Overall Systems – Cost Effective Supplements

Overall Systems

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Overall Systems definition

More than one body system is affected.

Overall Systems conditions

DNA Damage
Oxidative Damage
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Vascular Diseases

Overall Systems supplements

  • Black Turmeric for the Overall Systems

  • Blueberry for the Overall Systems

A 2 (treatment) × 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Increases in F₂-isoprostanes and 5-OHMU were significantly less in BB and plasma IL-10 and NK cell counts were significantly greater in BB vs. CON. Changes in all other markers did not differ. This study indicates that daily blueberry consumption for 6 weeks increases NK cell counts, and acute ingestion reduces oxidative stress and increases anti-inflammatory cytokines.

In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems sufficient to improve cell antioxidant defense against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function.

In conclusion, the consumption of the WB drink for 6 weeks significantly reduced the levels of oxidized DNA bases and increased the resistance to oxidatively induced DNA damage. Future studies should address in greater detail the role of WB in endothelial function.

Variants for COMT tended to benefit less or even experienced detrimental effects from intervention. With respect to GSTT1, the effect is ambiguous; variants respond better in terms of intervention-related increase in TEAC, but wild-types benefit more from its protecting effects against oxidative DNA damage. We conclude that genotyping for relevant polymorphisms enables selecting subgroups among the general population that benefit more of DNA damage-modulating effects of micronutrients.

In conclusion, the consumption of wild blueberries, a food source with high in vitro antioxidant properties, is associated with a diet-induced increase in ex vivo serum antioxidant status. It has been suggested that increasing the antioxidant status of serum may result in the reduced risk of many chronic degenerative diseases.

In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (- 28 and - 17%, respectively) than in the control group (- 9 and - 9%) (P lt 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses.

This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage's inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise and blueberry consumption. These findings may benefit the sporting community who should consider dietary interventions that specifically target health and performance adaptation.

  • Chokeberry for the Overall Systems

  • Coenzyme Q10 for the Overall Systems

Although there is an increased demand for plasma CoQ10 during endurance exercise and CoQ10 supplement can depress lipid peroxidation, there is no effect of CoQ10 supplementation on liver mitochondrial function and aerobic capacity in adolescent athletes.

In patients with ischaemic LVSD, 8 weeks supplement of CoQ improved mitochondrial function and FMD; and the improvement of FMD correlated with the change in mitochondrial function, suggesting that CoQ improved endothelial function via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with ischaemic LVSD.

Our results provide further evidence suggesting that CoQ10 supplementation is associated with alleviating oxidative stress, although it does not show any significant effects on sperm concentration, motility and morphology. It may be suggested that CoQ10 could be taken as an adjunct therapy in cases of OAT. Further studies are needed to draw a final conclusion.

The results of this study suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the headache symptoms associated with FM. CoQ10 supplementation should be examined in a larger placebo controlled trial as a possible treatment in FM.

Coenzyme Q(10) supplementation improves endothelial function of conduit arteries of the peripheral circulation in dyslipidaemic patients with Type II diabetes. The mechanism could involve increased endothelial release and/or activity of nitric oxide due to improvement in vascular oxidative stress, an effect that might not be reflected by changes in plasma F(2)-isoprostane concentrations.

Coenzyme Q10 supplements at a dose of 150 mg can decrease oxidative stress and increase antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with CAD. A higher dose of coenzyme Q10 supplements (>150 mg/d) might promote rapid and sustainable antioxidation in patients with CAD.

CoQ(10) treatment attenuated the rise in lactate after cycle ergometry, increased (∽1.93 ml) VO(2)/kg lean mass after 5 minutes of cycling (P < 0.005), and decreased gray matter choline-containing compounds (P < 0.05). Sixty days of moderate- to high-dose CoQ(10) treatment had minor effects on cycle exercise aerobic capacity and post-exercise lactate but did not affect other clinically relevant variables such as strength or resting lactate.

