect humans from some of the adverse consequences of a 4.5 hour exposure to cold and hypoxia. Tyrosine significantly decreased symptoms, adverse moods, and performance impairments in subjects who exhibited average or greater responses to these environmental conditions. These results suggest that tyrosine should be evaluated in a variety of acutely stressful situations.

  • Lion's Mane for the Nervous System

  • Maca for the Nervous System

  • Magnesium for the Nervous System

  • Microlactin for the Nervous System

  • N-Acetylcysteine for the Nervous System

Across placebo and NAC conditions, only mild side effects were noted, and the number of subjects reporting side effects did not differ. There were trends for a greater reduction in withdrawal symptoms and craving within the NAC condition. These preliminary results suggest that NAC is well tolerated in healthy, cocaine-dependent individuals and may reduce cocaine-related withdrawal symptoms and craving.

These reductions parallel those noted in prior NAC treatment studies in cocaine and nicotine dependent individuals (6,7). Although the present findings should be interpreted in light of the limitations of this preliminary study (i.e. open-label study without a control group, limited semi-quantitative urine drug testing), data strongly suggest the need for a more rigorous examination of NAC for treatment of cannabis dependence.

These results indicate that the cystine-glutamate exchanger and the glial glutamate transporter are downregulated after nicotine self-administration, and augmenting exchanger activity with N-acetylcysteine reduced the number of cigarettes smoked in nicotine-dependent individuals.

This study, the first to our knowledge that examines the efficacy of a glutamatergic agent in the treatment of trichotillomania, found that N-acetylcysteine demonstrated statistically significant reductions in trichotillomania symptoms. No adverse events occurred in the N-acetylcysteine group, and N-acetylcysteine was well tolerated. Pharmacologic modulation of the glutamate system may prove to be useful in the control of a range of compulsive behaviors.

  • Ornithine for the Nervous System

  • Oxiracetam for the Nervous System

  • Patchouli for the Nervous System

  • Phenylpiracetam for the Nervous System

  • Polypodium leucotomos for the Nervous System

  • Pramiracetam for the Nervous System

  • PS for the Nervous System

In conclusion, a daily supplement of S-PS does not affect memory or other cognitive functions in older individuals with memory complaints.

In conclusion, Soy-PS used in this study is considered as safety food ingredient and 6 months of Soy-PS supplementation could improve the memory functions of the elderly with memory complaints.

Patients were treated for 12 weeks with a formulation of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS; 100 mg t.i.d.) or placebo, and those treated with the drug improved on several cognitive measures relative to those administered placebo. Differences between treatment groups were most apparent among patients with less severe cognitive impairment. Results suggest that phosphatidylserine may be a promising candidate for study in the early stages of AD.

PS significantly improved ADHD symptoms and short-term auditory memory in children. PS supplementation might be a safe and natural nutritional strategy for improving mental performance in young children suffering from ADHD.

PS supplementation significantly increased cognitive function prior to exercise. Improved cognitive function could benefit athletes and non-athletes alike. PS did not appear to affect mood or endocrine response prior to or following resistance exercise.

Statistics were calculated using ANOVA (group x trial x time). The main finding of the study was that chronic supplementation of phosphatidylserine significantly decreases Beta-1 power in right hemispheric frontal brain regions (F8; P < 0.05) before and after induced stress. The results for Beta-1 power in the PS group were connected to a more relaxed state compared to the controls.

The improvement carried over to the following wash-out and treatment phases. There were no significant improvements in GBS dementia rating scale, psychometric tests or P300-latency. 16-channel EEG mapping findings indicated that the patients initially showed higher power values in all frequency bands (except alpha), when compared to a younger, healthy control group. BC-PS reduced the higher power values compared to placebo, shifting EEG power more towards the normal level.

The results indicate that PS-DHA may improve cognitive performance in non-demented elderly with memory complaints. Post-hoc analysis of subgroups suggests that participants with higher baseline cognitive status were most likely to respond to PS-DHA. The results of this exploratory study should be followed up by additional studies aimed at confirming the present tentative conclusions.

The results of this 30-week study suggest that PS-Omega3 may reduce ADHD symptoms in children. Preliminary analysis suggests that this treatment may be especially effective in a subgroup of hyperactive-impulsive, emotionally and behaviorally-dysregulated ADHD children.

These results are encouraging. However, they await double-blind controlled verification in a large sample before suggesting that this may be a viable approach to the treatment of age-related cognitive decline, without exposing the patients to possible hazards involved in the treatment with bovine derivative of PS (BC-PS).

This is the first study to report improved exercise capacity following phosphatidylserine supplementation. These findings suggest that phosphatidylserine might possess potential ergogenic properties.

  • Pycnogenol for the Nervous System

  • Pyruvate for the Nervous System

  • Reishi for the Nervous System

  • Resveratrol for the Nervous System

  • Rose Essential Oil for the Nervous System

  • Rose Hip for the Nervous System

  • Royal Jelly for the Nervous System

  • Serrapeptase for the Nervous System

  • Soy lecithin for the Nervous System

  • Theanine for the Nervous System

  • Tongkat Ali for the Nervous System

  • Uridine for the Nervous System

  • Valerian for the Nervous System

  • Vinpocetine for the Nervous System

  • Vitamin B12 for the Nervous System

  • Vitamin B3 for the Nervous System

  • Vitamin C for the Nervous System

  • Yohimbine for the Nervous System

Consistent with prediction the group that took yohimbine hydrochloride prior to exposure sessions showed significantly greater improvement in peak fear at the one-week follow-up behavioral assessment (d=1.68). This was also true across other outcome measures with large to very large effect sizes. These data provide initial support for exposure enhancing effect of single-dose yohimbine hydrochloride in a clinical application.

Participants improved significantly on anxiety measures independently of drug condition, after 4 sessions of VRET. These data do not support the initial findings of exposure-enhancing effects of YOH in this dosage in clinical populations.

Sixteen patients received the combination of pyridostigmine and yohimbine, but no evidence of synergistic pressor effect was found. Engaging residual sympathetic tone with yohimbine is a more effective approach to improve orthostatic hypotension as compared with pyridostigmine in patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.

There was a significant correlation between craving and the degree of alcoholism severity. Acamprosate administration did not influence craving. Both yohimbine and mCPP challenges lead to elevated alcohol craving in a clinical population of alcoholics, and these cravings correlate with alcoholism severity. Under the experimental conditions used, alcohol cravings induced by these two stimuli are not sensitive to acamprosate at clinically used doses.

These results do not support the hypotheses that high aerobic fitness is associated with attenuated psychological and neuroendocrine responses to yohimbine or to psychosocial stress.

This study supports the relationship of anxiety and interoceptive processes with medial frontal, insular, and thalamic activation and provides a baseline for comparison of normal yohimbine-induced CNS adrenergic activation, adrenergically-based symptoms, and other markers of adrenergic function to stress, emotion, and the adrenergic pathophysiologies of various CNS-related disorders.

  • Yuan Zhi for the Nervous System

  • Cane Sugar Extract for the Nervous System

  • Sodium Bicarbonate for the Nervous System

What are the general functions of the Nervous System?

Antioxidant potential
Mental health
Overall health
Emotional health
Sleep quality
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