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Fish Oil

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What are Fish Oil's other names?

  • DHA
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid
  • EPA
  • N-3 Fatty Acids
  • Omega 3
  • Omega-3
  • Omega-3 fatty acids

What is Fish Oil's recommended dosage?

  • Recommended daily intake: 250 - 1000 mg

What supplements interact with Fish Oil?

  • Fish Oil and Curcumin

  • Fish Oil and Green Tea Extract

  • Fish Oil and Milk Thistle

  • Fish Oil and Vitamin E

  • Fish Oil and Bacopa monnieri

  • Fish Oil and Fenugreek

  • Fish Oil and Seaweed Extract

  • Fish Oil and PS

  • Fish Oil and Cane Sugar Extract

  • Fish Oil and Sesamin

  • Fish Oil and Uridine


What can Fish Oil help with?

  • Fish Oil for Depression

test
Moderately Positive


Adjunctive ethyl-EPA is an effective and well-tolerated intervention in bipolar depression.


test
Moderately Positive


Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723.


test
Moderately Positive


Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation ( approximately 200 mg/d) for 4 months after the delivery prevented the usual decline in plasma phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid content of women who breastfeed but did not influence self-ratings of depression, diagnostic measures of depression, or information processing.


test
Moderately Positive


EPA-rich fish oil and DHA-rich fish oil supplementation did not prevent depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum.


test
Moderately Positive


It is not possible to distinguish whether E-EPA augments antidepressant action in the manner of lithium or has independent antidepressant properties of its own.


test
Moderately Positive


Omega-3 PUFAs may have therapeutic benefits in depression during pregnancy. In regard to the safety issue and psychotherapeutic effect, as well as health promotion to mothers and their newborns, it is worthy to conduct replication studies in a larger sample with a broad regimen of omega-3 PUFAs in pregnant women with depression.


test
Moderately Positive


Omega-3 supplementation is associated with an improvement of attentional and physiological functions, particularly those involving complex cortical processing. These findings are discussed in terms of the influence of Omega-3 on the central nervous system.


test
Moderately Positive


Our primary analyses suggest a small-to-modest, non-clinically beneficial effect of n-3PUFAs on depressive symptomology compared to placebo; however the estimate is imprecise, and we judged the quality of the evidence on which this result is based to be low/very low.


test
Moderately Positive


Patients in the omega-3 PUFA group had a significantly decreased score on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than those in the placebo group (P < 0.001). From the preliminary findings in this study, omega-3 PUFAs could improve the short-term course of illness and were well tolerated in patients with major depressive disorder.


test
Moderately Positive


Red blood cell incorporation of fatty acids indicated good compliance with oil supplementation, although this sample was not initially deficient in omega-3s. This particular dose and type of fish oil conferred no additional benefit to conventional treatment of depression in this sample. Future studies could target participants with pre-existing omega-3 deficiency and appraise alternate enriched types and higher doses of omega-3 supplementation.


test
Moderately Positive


St John's wort and regular exercise appear effective in the treatment of depression. Acupuncture appears ineffective for depression, but it might offer other health benefits. Other promising therapies include SAM-e, omega-3 fatty acid, and folic acid supplementation in selected patients; further study is warranted.


test
Moderately Positive


Supplementation of 220 mg/day DHA or DHA+AA (220 mg/day each) does not prevent peri-partum depressive symptoms, in a population based sample with low background DHA intake.


test
Moderately Positive


Supplements containing EPA ≥ 60% of total EPA + DHA, in a dose range of 200 to 2,200 mg/d of EPA in excess of DHA, were effective against primary depression. Translational studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of EPA's therapeutic benefit.


test
Moderately Positive


Symptoms generally improved with time but not significantly and there were no significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups. Pretreatment red-cell membrane (RBC) lipids of patients compared with age-and sex-matched normal controls showed no significant differences.


test
Moderately Positive


The current meta-analysis provides evidence that EPA may be more efficacious than DHA in treating depression. However, owing to the identified limitations of the included studies, larger, well-designed, randomized controlled trials of sufficient duration are needed to confirm these findings.


test
Moderately Positive


The meta-analytic findings provide strong evidence that bipolar depressive symptoms may be improved by adjunctive use of omega-3. The evidence, however, does not support its adjunctive use in attenuating mania.


test
Moderately Positive


There was no significant difference between omega-3 fatty acids and placebo in this study in which all participants received supportive psychotherapy. The manualized supportive psychotherapy warrants further study. The low intake of dietary omega-3 fatty acids among participants is of concern, in consideration of the widely established health advantages in utero and in infants.


test
Moderately Positive


These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519779.


test
Moderately Positive


This is formally a negative study, suggesting that there is no benefit for omega-3 fatty acids over placebo in treating PND. The reason could be that the study was underpowered due to recruitment difficulties and therefore we suggest that it may be unwise to interpret this result as conclusive. Omega-3 is a natural product that is a safe and well-tolerated treatment. Further research is therefore needed in this area to establish whether omega-3 fatty acids are an effective treatment for PND.


test
Moderately Positive


This study did not find overall evidence of efficacy for adjunctive treatment with EPA 6 g/day in outpatients with bipolar depression or rapid cycling bipolar disorder.


test
Moderately Positive


This trial failed to show a significant effect of DHA monotherapy in subjects with major depression.


test
Moderately Positive


To our knowledge, this is the first trial of n-3 supplementation in the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. In women with PD without MDE at baseline, the 8-wk changes in PD and depressive scales improved significantly more with E-EPA than with placebo. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN69617477.


test
Moderately Positive


Treatment with ethyl-eicosapentaenoate at a dosage of 1 g/d was effective in treating depression in patients who remained depressed despite adequate standard therapy.


  • Fish Oil for Lupus

test
Moderately Positive


In conclusion, one year of dietary supplementation with fish oil in patients with stable lupus nephritis did not improve renal function or reduce disease activity, but did alter some lipid parameters. Hitherto unreported carry-over effects and treatment order effects caused by the olive oil created a risk of type II error, and bear methodologic consideration in the design of future studies.


test
Moderately Positive


In the management of SLE, dietary supplementation with fish oil may be beneficial in modifying symptomatic disease activity.


test
Moderately Positive


Low-dose dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils in systemic lupus erythematosus not only has a therapeutic effect on disease activity but also improves endothelial function and reduces oxidative stress and may therefore confer cardiovascular benefits.


test
Moderately Positive


Oral supplementation of EPA and DHA induced prolonged remission of SLE in 10 consecutive patients without any side-effects. These results suggest that n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, are useful in the management of SLE and possibly, other similar collagen vascular diseases.


test
Moderately Positive


Seventeen patients with moderately active SLE participated in a double-blind, crossover study on the effect of MaxEPA, using olive oil as the control substance. During the first 3 months, 8/17 on Max EPA but only 2/17 on the control substance clinically and serologically improved (p = 0.05), but at 6 months there was no difference. The beneficial effect (if any) of MaxEPA on the disease was short-lived.


test
Moderately Positive


When individual outcome measures of the 17 patients who completed the full 34 week study were considered 14 who were receiving MaxEPA achieved useful or ideal status, whereas 13 receiving placebo were rated as worse or no change. The difference between the two types of capsule was statistically significant. No major side effects were noted, and it is suggested that dietary modification with additional marine oil may be a useful way of modifying disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.


  • Fish Oil for ADHD

test
Slightly Positive


A 4-month period of DHA supplementation (345 mg/d) does not decrease symptoms of ADHD.


test
Slightly Positive


A subgroup of children with ADHD who used n-3 PUFA supplements achieved and maintained symptom control. The data of the present study also supported n-3 PUFA safety and tolerability, but limited changes were noted in the FA profile in French Canadians with ADHD.


test
Slightly Positive


Group differences in change scores all favored HUFA, reaching conventional significance levels for 3 out of 14 scales. (5) HUFA supplementation appears to reduce ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Given the safety and tolerability of this simple treatment, results from this pilot study strongly support the case for further investigations.


test
Slightly Positive


Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, particularly with higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid, was modestly effective in the treatment of ADHD.


test
Slightly Positive


Supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid mix increased EPA and DHA concentrations in erythrocyte membranes and improved working memory function, but had no effect on other cognitive measures and parent- and teacher-rated behavior in the study population. Improved working memory correlated significantly with increased EPA, DHA and decreased AA (arachidonic acid).


test
Slightly Positive


These results add to preliminary findings that ADHD-related problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity might respond to treatment with PUFAs and that improvements may continue with supplementation extending to 30 weeks.


test
Slightly Positive


This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462).


test
Slightly Positive


Thus, the results of this pilot study suggest the need for further research with both n-3 FA and vitamin E in children with behavioral disorders.


test
Slightly Positive


Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15-week EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement.