In conclusion, Med diet reduces postprandial oxidative stress by reducing processes of cellular oxidation and increases the action of the antioxidant system in elderly persons and the administration of CoQ further improves this redox balance.

In conclusion, we found no evidence that coenzyme Q(10) affects fatigue index, arterial stiffness, metabolic parameters, or inflammatory markers.

The mean interventricular septal thickness (IVS) showed a 22.4% reduction (p < 0.005). The mean posterior wall thickness showed a 23.1% reduction (p < 0.005). No patient in the treatment Group had ventricular tachycardia (VT) whereas 4 cases in the control group had VT. In both groups 1 patient was lost due to sudden cardiac death (SCD).

  • Creatine for the Overall Systems

Although the mechanism for this is not fully understood, it may be related to the asymmetrical distribution of muscle mass around those joints.

Both Cr/Pl and Cr/Gly resulted in significantly attenuated heart rate, rectal temperature, and perceived effort during exercise, although no regimen had any effect on performance. The addition of Gly to Cr significantly increased TBW more than Cr alone (P=0.02) but did not further enhance the attenuation in HR, Tre, and RPE during exercise. These data suggest that combined Cr and Gly is an effective method of hyperhydration capable of reducing thermal and cardiovascular responses.

Cr loading did not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heat.

Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.

In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.

No evidence supports the concept that creatine supplementation either hinders the body's ability to dissipate heat or negatively affects the athlete's body fluid balance. Controlled experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation at recommended dosages.

No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

Short-term CrM supplementation did not increase the incidence of symptoms or compromise hydration status or thermoregulation in dehydrated, trained men exercising in the heat.

Sprint performance was enhanced by Cr loading. Peak power and mean power were significantly higher during the intermittent sprint exercise test following 6 days of Cr supplementation. It appears that ingestion of Cr for 6 days does not produce any different thermoregulatory responses to intermittent sprint exercise and may augment sprint exercise performance in the heat.

Before the supplementation period, a significant increase in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA levels was observed after RE. The Cr supplementation induces a significant increase in athletics performance, and it attenuated the changes observed in the urinary 8-OHdG excretion and plasma MDA. These results indicate that Cr supplementation reduced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of RE.

Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.

Four months of CrM supplementation led to increases in FFM and handgrip strength in the dominant hand and a reduction in a marker of bone breakdown and was well tolerated in children with DD.

Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.

CMH supplementation increases global DNA methylation statistically significantly. Scores were lower for creatine than for placebo reflecting clinical improvement but not reaching statistical significance. Biochemical variables of methionine-homocysteine remethylation are unaffected. Multicenter studies are urgently warranted to evaluate the long-term effects of CMH supplementation in an optimally homogenous RTT population over a prolonged period.

  • Curcumin for the Overall Systems

Collectively, these results demonstrate that a low dose of a curcumin-lipid preparation can produce a variety of potentially health promoting effects in healthy middle aged people.

Curcuminoids may be used to ameliorate oxidative damage in patients with beta-thalassemia/Hb E disease.

In conclusion, short-term curcumin intervention ablates DKD progress with activating Nrf2 anti-oxidative system and anti-inflammatory efficacies in patients with T2DM.

Oral curcumin with piperine reversed lipid peroxidation in patients with tropical pancreatitis. Further studies with large sample are needed to define its effect on the pain and other manifestations of tropical pancreatitis.

Short-term supplementation with curcuminoid-piperine combination significantly improves oxidative and inflammatory status in patients with MetS. Curcuminoids could be regarded as natural, safe and effective CRP-lowering agents.

The blood samples of the endemic regions showed severe DNA damage with increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation. The antioxidants were found with depleted activity. Three months curcumin intervention reduced the DNA damage, retarded ROS generation and lipid peroxidation and raised the level of antioxidant activity. Thus curcumin may have some protective role against the DNA damage caused by arsenic.

Turmeric supplementation as an adjuvant to T2DM on metformin treatment had a beneficial effect on blood glucose, oxidative stress and inflammation.

