Skeletal System – Cost Effective Supplements

Skeletal System

Quick navigation

Designed by Freepik

Skeletal System definition

The skeleton helps to keep the structure of the body and its organs. Its articulations allow a range of motion in the joints.

Skeletal System conditions

Joint pain
Kashin-Beck Disease
Rheumatoid Arthritis

Skeletal System supplements

  • Boswellia serrata for the Skeletal System

  • Curcumin for the Skeletal System

C. domestica extracts are as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The side effect profile was similar but with fewer gastrointestinal AE reports in the C. domestica extracts group.

C. domestica extracts seem to be similarly efficacious and safe as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee OA.

In conclusion, the adjuvant therapy ofcurcumin with diclofenac has the potential beneficial effect in comparison with diclofenac alone, but no statistical significance.

NR-INF-02 treated group showed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in use of rescue medication, along with clinical and subjective improvement compared to placebo. The tolerability and acceptability profile of NR-INF-02 was better during the trial period. The study demonstrates safety and efficacy of NR-INF-02 as a useful treatment option for patients with primary painful knee OA.

The reduction from baseline in total WOMAC score (also subscale scores) and VAS score resulted in statistically significant difference when compared to placebo. It was also found to be safe and well tolerated as there was no incidence of treatment related AEs.

Theracurmin shows modest potential for the treatment of human knee osteoarthritis.

These results show that Meriva® is clinically effective in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis and suggest that the increased stability and better absorption of curcumin induced by complexation with phospholipids have clinical relevance, setting the stage for larger and more prolonged studies.

This represents the most ambitious attempt, to date, to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Significant improvements of both the clinical and biochemical end points were observed for Meriva compared to the control group. This, coupled with an excellent tolerability, suggests that Meriva is worth considering for the long-term complementary management of osteoarthritis.

To conclude, curcuminoids represent an effective and safe alternative treatment for OA.

Twelve-week use of curcumin complex or its combination with boswellic acid reduces pain-related symptoms in patients with OA. Curcumin in combination with boswellic acid is more effective. Combining Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in Curamin® increases the efficacy of OA treatment presumably due to synergistic effects of curcumin and boswellic acid.

More importantly, curcumin treatment was found to be safe and did not relate with any adverse events. Our study provides the first evidence for the safety and superiority of curcumin treatment in patients with active RA, and highlights the need for future large-scale trials to validate these findings in patients with RA and other arthritic conditions.

The results indicate that this novel curcumin in a turmeric matrix acts as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of RA at a dose as low as 250 mg twice daily as evidenced by significant improvement in the ESR, CRP, VAS, RF, DAS28, and ACR responses compared to placebo. Both doses of the study product were well tolerated and without side effects.

  • Forskolin for the Skeletal System

  • Krill Oil for the Skeletal System

  • Pycnogenol for the Skeletal System

  • SAME for the Skeletal System

  • Vitamin D for the Skeletal System

Nursing home residents in the highest vitamin D group (800 IU) had a lower number of fallers and a lower incidence rate of falls over 5 months than those taking lower doses. Adequate vitamin D supplementation in elderly nursing home residents could reduce the number of falls experienced by this high falls risk group.

Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among older individuals by 19% and to a similar degree as active forms of vitamin D. Doses of supplemental vitamin D of less than 700 IU or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l may not reduce the risk of falling among older individuals.

Vitamin D may increase muscle strength by improving atrophy of type II muscle fibers, which may lead to decreased falls and hip fractures.

After 16 weeks of letrozole, more women with 25OHD levels >66 ng/ml (median level) reported no disability from joint pain than did women with levels <66 ng/ml (52 vs. 19%; P = 0.026). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent in post-menopausal women initiating adjuvant AI. Vitamin D3 supplementation with 50,000 IU per week is safe, significantly increases 25OHD levels, and may reduce disability from AI-induced arthralgias.

In the whole cohort, there was an increase in joint pain (mean 1.16 points SD 2.66; P < 0.001) and the increase was significantly (P = 0.02) attenuated in those that reached concentrations of 25(OH)D of ≥40 ng/ml, with a lower risk of incident arthralgia (OR 0.12 ** [0.03 to 0.40]). A target concentration of 40 ng/ml 25OHD may prevent development of AI arthralgia but higher loading doses are required to attain this level in women with deficiency at baseline.

Nonvertebral fracture prevention with vitamin D is dose dependent, and a higher dose should reduce fractures by at least 20% for individuals aged 65 years or older.

Vitamin D supplementation for 6 mo had significant favorable effects on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and on growth in stature. A trend was seen toward fewer TST conversions in the vitamin D group. This trial was registered at as NCT01244204.