  • Fish Oil for Aggression

  • Fish Oil for Anxiety

  • Fish Oil for Bipolar Disorder

  • Fish Oil for Erythema

  • Fish Oil for Fatty Liver Disease

  • Fish Oil for Inflammation

test
Slightly Positive


A moderate dose of n-3 PUFAs for 2 mo reduced adiposity and atherogenic markers without deterioration of insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Some adipose tissue inflammation-related genes were also reduced. These beneficial effects could be linked to morphologic and inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0037.


test
Slightly Positive


Concerning oxidative status, plasma reactive oxygen species levels increased in the placebo group v. the n-3 group at the later treatment times. Hydroxynonenal levels increased in the placebo group during the study, while they stabilised in the n-3 group. Our data confirm that the continual assumption of EPA plus DHA determined an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative action which could be considered a preliminary goal in anti-cachectic therapy.


test
Slightly Positive


Daily supplementation with n-3 capsules increases the serum n-3 PUFA concentration, improves vascular function, and lowers the degree of inflammation in obese adolescents.


test
Slightly Positive


Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA significantly improved endothelial function and reduced pro-inflammatory markers in OPDs. Thus, fish oil consumption may have beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic health effects in otherwise healthy subjects predisposed to diabetes and its vascular complications.


test
Slightly Positive


EPA concentrations in the total RBC phospholipid fraction significantly increased by 79% in the EPA group at the end of the study, and they changed very little in the control group (+0.68%). The inflammatory markers did not change in either group. It is likely that fish oil does not change hs-CRP or sTNF-Rs 1 or 2 in subjects without active inflammation.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, supplementation with n3PUFA and all-rac AT at these doses is not anti-inflammatory.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, this 12-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial did not show that 1.5 g/day n-3 PUFA significantly affected the serum inflammatory response in healthy individuals, nor did patterns of inflammatory markers. Thus, a healthy middle-aged population may not benefit from fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent.


test
Slightly Positive


Supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids had no affect on platelet and endothelial activation or markers of inflammation in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


test
Slightly Positive


The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00504309.


test
Slightly Positive


The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.


test
Slightly Positive


The results of the present study indicate that marine omega-3 fatty acids can reduce serum sICAM-1, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but it has no effect on serum systemic inflammation markers and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients.


test
Slightly Positive


The results of this study are in agreement with some previous studies that suggest that FO supplementation has no effect on plasma proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α or IL-6, but does have an effect on IL-1β in nondialysis CKD patients.


test
Slightly Positive


The stronger association between changes in DHA than EPA and sICAM-1 concentrations suggest that DHA may be more anti-inflammatory than EPA. Thus, one reason why only limited effects were seen here may be that the dose of DHA provided was insufficient.


test
Slightly Positive


There was no effect of 12 weeks of treatment with moderate-dose fish oil supplements on cardiovascular biomarkers or mood in patients with ischemic stroke. It is possible that insufficient dose, short duration of treatment, and/or oxidation of the fish oils may have influenced these outcomes.


test
Slightly Positive


These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519779.


test
Slightly Positive


These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.


test
Slightly Positive


These results suggest that dietary fish oil may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the modulation of both plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in healthy postmenopausal women.


  • Fish Oil for Mild Cognitive Impairment

  • Fish Oil for Stress

  • Fish Oil for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

  • Fish Oil for Exercise-induced Fatigue

  • Fish Oil for Oxidative Damage


What is Fish Oil used for?

  • Fish Oil for Heart health

test
Highly Positive


A 3-month fish oil supplementation in young healthy men improved circulating triglyceride levels and the HDL-c ratio while, concomitantly, increasing the concentrations of two eicosanoids (prostaglandin-F2α and thromboxane-B2). This suggests that fish oil supplementation does have significant benefits in young healthy adults and that specific omega-6-derived eicosanoids can help to further our understanding regarding the beneficial link between omega-3 FA and inflammation.


test
Highly Positive


A moderate dose of fish oil did not lead to deleterious effects on glycemic control or whole-body insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men, with preserved triacylglycerol-lowering capacities.


test
Highly Positive


An increase in clotting factor VII (P = 0.02), without changes in fibrinogen or factor X levels, occurred in the MaxEPA group. Similar reductions in blood pressure were observed in both groups. Dietary supplementation with MaxEPA capsules (10 g/day) in NIDDM subjects is associated with improvement in hypertriglyceridemia but with deleterious effects in factor VII and blood glucose levels. Most indices of platelet function are unaffected by this therapy.


test
Highly Positive


Baseline values for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were comparable at baseline, and the intervention did not change these parameters significantly. The present study showed that treatment with n-3 PUFA slightly decreased plasma triglycerides and induced anti-inflammatory effects by increasing formation of anti-inflammatory LTB5.


test
Highly Positive


Daily supplementation with n-3 capsules increases the serum n-3 PUFA concentration, improves vascular function, and lowers the degree of inflammation in obese adolescents.


test
Highly Positive


DHA also raised high-density lipoprotein (4.49 mg/dL; 95% CI, 3.50–5.48) compared with placebo, whereas EPA did not. Although EPA and DHA both reduce triglycerides, they have divergent effects on LDL and high-density lipoprotein. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms and significance of these differences.


test
Highly Positive


DHA supplementation improves liver steatosis and insulin sensitivity in children with NAFLD.


test
Highly Positive


Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA significantly improved endothelial function and reduced pro-inflammatory markers in OPDs. Thus, fish oil consumption may have beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic health effects in otherwise healthy subjects predisposed to diabetes and its vascular complications.


test
Highly Positive


Different doses of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce triglycerides concentrations, confirming the potential applicability of this nutrient on the management of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on ART.


test
Highly Positive


Dyslipoproteinemia is common in pediatric SLE. Dietary modification and fish oil supplementation appear to be effective in improving serum lipid profiles, and blinded studies are warranted. a significant number of patients may require pharmacologic therapy for persistent dyslipoproteinemia to prevent complications of premature atherosclerosis.


test
Highly Positive


Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not change with any intervention. Long-chain vs essential n-3 PUFA-rich oils have distinct metabolic and endocrine effects in polycystic ovary syndrome; and therefore, they should not be used interchangeably.


test
Highly Positive


Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly with supplementation relative to placebo (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in ApoB-100 and malondialdehyde compared to baseline values and compared to the control group. Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c.


test
Highly Positive


Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes lowers triglycerides, raises LDL cholesterol, and has no statistically significant effect on glycemic control. Trials with hard clinical end points are needed.


test
Highly Positive


Fish oil supplementation produces a clinically significant dose-dependent reduction of fasting blood TG but not total, HDL or LDL cholesterol in hyperlipidemic subjects.


test
Highly Positive


High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and plasma apoA1 levels were not significantly changed during fish oil treatment. At the 7.5-g dose, fasting glucose and glycohemoglobin levels increased by 20 and 12%, respectively, but were unchanged at the lower level of supplementation. Thus, in NIDDM patients, dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids induces a reduction in total plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).


test
Highly Positive


In a population with well-controlled type II diabetes, 3 months of FO but not LO resulted in lowered triglyceride levels. Neither LO nor FO significantly affected glycemic control, cholesterol values, SG, or insulin secretion, while a nonsignificant trend toward decreased insulin sensitivity was found with FO.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, one year of dietary supplementation with fish oil in patients with stable lupus nephritis did not improve renal function or reduce disease activity, but did alter some lipid parameters. Hitherto unreported carry-over effects and treatment order effects caused by the olive oil created a risk of type II error, and bear methodologic consideration in the design of future studies.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, P-OM3 + simvastatin appears to be a useful therapeutic option for the management of mixed dyslipidemia.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, supplementation with n3PUFA and all-rac AT at these doses is not anti-inflammatory.