It is therefore suggested that curcumin supplement would not be appropriate for healthy people except for reducing serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The dosage of a daily curcumin supplement at 500 mg is more effective than 6 g, although vitamin E is also considered to be an effective antioxidant supplement.

Meriva was, in general, well tolerated, and these preliminary findings suggest the usefulness of this curcumin formulation for the management of diabetic microangiopathy, opening a window of opportunities to be evaluated in more prolonged and larger studies. The molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of curcumin on microcirculation and edema are also worth investigation.

No significant changes were observed in other parameters between the two groups after intervention (p value < 0.05). Turmeric improved some fractions of lipid profile and decreased body weight in hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes. It had no significant effect on glycemic status, hs-CRP, and total antioxidant capacity in these patients.

Our data provide evidence for an enhanced bioavailable curcumin to improve homocysteine and high-density lipoprotein concentrations, which may promote favorable cardiovascular health in young, obese men. Improvements in endothelial function or blood pressure were not observed with curcumin supplementation, thus further investigation is warranted.

These data indicate that 4-week supplementation with RP or TM at culinary levels does not alter oxidative stress or inflammation in overweight/obese females with systemic inflammation, or cause a significant shift in the global metabolic profile.

  • Garlic for the Overall Systems

Apoptosis was detected by morphology of the cells and by flow cytometry. Ajoene induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in these cultures. Taking together the results of the in vivo and in vitro studies, we conclude that ajoene can reduce BCC tumor size, mainly by inducing the mitochondria-dependent route of apoptosis.

Further, a significant increase in vitamin levels and TAS was also observed in this group as compared to the control subjects. These findings point out the beneficial effects of garlic supplementation in reducing blood pressure and counteracting oxidative stress, and thereby, offering cardioprotection in essential hypertensives.

Our results show that ingestion of garlic leads to significantly lowered plasma and erythrocyte MDA levels and to increased activities of some antioxidant enzymes, which indicates that consumption of garlic decreases oxidation reactions. It is quite possible that reduced peroxidation processes due to garlic consumption may play a part in some of the beneficial effects of garlic in elderly subjects.

These results suggest that supplementation of the diet with aged garlic extract may enhance immune cell function and that this may be responsible, in part, for reduced severity of colds and flu.

This small pilot study indicates the potential ability of AGE to inhibit the rate of progression of coronary calcification, as compared to placebo over 1 year. Should these findings be extended and confirmed in larger studies, garlic may prove useful for patients who are at high risk of future cardiovascular events.

  • Ginseng for the Overall Systems

  • Magnesium for the Overall Systems

An increase in plasma Mg concentration irrespective of medication was associated with a tendency to a decrease in diastolic pressure (increased plasma Mg vs no increase: -4.0 +/- 10.1 vs +2.5 +/- 12.0 mmHg, p = 0.059). Three months' oral Mg supplementation of insulin-requiring patients with Type 2 DM increased plasma Mg concentration and urinary Mg excretion but had no effect on glycaemic control or plasma lipid concentrations.

Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile did not show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimization of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes.

MgCl(2) 2·5 g daily improves the ability of beta-cells to compensate for variations in insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals with significant hypomagnesaemia.

Oral supplementation with MgCl(2) solution restores serum magnesium levels, improving insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients with decreased serum magnesium levels.

These results suggested that magnesium supplementation does not reduce BP and enhance insulin sensitivity in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight people. However, it appears that magnesium supplementation may lower BP in healthy adults with higher BP.

  • N-Acetylcysteine for the Overall Systems

  • Olive leaf extract for the Overall Systems

  • Saw Palmetto for the Overall Systems

  • Spirulina for the Overall Systems

  • Vitamin K for the Overall Systems

  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the Overall Systems

  • Arginine for the Overall Systems

  • Berberine for the Overall Systems

  • Chlorella for the Overall Systems

  • Cissus quadrangularis for the Overall Systems

  • Cocoa Extract for the Overall Systems

Cocoa powder and dark chocolate may favorably affect cardiovascular disease risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility, increasing serum total antioxidant capacity and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and not adversely affecting prostaglandins.