  • Vitamin K for the Skeletal System

BAP had decreased at month 3 in group A (P < 0.05), but not in group B. BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly reduced after 6 months (P < 0.01), and 12 months (P < 0.001) of treatment in group A, whereas there was no remarkable change in group B. The present study demonstrated that the inhibition exerted by vitamin K2 of the reduction in OPG induced by GC may, at least in part, play a role in the prevention and treatment of GC-induced bone loss.

Continuous combination therapy with vitamin K(2) and D(3) may be useful for increasing vertebral bone mass in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, the increase in coagulation function observed during this therapy was within the physiological range, and no adverse reactions were observed.

If co-administered with minerals and vitamin D, vitamin K1 may substantially contribute to reducing postmenopausal bone loss at the site of the femoral neck.

MK-7 supplements may help postmenopausal women to prevent bone loss. Whether these results can be extrapolated to other populations, e.g., children and men, needs further investigation.

One year of vitamin K2 supplement suggest a favorable effect on lumbar spine BMD with different response in lung and heart recipients. Vitamin D status should receive more attention.

Phylloquinone and MK4 treatment reduced serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin but did not alter BSALP or NTX. No effect of phylloquinone or MK4 on lumbar spine or proximal femur BMD or proximal femur geometric parameters was observed. This study does not support a role for vitamin K supplementation in osteoporosis prevention among healthy, postmenopausal, North American women receiving calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

Phylloquinone supplementation in a dose attainable in the diet does not confer any additional benefit for bone health at the spine or hip when taken with recommended amounts of calcium and vitamin D.

Poor vitamin K status was associated with high concentrations of cytokines involved in bone turnover, but vitamin K supplementation did not confer a decrease in cytokine concentrations. The healthy status of this cohort may explain a lack of effect of vitamin K supplementation on cytokine concentrations. This trial was registered with as NCT00183001.

The forearm BMD was significantly lower after 12 months than at 6 months in the control group. However, there was no significant decrease in BMD in the MK-4 group during the study period. These results suggest that low-dose MK-4 supplementation for 6-12 months improved bone quality in the postmenopausal Japanese women by decreasing the serum ucOC and pentosidine concentrations, without any substantial adverse effects.

The rate of bone loss in all three subgroups of female athletes was unexpectedly high; neither estrogen nor vitamin K supplementation prevented bone loss.

These findings suggest that vitamin K2 treatment effectively prevents the occurrence of new fractures, although the vitamin K2-treated group failed to increase in LBMD. Furthermore, vitamin K2 treatment enhances gamma-carboxylation of the OC molecule.

Treatment with 45 mg vitamin K2 with 1500 mg calcium per day for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis for 48 weeks resulted in a significant increase in lumbar BMD and a significant decrease in undercarboxylated OC levels.

Vitamin K(2) helps maintaining bone strength at the site of the femoral neck in postmenopausal women by improving BMC and FNW, whereas it has little effect on DXA-BMD.

Vitamin K2 therapy may be a useful method for preventing postmenopausal spinal bone mineral loss. In addition, the therapy should be started early in postmenopausal period.

  • Black cumin for the Skeletal System

  • Chiretta for the Skeletal System

  • Creatine for the Skeletal System

  • Devil's Claw for the Skeletal System

  • Ginger for the Skeletal System

  • Glucosamine for the Skeletal System

A previous study by this group reported that glucosamine exerts a chondroprotective action in soccer players by preventing type II collagen degradation but maintaining type II collagen synthesis. Together these observations indicate that glucosamine may exert a chondroprotective action by preventing type II collagen degradation in athletes of various sports, including soccer players and bicycle racers.

As a symptom modifier in OA patients with a wide range of pain severities, glucosamine sulphate was no more effective than placebo.

Compared with placebo, glucosamine, chondroitin, and their combination do not reduce joint pain or have an impact on narrowing of joint space. Health authorities and health insurers should not cover the costs of these preparations, and new prescriptions to patients who have not received treatment should be discouraged.

Further research is necessary to confirm the long term effectiveness and toxicity of glucosamine therapy in OA. Most of the trials reviewed only evaluated the Rotta preparation of glucosamine sulfate. It is not known whether different glucosamine preparations prepared by different manufacturers are equally effective in the therapy of OA.

Glu, MSM and their combination produced an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in osteoarthritis. Combination therapy showed better efficacy in reducing pain and swelling and in improving the functional ability of joints than the individual agents. All the treatments were well tolerated. The onset of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was found to be more rapid with the combination than with Glu. It can be concluded that the combination of MSM with Glu provides better and more rapid improvement in patients with osteoarthritis.

Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate alone or in combination did not reduce pain effectively in the overall group of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Exploratory analyses suggest that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate may be effective in the subgroup of patients with moderate-to-severe knee pain. ( number, NCT00032890.).