test
Highly Positive


In conclusion, this study shows that a dietary supplement of fish oil decreases plasma triglyceride levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, an increased conversion rate of VLDL to LDL playing a role in this change. With this dosage of fish oil no relevant variations in glycemic control, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity occurred.


test
Highly Positive


In spite of the reduction of the triglyceride concentrations and unchanged insulin levels, there was a significant increase of the activity of PAI-1 (+21%, P < 0.01) after MaxEPA suggesting a possible impairment of the fibrinolytic capacity. In many situations there seems to be a reduction of PAI-1 when the triglycerides are lowered. In the diabetic patients given n-3 fatty acids this was not the case.


test
Highly Positive


In summary, dietary fish oil supplementation adversely affected glycemic control in NIDDM subjects without producing significant beneficial effects on plasma lipids. The effect of safflower oil supplementation was not significantly different from fish oil, suggesting that the negative effects on glucose metabolism may be related to the extra energy or fat intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).


test
Highly Positive


In the rTAG-group, but not in the EE-group, fasting serum TAG levels were significantly reduced from baseline after three and six months. There was no significant difference between the two n3-FA-groups. However, serum TAG levels were significantly lowered after six months in the rTAG-group compared to the placebo-group in contrast to the EE-group.


test
Highly Positive


In these adult, mainly white patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, P-OM3 plus simvastatin and dietary counseling improved non-HDL-C and other lipid and lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than simvastatin alone.


test
Highly Positive


In this population of hypertriglyceridemic adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles.


test
Highly Positive


In this study, fish oil supplementation improved plasma VLDL cholesterol, VLDL TGs, and total TGs while having a transient deterioration in LDL cholesterol in subjects with NIDDM. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation had no significant deleterious effect on glycemic control.


test
Highly Positive


It is concluded that a modest intake of omega 3 fatty acids, such as could be obtained from consuming fish regularly, will reduce plasma triglyceride level without affecting LDL or HDL cholesterol levels.


test
Highly Positive


Serum TG and oxidative stress biomarkers did not differ between treatments. The FO and ISO were bioavailable but did not attenuate the postprandial rise in serum TG. Neither the study meal nor the FO or ISO induced significant changes in oxidative stress biomarkers. The current study adds to a limited literature on the acute effects of FO and ISO interventions on postprandial biomarkers of CVD risk.


test
Highly Positive


Small doses of fish oil inhibit platelet aggregation and TXA2 production, reduce upright sBP and TG levels, and have only a small effect on glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with moderately controlled NIDDM. Small quantities of omega-3 fatty acids or dietary fish are safe and potentially beneficial in NIDDM patients.


test
Highly Positive


Supplementation with low dose n-3 fatty acids for 6 months could significantly protect elderly Iranians from a rise in serum triglycerides.


test
Highly Positive


The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.


test
Highly Positive


The consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA-supplemented dairy products decreases cardiovascular risk factors.


test
Highly Positive


The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00504309.


test
Highly Positive


The highest dose of EPA increased soluble E-selectin in young subjects, while increasing EPA tended to decrease soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in young and older subjects. Young and older males will gain cardiovascular benefit from increased intake of EPA. Young males are unlikely to suffer adverse consequences from high EPA intake, whereas older males may have an increased risk of lipoprotein peroxidation.


test
Highly Positive


The LDL cholesterol level was significantly increased with fish oil supplementation, suggesting that patients with NIDDM who are given a fish oil supplement to decrease the plasma total and VLDL triglyceride levels may also need further dietary and/or pharmaceutical therapy to maintain an LDL cholesterol level compatible with a low risk of coronary disease. The study emphasizes the safe use of fish oil over a 6-month period in diabetic patients.


test
Highly Positive


The median dose of algal DHA was 1.68 g/d. The pooled estimate for the change in TG concentration was -0.20 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.27 to -0.14), 0.23 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.16-0.30) for LDL-C, and 0.07 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05-0.10) for HDL-C. DHA supplementation from algal oil, a marine source of (n-3) fatty acids not extracted from fish, may reduce serum TG and increase HDL-C and LDL-C in persons without coronary heart disease.


test
Highly Positive


The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.


test
Highly Positive


There was no effect of 12 weeks of treatment with moderate-dose fish oil supplements on cardiovascular biomarkers or mood in patients with ischemic stroke. It is possible that insufficient dose, short duration of treatment, and/or oxidation of the fish oils may have influenced these outcomes.


test
Highly Positive


These results suggest that dietary fish oil may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the modulation of both plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in healthy postmenopausal women.


test
Highly Positive


These results suggest that POM3 slightly reduces pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to plasma glucose elevation, which may contribute to the rise in fasting glucose sometimes observed with POM3.


test
Highly Positive


Total cholesterol, non-HDL-C, apolipoproteins A1 and B, and LDL particle concentration responses did not differ between treatments. These results did not confirm the hypothesis that POM3 treatment would lower LDL-C in primary, isolated hypercholesterolemia. Effects on other variables were consistent with prior results in mixed dyslipidemia.


test
Highly Positive


Weight-loss improved risk factors associated with CVD, with some additional benefits of LC n-3 PUFA on triglycerides and adiponectin. Given the current low dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFA, greater attention should be given to increase these fatty acids in the treatment of obesity.


test
Highly Positive


When all groups were combined, these treatments significantly reduced total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased HDL-cholesterol, and improved the atherogenic index. All improvements observed at 9 months persisted at 18 months (P < 0.001 verses baseline). Conclusion. Marine and botanical oils may be useful treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease compared to the general population.


test
Slightly Positive


AA/EPA and mood state are differently influenced by diet and Omega-3, body fat is particularly reduced by Zone diet, while blood parameters such as triglycerides/HDL ratio, insulin and homocysteine are related to AA/EPA variations. These findings are discussed in terms of differences in the composition of the diets and the influences of Omega-3 on physiological functions.


test
Slightly Positive


Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723.


test
Slightly Positive


EPA and DHA had similar benefits on lipids but adverse effects on short-term glycemic control in hypertensive diabetic patients. The overall implications for cardiovascular disease require long-term evaluation.


test
Slightly Positive


EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute) aerobic exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin and NO metabolite levels after 90 d, both in the fish oil and soya groups, reinforce the importance of the influence of adiponectin and NO levels on BP decrease in patients with the MetS.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, this 12-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial did not show that 1.5 g/day n-3 PUFA significantly affected the serum inflammatory response in healthy individuals, nor did patterns of inflammatory markers. Thus, a healthy middle-aged population may not benefit from fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent.


test
Slightly Positive


Independently of the dose and already at 1 week, short-term therapy with PO-3A provided a modest reduction of platelet activity biomarkers, despite concomitant aspirin and statin therapy, when compared to a placebo. The effect of PO-3A is unique, differs from other known antiplatelet agents and suggests potential pleiotropism. These preliminary randomized data call for confirmation in prospective studies.


test
Slightly Positive


Intakes of n-3 LC-PUFAs ≤1.8 g/d do not improve endothelial function in healthy adults. The trial is registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN66664610.


test
Slightly Positive


Salmon consumption three times per week can decrease DBP similar to fish oil and significantly more than lean fish during an 8-wk energy restriction in young overweight individuals. A lower DHA content in erythrocyte membrane at baseline, which might indentify infrequent fish eaters, is associated with a greater DBP reduction in the course of an 8-wk dietary intervention providing fatty seafood.


test
Slightly Positive


Supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids had no affect on platelet and endothelial activation or markers of inflammation in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


test
Slightly Positive


The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (3g/day) for 2months decreases the levels of homocysteine in diabetic patients with no change in FBS, MDA and CRP levels.


test
Slightly Positive


The small but statistically significant effects of fish-oil supplements in hypertensive participants in this review have important implications for population health and lowering the risk of stroke and ischaemic heart disease. Their modest effects, however, mean that they should not be recommended as an alternative to BP-lowering drugs where guidelines recommend treatment.


test
Slightly Positive


There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Results were not influenced by changes in blood pressure, heart rate or BMI. The findings of the present study reveal that supplementation with n-3 offers a scientifically supported means of reducing arterial stiffness. Reduction in arterial stiffness by n-3 may account for some of its purported cardioprotective effects.


test
Slightly Positive


These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.