Dark chocolate inhibits platelet function by lowering oxidative stress only in smokers; this effect seems to be dependent on its polyphenolic content.

Epi-rich cocoa treatment improves SkM mitochondrial structure and in an orchestrated manner, increases molecular markers of mitochondrial biogenesis resulting in enhanced cristae density. Future controlled studies are warranted using Epi-rich cocoa (or pure Epi) to translate improved mitochondrial structure into enhanced cardiac and/or SkM muscle function.

Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake significantly improved coronary circulation in healthy adults, independent of changes in oxidative stress parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile, whereas non-flavonoid white chocolate had no such effects.

In conclusion, FCMC consumption was associated with changes in several variables often associated with cardiovascular health and oxidant stress. The presence of significant quantities of flavanols in FCMC is likely to have been one of the contributing factors to these results.

Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

The duration of the lag time, which reflects the capacity of cells to buffer free radicals, was increased. Consistent with the above, the purified flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, Dimer B2 and the metabolite 3'-O-methyl epicatechin, exhibited dose-dependent protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 microM. Erythrocytes from subjects consuming flavonoid-rich cocoa show reduced susceptibility to free radical-induced hemolysis (p < 0.05).

In PAD patients dark but not milk chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy with a mechanism possibly related to an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism involving NOX2 regulation.

  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid for the Overall Systems

  • Eleuthero for the Overall Systems

  • False Daisy for the Overall Systems

  • Fish Oil for the Overall Systems

  • Ginkgo biloba for the Overall Systems

  • Gotu kola for the Overall Systems

  • Grape Seed Extract for the Overall Systems

  • Green Tea Extract for the Overall Systems

  • Inositol for the Overall Systems

  • Japanese Knotweed for the Overall Systems

  • Korean Black Raspberry for the Overall Systems

  • L-Carnitine for the Overall Systems

  • Lemon Balm for the Overall Systems

  • Licorice for the Overall Systems

  • Melatonin for the Overall Systems

  • MSM for the Overall Systems

  • Oxiracetam for the Overall Systems

  • Pomegranate Extract for the Overall Systems

  • Pycnogenol for the Overall Systems

  • Pyrroloquinoline quinone for the Overall Systems

  • Quercetin for the Overall Systems

  • Resveratrol for the Overall Systems

  • Rooibos for the Overall Systems

  • Roselle for the Overall Systems

  • Serrapeptase for the Overall Systems

  • Shilajit for the Overall Systems

  • Stephania tetrandra for the Overall Systems

  • Stinging Nettle for the Overall Systems

  • Vitamin C for the Overall Systems

In conclusion, the results indicate that 400 IU/day of vitamin E reduces membrane damage more effectively than vitamin C but does not enhance performance. Athletes are encouraged to include antioxidants, such as vitamin E and C, in their diet to counteract these detrimental effects of exercise. The data presented here suggests that 400 IU/day of vitamin E will provide adequate protection but supplementing the diet with 1 g per day of vitamin C may promote cellular damage. However neither of these vitamins, either alone or in combination, will enhance exercise performance.

Data analysis was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test with p < 0.05 being significant by SPSS software version 16.The result of the study showed a significantly decrease in fasting (p = 0.006) and postprandial MDA (p < 0.001) in vitamin C group compare to placebo group but not in lipid profile. This study suggests that vitamin C supplementation can decrease fasting and postprandial oxidative stress and may prevent diabetes complication.

In conclusion, acute supplementation with a high dose of VC has little or no effect on the hormonal, interleukin-6, or immune response to prolonged exercise and combined ingestion of VC with CHO provides no additional effects compared with CHO alone.

In contrast, vitamin C supplementation decreased urinary concentrations of DHN-MA (three-way interaction p=0.0304) in nonsmoking men compared with nonsmoking women (p<0.05), as well as in nonsmoking men compared with smoking men (p<0.05). Vitamin C supplementation also decreased (p=0.0092) urinary total of metabolites by ~20%. Thus, HPNE metabolites can be reduced favorably in response to improved plasma ascorbic acid concentrations, an effect due to ascorbic acid antioxidant function.