Glucosamine was no better than placebo in reducing pain from osteoarthritis of the knee in this group of patients.

Heterogeneity among trials of glucosamine is larger than would be expected by chance. Glucosamine hydrochloride is not effective. Among trials with industry involvement, effect sizes were consistently higher. Potential explanations include different glucosamine preparations, inadequate allocation concealment, and industry bias.

In this 6-month controlled study of knee OA, Ayurvedic formulations (especially SGCG) significantly reduced knee pain and improved knee function and were equivalent to glucosamine and celecoxib. The unexpected SGPT rise requires further safety assessment.

In this short-term randomized comparison, glucosamine sulfate with potassium salt (GS-K) is as effective in pain relief and as safe as glucosamine sulfate with sodium salt (GS-Na) for treatment of mild and moderate degree knee osteoarthritis.

Long-term treatment with glucosamine sulfate retarded the progression of knee osteoarthritis, possibly determining disease modification.

No significant difference was found between the glucosamine, and placebo group in mean pain intensity scores for resting and walking, and degree of knee swelling at the 7-day, 14-day, 21-day, and 28-day assessment. There was no significant difference between passive knee flexibility at the 7-day, 14-day, and 21-day assessment. After 28 days of treatment the patients from the glucosamine group demonstrated significant improvement in knee flexion and extension as compared with the placebo group.

Of importance, the ratio was reduced by glucosamine administration but returned to the pre-administration level after withdrawal of administration. Together these observations suggest that glucosamine is expected to exert a chondroprotective action in athletes (soccer players) by preventing type II collagen degradation but maintaining type II collagen synthesis, although the effect is transient and disappears after withdrawal of administration.

Our results suggest that although glucosamine appears to be safe, it is no more effective than placebo in treating the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis.

Our study demonstrates the structural efficacy of glucosamine and indistinguishable symptomatic efficacies for both compounds. Regarding the relatively sparse data on glucosamine and joint space narrowing and the absence of data on structural effects of chondroitin, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship among time, dose, patient baseline characteristics, and structural efficacy for an accurate, disease-modifying characterization of these 2 compounds.

Similarly, patients given glucosamine sulphate experienced earlier alleviation of symptoms compared with those who had placebo. The use of glucosamine sulphate also resulted in a significantly larger proportion of patients who experienced lessening or disappearance of symptoms within the trial period. No adverse reactions were reported by the patients treated with glucosamine, and no variation in laboratory tests was recorded.

The findings of this study indicate that a combination of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride was more effective than placebo in treating KBD.

The findings of this study indicate that glucosamine sulfate at the oral once-daily dosage of 1,500 mg is more effective than placebo in treating knee OA symptoms. Although acetaminophen also had a higher responder rate compared with placebo, it failed to show significant effects on the algofunctional indexes.

The long-term combined structure-modifying and symptom-modifying effects of gluosamine sulphate suggest that it could be a disease modifying agent in osteoarthritis.

There was no significant difference in pain reduction between the glucosamine hydrochloride and placebo groups as measured by WOMAC. However, the secondary endpoints of cumulative pain reduction as measured by daily diary and knee examination were favorable, suggesting that glucosamine hydrochloride benefits some patients with knee OA.

This report documents characteristic findings in these patients. Diclofenac sodium, naproxen, and glucosamine hydrochloride produced substantial improvements over baseline in pain relief, physical function, and daily self-care activities in these open observations of adult patients with KBD.

This update includes 20 studies with 2570 patients. Pooled results from studies using a non-Rotta preparation or adequate allocation concealment failed to show benefit in pain and WOMAC function while those studies evaluating the Rotta preparation show that glucosamine was superior to placebo in the treatment of pain and functional impairment resulting from symptomatic OA. WOMAC outcomes of pain, stiffness and function did not show a superiority of glucosamine over placebo for both Rotta and non-Rotta preparations of glucosamine. Glucosamine was as safe as placebo.

Trials of glucosamine and chondroitin preparations for OA symptoms demonstrate moderate to large effects, but quality issues and likely publication bias suggest that these effects are exaggerated. Nevertheless, some degree of efficacy appears probable for these preparations.

  • Guggul for the Skeletal System

  • Hesperidin for the Skeletal System

  • Horny Goat Weed for the Skeletal System

  • Magnesium for the Skeletal System

  • Microlactin for the Skeletal System

  • MSM for the Skeletal System

  • Pueraria mirifica for the Skeletal System

  • Rose Hip for the Skeletal System

  • Stephania tetrandra for the Skeletal System

  • Vitamin C for the Skeletal System

  • Yerba mate for the Skeletal System

What are the general functions of the Skeletal System?

Skin, hair and nails
Joint support
Scroll to top