  • Fish Oil for Mental health

test
Moderately Positive


In conclusion, we did not observe any significant net anti-inflammatory effect on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway from a daily supplement of 1.1g marine n-3 PUFA for 6 weeks.


test
Slightly Positive


A 4-month period of DHA supplementation (345 mg/d) does not decrease symptoms of ADHD.


test
Slightly Positive


A subgroup of children with ADHD who used n-3 PUFA supplements achieved and maintained symptom control. The data of the present study also supported n-3 PUFA safety and tolerability, but limited changes were noted in the FA profile in French Canadians with ADHD.


test
Slightly Positive


Adjunctive ethyl-EPA is an effective and well-tolerated intervention in bipolar depression.


test
Slightly Positive


Among older persons with AMD, oral supplementation with LCPUFAs or lutein/zeaxanthin had no statistically significant effect on cognitive function.


test
Slightly Positive


Despite preclinical studies suggesting that the effect of O3FA might be augmented with pyrimidines, add-on CYT did not substantially improve mood symptoms in BD. In addition, although a power analysis indicated that the sample size would be adequate to see beneficial effects similar to those previously reported, O3FA treatment by itself was not superior to placebo for BD.


test
Slightly Positive


Group differences in change scores all favored HUFA, reaching conventional significance levels for 3 out of 14 scales. (5) HUFA supplementation appears to reduce ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Given the safety and tolerability of this simple treatment, results from this pilot study strongly support the case for further investigations.


test
Slightly Positive


Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, particularly with higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid, was modestly effective in the treatment of ADHD.


test
Slightly Positive


N-3 PUFAs improved scores on the control/perfectionism scale of the cognitive reactivity measure. No effects were found on the other cognitive tasks and no consistent effects on mood were observed. The present findings indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a selective effect on risky decision making in healthy volunteers, which is unrelated to impulsiveness.


test
Slightly Positive


Omega-3 fatty acids lowered T(2) values, consistent with the hypothesis that the fluidity of cell membranes was altered. Further studies are needed to clarify the significance of alterations in brain physiology induced by omega-3 fatty acids, as reflected in T(2) values.


test
Slightly Positive


Omega3 fatty acids were well tolerated and improved the short-term course of illness in this preliminary study of patients with bipolar disorder.


test
Slightly Positive


Omega-3 supplementation is associated with an improvement of attentional and physiological functions, particularly those involving complex cortical processing. These findings are discussed in terms of the influence of Omega-3 on the central nervous system.


test
Slightly Positive


Supplementation with DHA-rich FO, in comparison with placebo, resulted in a significant increase in the concentrations of oxy-Hb and total levels of Hb, indicative of increased cerebral blood flow (CBF), during the cognitive tasks. In comparison, no effect on CBF was observed following supplementation with EPA-rich FO, where concentration changes in the chromophores followed the same pattern as placebo. These encouraging pilot data warrant further application of NIRS in this area.


test
Slightly Positive


Supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid mix increased EPA and DHA concentrations in erythrocyte membranes and improved working memory function, but had no effect on other cognitive measures and parent- and teacher-rated behavior in the study population. Improved working memory correlated significantly with increased EPA, DHA and decreased AA (arachidonic acid).


test
Slightly Positive


These results add to preliminary findings that ADHD-related problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity might respond to treatment with PUFAs and that improvements may continue with supplementation extending to 30 weeks.


test
Slightly Positive


This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462).


test
Slightly Positive


This study did not find overall evidence of efficacy for adjunctive treatment with EPA 6 g/day in outpatients with bipolar depression or rapid cycling bipolar disorder.


test
Slightly Positive


Thus, the results of this pilot study suggest the need for further research with both n-3 FA and vitamin E in children with behavioral disorders.


test
Slightly Positive


Twenty-four week supplementation with 900 mg/d DHA improved learning and memory function in ARCD and is a beneficial supplement that supports cognitive health with aging.


test
Slightly Positive


Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15-week EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement.


  • Fish Oil for Emotional health

test
Moderately Positive


Adjunctive ethyl-EPA is an effective and well-tolerated intervention in bipolar depression.


test
Moderately Positive


Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723.


test
Moderately Positive


Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation ( approximately 200 mg/d) for 4 months after the delivery prevented the usual decline in plasma phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid content of women who breastfeed but did not influence self-ratings of depression, diagnostic measures of depression, or information processing.


test
Moderately Positive


EPA-rich fish oil and DHA-rich fish oil supplementation did not prevent depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum.


test
Moderately Positive


It is not possible to distinguish whether E-EPA augments antidepressant action in the manner of lithium or has independent antidepressant properties of its own.


test
Moderately Positive


Omega-3 PUFAs may have therapeutic benefits in depression during pregnancy. In regard to the safety issue and psychotherapeutic effect, as well as health promotion to mothers and their newborns, it is worthy to conduct replication studies in a larger sample with a broad regimen of omega-3 PUFAs in pregnant women with depression.


test
Moderately Positive


Omega-3 supplementation is associated with an improvement of attentional and physiological functions, particularly those involving complex cortical processing. These findings are discussed in terms of the influence of Omega-3 on the central nervous system.


test
Moderately Positive


Our primary analyses suggest a small-to-modest, non-clinically beneficial effect of n-3PUFAs on depressive symptomology compared to placebo; however the estimate is imprecise, and we judged the quality of the evidence on which this result is based to be low/very low.


test
Moderately Positive


Patients in the omega-3 PUFA group had a significantly decreased score on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than those in the placebo group (P < 0.001). From the preliminary findings in this study, omega-3 PUFAs could improve the short-term course of illness and were well tolerated in patients with major depressive disorder.


test
Moderately Positive


Red blood cell incorporation of fatty acids indicated good compliance with oil supplementation, although this sample was not initially deficient in omega-3s. This particular dose and type of fish oil conferred no additional benefit to conventional treatment of depression in this sample. Future studies could target participants with pre-existing omega-3 deficiency and appraise alternate enriched types and higher doses of omega-3 supplementation.


test
Moderately Positive


St John's wort and regular exercise appear effective in the treatment of depression. Acupuncture appears ineffective for depression, but it might offer other health benefits. Other promising therapies include SAM-e, omega-3 fatty acid, and folic acid supplementation in selected patients; further study is warranted.


test
Moderately Positive


Supplementation of 220 mg/day DHA or DHA+AA (220 mg/day each) does not prevent peri-partum depressive symptoms, in a population based sample with low background DHA intake.


test
Moderately Positive


Supplements containing EPA ≥ 60% of total EPA + DHA, in a dose range of 200 to 2,200 mg/d of EPA in excess of DHA, were effective against primary depression. Translational studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of EPA's therapeutic benefit.


test
Moderately Positive


Symptoms generally improved with time but not significantly and there were no significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups. Pretreatment red-cell membrane (RBC) lipids of patients compared with age-and sex-matched normal controls showed no significant differences.


test
Moderately Positive


The current meta-analysis provides evidence that EPA may be more efficacious than DHA in treating depression. However, owing to the identified limitations of the included studies, larger, well-designed, randomized controlled trials of sufficient duration are needed to confirm these findings.


test
Moderately Positive


The meta-analytic findings provide strong evidence that bipolar depressive symptoms may be improved by adjunctive use of omega-3. The evidence, however, does not support its adjunctive use in attenuating mania.


test
Moderately Positive


There was no significant difference between omega-3 fatty acids and placebo in this study in which all participants received supportive psychotherapy. The manualized supportive psychotherapy warrants further study. The low intake of dietary omega-3 fatty acids among participants is of concern, in consideration of the widely established health advantages in utero and in infants.


test
Moderately Positive


These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519779.


test
Moderately Positive


This is formally a negative study, suggesting that there is no benefit for omega-3 fatty acids over placebo in treating PND. The reason could be that the study was underpowered due to recruitment difficulties and therefore we suggest that it may be unwise to interpret this result as conclusive. Omega-3 is a natural product that is a safe and well-tolerated treatment. Further research is therefore needed in this area to establish whether omega-3 fatty acids are an effective treatment for PND.


test
Moderately Positive


This study did not find overall evidence of efficacy for adjunctive treatment with EPA 6 g/day in outpatients with bipolar depression or rapid cycling bipolar disorder.


test
Moderately Positive


This trial failed to show a significant effect of DHA monotherapy in subjects with major depression.


test
Moderately Positive


To our knowledge, this is the first trial of n-3 supplementation in the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. In women with PD without MDE at baseline, the 8-wk changes in PD and depressive scales improved significantly more with E-EPA than with placebo. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN69617477.


test
Moderately Positive


Treatment with ethyl-eicosapentaenoate at a dosage of 1 g/d was effective in treating depression in patients who remained depressed despite adequate standard therapy.


test
Slightly Positive


AA/EPA and mood state are differently influenced by diet and Omega-3, body fat is particularly reduced by Zone diet, while blood parameters such as triglycerides/HDL ratio, insulin and homocysteine are related to AA/EPA variations. These findings are discussed in terms of differences in the composition of the diets and the influences of Omega-3 on physiological functions.


test
Slightly Positive


N-3 PUFAs improved scores on the control/perfectionism scale of the cognitive reactivity measure. No effects were found on the other cognitive tasks and no consistent effects on mood were observed. The present findings indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a selective effect on risky decision making in healthy volunteers, which is unrelated to impulsiveness.