In summary, oral AA supplementation ameliorates skeletal muscle oxidative stress during hyperinsulinaemia and improves insulin-mediated glucose disposal in people with type 2 diabetes. Findings implicate AA supplementation as a potentially inexpensive, convenient, and effective adjunct therapy in the treatment of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes.

No significant correlations were found between post-race plasma vitamin C, oxidative, and saliva measures, except for a positive correlation between post-race serum cortisol and serum vitamin C (r=0.50, P=0.006). These data indicate that vitamin C supplementation in carbohydrate-fed runners does not serve as a countermeasure to oxidative and sIgA changes during or following a competitive ultramarathon race.

Oral supplementation of vitamin C is not associated with changes in markers of oxidation or endothelial activation in healthy male smokers.

Our findings suggest that that administration of 1,000 mg of ascorbic acid together with 400 IU of alpha-tocopherol could be useful in preventing or aiding in the treatment of age-related osteoporosis.

These data indicate that the regular consumption of 8 fl. oz. orange juice or supplemental vitamin C ( approximately 70 mg/day) effectively reduced a marker of lipid peroxidation in plasma.

These data indicate that vitamin C supplementation in carbohydrate-fed runners does not serve as a countermeasure to oxidative and immune changes during or after a competitive ultramarathon race.

These findings are the first to suggest that oral vitamin C supplementation provides an effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in human diabetic blood.

These findings suggest that administration of 1,000 mg of ascorbic acid plus 400 IU of alpha-tocopherol for 6 months is not useful for diminishing oxidative stress and DNA damage in healthy elderly adults.

Uric acid and TAC were decreased in group I on all measurement days. However, we did not observe any differences in the clinical status of patients receiving vitamin C during the first ten days of stroke or after 3 months. Although administration of vitamin C (500 mg/day, iv) to ischemic stroke patients since the first day ischemic stroke resulted in elevated serum levels of antioxidants, it did not substantially improve the clinical and functional status of patients after 3 months.

  • Vitamin D for the Overall Systems

  • Vitamin E for the Overall Systems

In the dose-ranging study there was a linear trend between the dosage of vitamin E and percentage reduction in plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations which reached significance at doses of 1600 IU (35+/-2%, p<0.035) and 3200 IU (49+/-10%, p<0.005). This study provides information on the dosage of vitamin E that decreases systemic oxidant stress in vivo in humans and informs the planning and evaluation of clinical studies that assess the efficacy of vitamin E to mitigate disease.

Plasma F(2)-isoprostanes increased 181% versus 97% during the race in E versus P, and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly elevated (P=.009) 1.5 h postrace in E versus P. Plasma antioxidant potential was significantly higher 1.5 h postrace in E versus P (P=.039). This study indicates that prolonged large doses of alpha-tocopherol supplementation did not affect plasma Hcy concentrations and exhibited pro-oxidant characteristics in highly trained athletes during exhaustive exercise.

Short-term vitamin E supplementation improves immune responsiveness in healthy elderly individuals; this effect appears to be mediated by a decrease in PGE2 and/or other lipid-peroxidation products.

The ability of tocopherols to reduce systemic oxidative stress suggests potential benefits of vitamin E supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. In populations with well-controlled type 2 diabetes, supplementation with either alphaT or mixed tocopherols rich in gammaT is unlikely to confer further benefits in reducing inflammation.

TRE at doses up to 320 mg daily were well tolerated. Treatment significantly increased alpha, delta, and gamma tocotrienol concentrations but did not significantly affect arterial compliance, plasma TAS, serum TC or LDL-C levels in normal subjects.

  • Watercress for the Overall Systems

  • Whey Protein for the Overall Systems

  • Yerba mate for the Overall Systems

  • Zinc for the Overall Systems

What are the general functions of the Overall Systems?

Antioxidant potential
Overall health
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