  • Fish Oil for Immunity

test
Moderately Positive


In conclusion, one year of dietary supplementation with fish oil in patients with stable lupus nephritis did not improve renal function or reduce disease activity, but did alter some lipid parameters. Hitherto unreported carry-over effects and treatment order effects caused by the olive oil created a risk of type II error, and bear methodologic consideration in the design of future studies.


test
Moderately Positive


In the management of SLE, dietary supplementation with fish oil may be beneficial in modifying symptomatic disease activity.


test
Moderately Positive


Low-dose dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils in systemic lupus erythematosus not only has a therapeutic effect on disease activity but also improves endothelial function and reduces oxidative stress and may therefore confer cardiovascular benefits.


test
Moderately Positive


Oral supplementation of EPA and DHA induced prolonged remission of SLE in 10 consecutive patients without any side-effects. These results suggest that n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, are useful in the management of SLE and possibly, other similar collagen vascular diseases.


test
Moderately Positive


Seventeen patients with moderately active SLE participated in a double-blind, crossover study on the effect of MaxEPA, using olive oil as the control substance. During the first 3 months, 8/17 on Max EPA but only 2/17 on the control substance clinically and serologically improved (p = 0.05), but at 6 months there was no difference. The beneficial effect (if any) of MaxEPA on the disease was short-lived.


test
Moderately Positive


When individual outcome measures of the 17 patients who completed the full 34 week study were considered 14 who were receiving MaxEPA achieved useful or ideal status, whereas 13 receiving placebo were rated as worse or no change. The difference between the two types of capsule was statistically significant. No major side effects were noted, and it is suggested that dietary modification with additional marine oil may be a useful way of modifying disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, this 12-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial did not show that 1.5 g/day n-3 PUFA significantly affected the serum inflammatory response in healthy individuals, nor did patterns of inflammatory markers. Thus, a healthy middle-aged population may not benefit from fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, we did not observe any significant net anti-inflammatory effect on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway from a daily supplement of 1.1g marine n-3 PUFA for 6 weeks.


test
Slightly Positive


The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces increases PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity in the recovery period after exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


The LTB5/LTB4 ratio was significantly increased compared to baseline after supplementation with 800 and 1600 mg DHA. LTB5/LTB4 and DHA/arachidonic acid ratios were correlated (r 0.531, P<0.0001). The present data suggest that both changes in neutrophil lipid composition and LT production occurred with daily supplementation with 800 and 1600 mg DHA. The clinical benefits associated with these doses of DHA in inflammatory diseases remain to be investigated.


test
Slightly Negative


A moderate amount of EPA but not of other n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can decrease NK cell activity in healthy subjects.


test
Slightly Negative


Daily supplementation with n-3 capsules increases the serum n-3 PUFA concentration, improves vascular function, and lowers the degree of inflammation in obese adolescents.


test
Slightly Negative


Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723.


test
Slightly Negative


These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.


test
Slightly Negative


T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell numbers and function in healthy young males are little affected by supplemental EPA intakes up to 4 g/d.


  • Fish Oil for Weight loss

  • Fish Oil for Overall health

test
Slightly Positive


DHA supplementation of 800 mg/d in the second half of pregnancy does not reduce the risk of GDM or preeclampsia. Whether supplementation reduces the risk of perinatal death and neonatal convulsions requires further investigation. The DOMInO trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as TRN12605000569606.


test
Slightly Positive


Fish oil supplementation from the 24th week of pregnancy led to a higher BMI in the offspring from 0 to 6 years of age but not an increased risk of obesity at age 6. The body composition at age 6 years in children given fish oil supplementation was characterised by a proportional increase in lean, bone, and fat mass suggesting a general growth stimulating effect of n-3 LCPUFA.


test
Slightly Positive


FO supplements blunted the endocrine stress response and the increase in body temperature, but had no impact on cytokine production after LPS. These findings conflict with the postulated anti-inflammatory effects of FO on arachidonic acid metabolism and cytokine release. These results suggest that FO may exert beneficial effects in sepsis though non-inflammatory which require further investigations.


test
Slightly Positive


Having previously shown that the response to LPS was reproducible, this study shows that three FO doses blunted it to various degrees. The 0.2 g/kg perfusion immediately before LPS was the most efficient in blunting the responses, suggesting LPS capture in addition to the systemic and membrane effects.


test
Slightly Positive


The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces increases PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity in the recovery period after exercise.


test
Slightly Positive


The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.


test
Slightly Positive


There is not enough evidence to support the routine use of marine oil, or other prostaglandin precursor, supplements during pregnancy to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, low birthweight or small-for-gestational age.


  • Fish Oil for Detox

  • Fish Oil for Antioxidant potential

test
Slightly Positive


A moderate dose of n-3 PUFAs for 2 mo reduced adiposity and atherogenic markers without deterioration of insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Some adipose tissue inflammation-related genes were also reduced. These beneficial effects could be linked to morphologic and inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0037.


test
Slightly Positive


Concerning oxidative status, plasma reactive oxygen species levels increased in the placebo group v. the n-3 group at the later treatment times. Hydroxynonenal levels increased in the placebo group during the study, while they stabilised in the n-3 group. Our data confirm that the continual assumption of EPA plus DHA determined an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative action which could be considered a preliminary goal in anti-cachectic therapy.


test
Slightly Positive


Daily supplementation with n-3 capsules increases the serum n-3 PUFA concentration, improves vascular function, and lowers the degree of inflammation in obese adolescents.


test
Slightly Positive


Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA significantly improved endothelial function and reduced pro-inflammatory markers in OPDs. Thus, fish oil consumption may have beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic health effects in otherwise healthy subjects predisposed to diabetes and its vascular complications.


test
Slightly Positive


EPA concentrations in the total RBC phospholipid fraction significantly increased by 79% in the EPA group at the end of the study, and they changed very little in the control group (+0.68%). The inflammatory markers did not change in either group. It is likely that fish oil does not change hs-CRP or sTNF-Rs 1 or 2 in subjects without active inflammation.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, supplementation with n3PUFA and all-rac AT at these doses is not anti-inflammatory.


test
Slightly Positive


In conclusion, this 12-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial did not show that 1.5 g/day n-3 PUFA significantly affected the serum inflammatory response in healthy individuals, nor did patterns of inflammatory markers. Thus, a healthy middle-aged population may not benefit from fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent.


test
Slightly Positive


Oral n-3 PUFAs appear to abrogate photoimmunosuppression in human skin, providing additional support for their chemopreventive role; verification of study findings is required. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01032343.


test
Slightly Positive


Reduction in this range of early markers, i.e. sunburn, UVR-induced p53 in skin and strand breaks in PBL, indicate protection by dietary EPA against acute UVR-induced genotoxicity; longer-term supplementation might reduce skin cancer in humans.


test
Slightly Positive


Supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids had no affect on platelet and endothelial activation or markers of inflammation in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


test
Slightly Positive


The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00504309.


test
Slightly Positive


The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.


test
Slightly Positive


The results of the present study indicate that marine omega-3 fatty acids can reduce serum sICAM-1, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but it has no effect on serum systemic inflammation markers and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients.


test
Slightly Positive


The results of this study are in agreement with some previous studies that suggest that FO supplementation has no effect on plasma proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α or IL-6, but does have an effect on IL-1β in nondialysis CKD patients.


test
Slightly Positive


The stronger association between changes in DHA than EPA and sICAM-1 concentrations suggest that DHA may be more anti-inflammatory than EPA. Thus, one reason why only limited effects were seen here may be that the dose of DHA provided was insufficient.


test
Slightly Positive


There was no effect of 12 weeks of treatment with moderate-dose fish oil supplements on cardiovascular biomarkers or mood in patients with ischemic stroke. It is possible that insufficient dose, short duration of treatment, and/or oxidation of the fish oils may have influenced these outcomes.


test
Slightly Positive


These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519779.


test
Slightly Positive


These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.


test
Slightly Positive


These results suggest that dietary fish oil may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the modulation of both plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in healthy postmenopausal women.


test
Slightly Positive


Thus, omega-3 fatty acids may act as an oxidizable buffer, protecting more vital structures from free radical damage.


test
Slightly Negative


The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.


test
Slightly Negative


The consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA-supplemented dairy products decreases cardiovascular risk factors.


  • Fish Oil for Muscle building

  • Fish Oil for Reproduction


What are Fish Oil's effects on the body?

  • Fish Oil for the Cardiovascular System

A 3-month fish oil supplementation in young healthy men improved circulating triglyceride levels and the HDL-c ratio while, concomitantly, increasing the concentrations of two eicosanoids (prostaglandin-F2α and thromboxane-B2). This suggests that fish oil supplementation does have significant benefits in young healthy adults and that specific omega-6-derived eicosanoids can help to further our understanding regarding the beneficial link between omega-3 FA and inflammation.


A moderate dose of fish oil did not lead to deleterious effects on glycemic control or whole-body insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men, with preserved triacylglycerol-lowering capacities.


An increase in clotting factor VII (P = 0.02), without changes in fibrinogen or factor X levels, occurred in the MaxEPA group. Similar reductions in blood pressure were observed in both groups. Dietary supplementation with MaxEPA capsules (10 g/day) in NIDDM subjects is associated with improvement in hypertriglyceridemia but with deleterious effects in factor VII and blood glucose levels. Most indices of platelet function are unaffected by this therapy.


Baseline values for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were comparable at baseline, and the intervention did not change these parameters significantly. The present study showed that treatment with n-3 PUFA slightly decreased plasma triglycerides and induced anti-inflammatory effects by increasing formation of anti-inflammatory LTB5.


Daily supplementation with n-3 capsules increases the serum n-3 PUFA concentration, improves vascular function, and lowers the degree of inflammation in obese adolescents.


DHA also raised high-density lipoprotein (4.49 mg/dL; 95% CI, 3.50–5.48) compared with placebo, whereas EPA did not. Although EPA and DHA both reduce triglycerides, they have divergent effects on LDL and high-density lipoprotein. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms and significance of these differences.


DHA supplementation improves liver steatosis and insulin sensitivity in children with NAFLD.


Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA significantly improved endothelial function and reduced pro-inflammatory markers in OPDs. Thus, fish oil consumption may have beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic health effects in otherwise healthy subjects predisposed to diabetes and its vascular complications.


Different doses of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce triglycerides concentrations, confirming the potential applicability of this nutrient on the management of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on ART.


Dyslipoproteinemia is common in pediatric SLE. Dietary modification and fish oil supplementation appear to be effective in improving serum lipid profiles, and blinded studies are warranted. a significant number of patients may require pharmacologic therapy for persistent dyslipoproteinemia to prevent complications of premature atherosclerosis.


Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not change with any intervention. Long-chain vs essential n-3 PUFA-rich oils have distinct metabolic and endocrine effects in polycystic ovary syndrome; and therefore, they should not be used interchangeably.


Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly with supplementation relative to placebo (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in ApoB-100 and malondialdehyde compared to baseline values and compared to the control group. Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c.


Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes lowers triglycerides, raises LDL cholesterol, and has no statistically significant effect on glycemic control. Trials with hard clinical end points are needed.


Fish oil supplementation produces a clinically significant dose-dependent reduction of fasting blood TG but not total, HDL or LDL cholesterol in hyperlipidemic subjects.


High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and plasma apoA1 levels were not significantly changed during fish oil treatment. At the 7.5-g dose, fasting glucose and glycohemoglobin levels increased by 20 and 12%, respectively, but were unchanged at the lower level of supplementation. Thus, in NIDDM patients, dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids induces a reduction in total plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).


In a population with well-controlled type II diabetes, 3 months of FO but not LO resulted in lowered triglyceride levels. Neither LO nor FO significantly affected glycemic control, cholesterol values, SG, or insulin secretion, while a nonsignificant trend toward decreased insulin sensitivity was found with FO.


In conclusion, one year of dietary supplementation with fish oil in patients with stable lupus nephritis did not improve renal function or reduce disease activity, but did alter some lipid parameters. Hitherto unreported carry-over effects and treatment order effects caused by the olive oil created a risk of type II error, and bear methodologic consideration in the design of future studies.


In conclusion, P-OM3 + simvastatin appears to be a useful therapeutic option for the management of mixed dyslipidemia.


In conclusion, supplementation with n3PUFA and all-rac AT at these doses is not anti-inflammatory.


In conclusion, this study shows that a dietary supplement of fish oil decreases plasma triglyceride levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, an increased conversion rate of VLDL to LDL playing a role in this change. With this dosage of fish oil no relevant variations in glycemic control, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity occurred.


In spite of the reduction of the triglyceride concentrations and unchanged insulin levels, there was a significant increase of the activity of PAI-1 (+21%, P < 0.01) after MaxEPA suggesting a possible impairment of the fibrinolytic capacity. In many situations there seems to be a reduction of PAI-1 when the triglycerides are lowered. In the diabetic patients given n-3 fatty acids this was not the case.


In summary, dietary fish oil supplementation adversely affected glycemic control in NIDDM subjects without producing significant beneficial effects on plasma lipids. The effect of safflower oil supplementation was not significantly different from fish oil, suggesting that the negative effects on glucose metabolism may be related to the extra energy or fat intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).


In the rTAG-group, but not in the EE-group, fasting serum TAG levels were significantly reduced from baseline after three and six months. There was no significant difference between the two n3-FA-groups. However, serum TAG levels were significantly lowered after six months in the rTAG-group compared to the placebo-group in contrast to the EE-group.


In these adult, mainly white patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, P-OM3 plus simvastatin and dietary counseling improved non-HDL-C and other lipid and lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than simvastatin alone.


In this population of hypertriglyceridemic adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles.


In this study, fish oil supplementation improved plasma VLDL cholesterol, VLDL TGs, and total TGs while having a transient deterioration in LDL cholesterol in subjects with NIDDM. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation had no significant deleterious effect on glycemic control.


It is concluded that a modest intake of omega 3 fatty acids, such as could be obtained from consuming fish regularly, will reduce plasma triglyceride level without affecting LDL or HDL cholesterol levels.


Serum TG and oxidative stress biomarkers did not differ between treatments. The FO and ISO were bioavailable but did not attenuate the postprandial rise in serum TG. Neither the study meal nor the FO or ISO induced significant changes in oxidative stress biomarkers. The current study adds to a limited literature on the acute effects of FO and ISO interventions on postprandial biomarkers of CVD risk.


Small doses of fish oil inhibit platelet aggregation and TXA2 production, reduce upright sBP and TG levels, and have only a small effect on glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with moderately controlled NIDDM. Small quantities of omega-3 fatty acids or dietary fish are safe and potentially beneficial in NIDDM patients.


Supplementation with low dose n-3 fatty acids for 6 months could significantly protect elderly Iranians from a rise in serum triglycerides.


The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.


The consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA-supplemented dairy products decreases cardiovascular risk factors.


The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00504309.


The highest dose of EPA increased soluble E-selectin in young subjects, while increasing EPA tended to decrease soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in young and older subjects. Young and older males will gain cardiovascular benefit from increased intake of EPA. Young males are unlikely to suffer adverse consequences from high EPA intake, whereas older males may have an increased risk of lipoprotein peroxidation.


The LDL cholesterol level was significantly increased with fish oil supplementation, suggesting that patients with NIDDM who are given a fish oil supplement to decrease the plasma total and VLDL triglyceride levels may also need further dietary and/or pharmaceutical therapy to maintain an LDL cholesterol level compatible with a low risk of coronary disease. The study emphasizes the safe use of fish oil over a 6-month period in diabetic patients.


The median dose of algal DHA was 1.68 g/d. The pooled estimate for the change in TG concentration was -0.20 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.27 to -0.14), 0.23 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.16-0.30) for LDL-C, and 0.07 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05-0.10) for HDL-C. DHA supplementation from algal oil, a marine source of (n-3) fatty acids not extracted from fish, may reduce serum TG and increase HDL-C and LDL-C in persons without coronary heart disease.


The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.


There was no effect of 12 weeks of treatment with moderate-dose fish oil supplements on cardiovascular biomarkers or mood in patients with ischemic stroke. It is possible that insufficient dose, short duration of treatment, and/or oxidation of the fish oils may have influenced these outcomes.


These results suggest that dietary fish oil may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the modulation of both plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in healthy postmenopausal women.


These results suggest that POM3 slightly reduces pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to plasma glucose elevation, which may contribute to the rise in fasting glucose sometimes observed with POM3.


Total cholesterol, non-HDL-C, apolipoproteins A1 and B, and LDL particle concentration responses did not differ between treatments. These results did not confirm the hypothesis that POM3 treatment would lower LDL-C in primary, isolated hypercholesterolemia. Effects on other variables were consistent with prior results in mixed dyslipidemia.


Weight-loss improved risk factors associated with CVD, with some additional benefits of LC n-3 PUFA on triglycerides and adiponectin. Given the current low dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFA, greater attention should be given to increase these fatty acids in the treatment of obesity.


When all groups were combined, these treatments significantly reduced total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased HDL-cholesterol, and improved the atherogenic index. All improvements observed at 9 months persisted at 18 months (P < 0.001 verses baseline). Conclusion. Marine and botanical oils may be useful treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease compared to the general population.


AA/EPA and mood state are differently influenced by diet and Omega-3, body fat is particularly reduced by Zone diet, while blood parameters such as triglycerides/HDL ratio, insulin and homocysteine are related to AA/EPA variations. These findings are discussed in terms of differences in the composition of the diets and the influences of Omega-3 on physiological functions.


Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723.


EPA and DHA had similar benefits on lipids but adverse effects on short-term glycemic control in hypertensive diabetic patients. The overall implications for cardiovascular disease require long-term evaluation.


EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute) aerobic exercise.


In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects.


In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin and NO metabolite levels after 90 d, both in the fish oil and soya groups, reinforce the importance of the influence of adiponectin and NO levels on BP decrease in patients with the MetS.


In conclusion, this 12-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial did not show that 1.5 g/day n-3 PUFA significantly affected the serum inflammatory response in healthy individuals, nor did patterns of inflammatory markers. Thus, a healthy middle-aged population may not benefit from fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent.


Independently of the dose and already at 1 week, short-term therapy with PO-3A provided a modest reduction of platelet activity biomarkers, despite concomitant aspirin and statin therapy, when compared to a placebo. The effect of PO-3A is unique, differs from other known antiplatelet agents and suggests potential pleiotropism. These preliminary randomized data call for confirmation in prospective studies.


Intakes of n-3 LC-PUFAs ≤1.8 g/d do not improve endothelial function in healthy adults. The trial is registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN66664610.


Salmon consumption three times per week can decrease DBP similar to fish oil and significantly more than lean fish during an 8-wk energy restriction in young overweight individuals. A lower DHA content in erythrocyte membrane at baseline, which might indentify infrequent fish eaters, is associated with a greater DBP reduction in the course of an 8-wk dietary intervention providing fatty seafood.


Supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids had no affect on platelet and endothelial activation or markers of inflammation in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (3g/day) for 2months decreases the levels of homocysteine in diabetic patients with no change in FBS, MDA and CRP levels.


The small but statistically significant effects of fish-oil supplements in hypertensive participants in this review have important implications for population health and lowering the risk of stroke and ischaemic heart disease. Their modest effects, however, mean that they should not be recommended as an alternative to BP-lowering drugs where guidelines recommend treatment.


There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Results were not influenced by changes in blood pressure, heart rate or BMI. The findings of the present study reveal that supplementation with n-3 offers a scientifically supported means of reducing arterial stiffness. Reduction in arterial stiffness by n-3 may account for some of its purported cardioprotective effects.


These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.


  • Fish Oil for the Nervous System

Adjunctive ethyl-EPA is an effective and well-tolerated intervention in bipolar depression.


Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723.


Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation ( approximately 200 mg/d) for 4 months after the delivery prevented the usual decline in plasma phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid content of women who breastfeed but did not influence self-ratings of depression, diagnostic measures of depression, or information processing.


EPA-rich fish oil and DHA-rich fish oil supplementation did not prevent depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum.


In conclusion, we did not observe any significant net anti-inflammatory effect on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway from a daily supplement of 1.1g marine n-3 PUFA for 6 weeks.


It is not possible to distinguish whether E-EPA augments antidepressant action in the manner of lithium or has independent antidepressant properties of its own.


Omega-3 PUFAs may have therapeutic benefits in depression during pregnancy. In regard to the safety issue and psychotherapeutic effect, as well as health promotion to mothers and their newborns, it is worthy to conduct replication studies in a larger sample with a broad regimen of omega-3 PUFAs in pregnant women with depression.


Omega-3 supplementation is associated with an improvement of attentional and physiological functions, particularly those involving complex cortical processing. These findings are discussed in terms of the influence of Omega-3 on the central nervous system.


Our primary analyses suggest a small-to-modest, non-clinically beneficial effect of n-3PUFAs on depressive symptomology compared to placebo; however the estimate is imprecise, and we judged the quality of the evidence on which this result is based to be low/very low.


Patients in the omega-3 PUFA group had a significantly decreased score on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than those in the placebo group (P < 0.001). From the preliminary findings in this study, omega-3 PUFAs could improve the short-term course of illness and were well tolerated in patients with major depressive disorder.


Red blood cell incorporation of fatty acids indicated good compliance with oil supplementation, although this sample was not initially deficient in omega-3s. This particular dose and type of fish oil conferred no additional benefit to conventional treatment of depression in this sample. Future studies could target participants with pre-existing omega-3 deficiency and appraise alternate enriched types and higher doses of omega-3 supplementation.


St John's wort and regular exercise appear effective in the treatment of depression. Acupuncture appears ineffective for depression, but it might offer other health benefits. Other promising therapies include SAM-e, omega-3 fatty acid, and folic acid supplementation in selected patients; further study is warranted.


Supplementation of 220 mg/day DHA or DHA+AA (220 mg/day each) does not prevent peri-partum depressive symptoms, in a population based sample with low background DHA intake.


Supplements containing EPA ≥ 60% of total EPA + DHA, in a dose range of 200 to 2,200 mg/d of EPA in excess of DHA, were effective against primary depression. Translational studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of EPA's therapeutic benefit.


Symptoms generally improved with time but not significantly and there were no significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups. Pretreatment red-cell membrane (RBC) lipids of patients compared with age-and sex-matched normal controls showed no significant differences.


The current meta-analysis provides evidence that EPA may be more efficacious than DHA in treating depression. However, owing to the identified limitations of the included studies, larger, well-designed, randomized controlled trials of sufficient duration are needed to confirm these findings.


The meta-analytic findings provide strong evidence that bipolar depressive symptoms may be improved by adjunctive use of omega-3. The evidence, however, does not support its adjunctive use in attenuating mania.


There was no significant difference between omega-3 fatty acids and placebo in this study in which all participants received supportive psychotherapy. The manualized supportive psychotherapy warrants further study. The low intake of dietary omega-3 fatty acids among participants is of concern, in consideration of the widely established health advantages in utero and in infants.


These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519779.


This is formally a negative study, suggesting that there is no benefit for omega-3 fatty acids over placebo in treating PND. The reason could be that the study was underpowered due to recruitment difficulties and therefore we suggest that it may be unwise to interpret this result as conclusive. Omega-3 is a natural product that is a safe and well-tolerated treatment. Further research is therefore needed in this area to establish whether omega-3 fatty acids are an effective treatment for PND.


This study did not find overall evidence of efficacy for adjunctive treatment with EPA 6 g/day in outpatients with bipolar depression or rapid cycling bipolar disorder.


This trial failed to show a significant effect of DHA monotherapy in subjects with major depression.


To our knowledge, this is the first trial of n-3 supplementation in the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. In women with PD without MDE at baseline, the 8-wk changes in PD and depressive scales improved significantly more with E-EPA than with placebo. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN69617477.


Treatment with ethyl-eicosapentaenoate at a dosage of 1 g/d was effective in treating depression in patients who remained depressed despite adequate standard therapy.


A 4-month period of DHA supplementation (345 mg/d) does not decrease symptoms of ADHD.


A subgroup of children with ADHD who used n-3 PUFA supplements achieved and maintained symptom control. The data of the present study also supported n-3 PUFA safety and tolerability, but limited changes were noted in the FA profile in French Canadians with ADHD.


AA/EPA and mood state are differently influenced by diet and Omega-3, body fat is particularly reduced by Zone diet, while blood parameters such as triglycerides/HDL ratio, insulin and homocysteine are related to AA/EPA variations. These findings are discussed in terms of differences in the composition of the diets and the influences of Omega-3 on physiological functions.


Among older persons with AMD, oral supplementation with LCPUFAs or lutein/zeaxanthin had no statistically significant effect on cognitive function.


Despite preclinical studies suggesting that the effect of O3FA might be augmented with pyrimidines, add-on CYT did not substantially improve mood symptoms in BD. In addition, although a power analysis indicated that the sample size would be adequate to see beneficial effects similar to those previously reported, O3FA treatment by itself was not superior to placebo for BD.


Group differences in change scores all favored HUFA, reaching conventional significance levels for 3 out of 14 scales. (5) HUFA supplementation appears to reduce ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Given the safety and tolerability of this simple treatment, results from this pilot study strongly support the case for further investigations.


Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, particularly with higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid, was modestly effective in the treatment of ADHD.


N-3 PUFAs improved scores on the control/perfectionism scale of the cognitive reactivity measure. No effects were found on the other cognitive tasks and no consistent effects on mood were observed. The present findings indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a selective effect on risky decision making in healthy volunteers, which is unrelated to impulsiveness.


Omega-3 fatty acids lowered T(2) values, consistent with the hypothesis that the fluidity of cell membranes was altered. Further studies are needed to clarify the significance of alterations in brain physiology induced by omega-3 fatty acids, as reflected in T(2) values.


Omega3 fatty acids were well tolerated and improved the short-term course of illness in this preliminary study of patients with bipolar disorder.


Supplementation with DHA-rich FO, in comparison with placebo, resulted in a significant increase in the concentrations of oxy-Hb and total levels of Hb, indicative of increased cerebral blood flow (CBF), during the cognitive tasks. In comparison, no effect on CBF was observed following supplementation with EPA-rich FO, where concentration changes in the chromophores followed the same pattern as placebo. These encouraging pilot data warrant further application of NIRS in this area.


Supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid mix increased EPA and DHA concentrations in erythrocyte membranes and improved working memory function, but had no effect on other cognitive measures and parent- and teacher-rated behavior in the study population. Improved working memory correlated significantly with increased EPA, DHA and decreased AA (arachidonic acid).


These results add to preliminary findings that ADHD-related problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity might respond to treatment with PUFAs and that improvements may continue with supplementation extending to 30 weeks.


This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462).


Thus, the results of this pilot study suggest the need for further research with both n-3 FA and vitamin E in children with behavioral disorders.


Twenty-four week supplementation with 900 mg/d DHA improved learning and memory function in ARCD and is a beneficial supplement that supports cognitive health with aging.


Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15-week EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement.


  • Fish Oil for the Immune System

In conclusion, one year of dietary supplementation with fish oil in patients with stable lupus nephritis did not improve renal function or reduce disease activity, but did alter some lipid parameters. Hitherto unreported carry-over effects and treatment order effects caused by the olive oil created a risk of type II error, and bear methodologic consideration in the design of future studies.


In the management of SLE, dietary supplementation with fish oil may be beneficial in modifying symptomatic disease activity.


Low-dose dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils in systemic lupus erythematosus not only has a therapeutic effect on disease activity but also improves endothelial function and reduces oxidative stress and may therefore confer cardiovascular benefits.


Oral supplementation of EPA and DHA induced prolonged remission of SLE in 10 consecutive patients without any side-effects. These results suggest that n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, are useful in the management of SLE and possibly, other similar collagen vascular diseases.


Seventeen patients with moderately active SLE participated in a double-blind, crossover study on the effect of MaxEPA, using olive oil as the control substance. During the first 3 months, 8/17 on Max EPA but only 2/17 on the control substance clinically and serologically improved (p = 0.05), but at 6 months there was no difference. The beneficial effect (if any) of MaxEPA on the disease was short-lived.


When individual outcome measures of the 17 patients who completed the full 34 week study were considered 14 who were receiving MaxEPA achieved useful or ideal status, whereas 13 receiving placebo were rated as worse or no change. The difference between the two types of capsule was statistically significant. No major side effects were noted, and it is suggested that dietary modification with additional marine oil may be a useful way of modifying disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.


A moderate dose of n-3 PUFAs for 2 mo reduced adiposity and atherogenic markers without deterioration of insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Some adipose tissue inflammation-related genes were also reduced. These beneficial effects could be linked to morphologic and inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0037.


Concerning oxidative status, plasma reactive oxygen species levels increased in the placebo group v. the n-3 group at the later treatment times. Hydroxynonenal levels increased in the placebo group during the study, while they stabilised in the n-3 group. Our data confirm that the continual assumption of EPA plus DHA determined an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative action which could be considered a preliminary goal in anti-cachectic therapy.


Daily supplementation with n-3 capsules increases the serum n-3 PUFA concentration, improves vascular function, and lowers the degree of inflammation in obese adolescents.


Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA significantly improved endothelial function and reduced pro-inflammatory markers in OPDs. Thus, fish oil consumption may have beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic health effects in otherwise healthy subjects predisposed to diabetes and its vascular complications.


EPA concentrations in the total RBC phospholipid fraction significantly increased by 79% in the EPA group at the end of the study, and they changed very little in the control group (+0.68%). The inflammatory markers did not change in either group. It is likely that fish oil does not change hs-CRP or sTNF-Rs 1 or 2 in subjects without active inflammation.


In conclusion, supplementation with n3PUFA and all-rac AT at these doses is not anti-inflammatory.


In conclusion, this 12-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial did not show that 1.5 g/day n-3 PUFA significantly affected the serum inflammatory response in healthy individuals, nor did patterns of inflammatory markers. Thus, a healthy middle-aged population may not benefit from fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent.


In conclusion, we did not observe any significant net anti-inflammatory effect on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway from a daily supplement of 1.1g marine n-3 PUFA for 6 weeks.


Supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids had no affect on platelet and endothelial activation or markers of inflammation in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces increases PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity in the recovery period after exercise.


The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00504309.


The LTB5/LTB4 ratio was significantly increased compared to baseline after supplementation with 800 and 1600 mg DHA. LTB5/LTB4 and DHA/arachidonic acid ratios were correlated (r 0.531, P<0.0001). The present data suggest that both changes in neutrophil lipid composition and LT production occurred with daily supplementation with 800 and 1600 mg DHA. The clinical benefits associated with these doses of DHA in inflammatory diseases remain to be investigated.


The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.


The results of the present study indicate that marine omega-3 fatty acids can reduce serum sICAM-1, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but it has no effect on serum systemic inflammation markers and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients.


The results of this study are in agreement with some previous studies that suggest that FO supplementation has no effect on plasma proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α or IL-6, but does have an effect on IL-1β in nondialysis CKD patients.


The stronger association between changes in DHA than EPA and sICAM-1 concentrations suggest that DHA may be more anti-inflammatory than EPA. Thus, one reason why only limited effects were seen here may be that the dose of DHA provided was insufficient.


There was no effect of 12 weeks of treatment with moderate-dose fish oil supplements on cardiovascular biomarkers or mood in patients with ischemic stroke. It is possible that insufficient dose, short duration of treatment, and/or oxidation of the fish oils may have influenced these outcomes.


These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519779.


These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.


These results suggest that dietary fish oil may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the modulation of both plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in healthy postmenopausal women.


A moderate amount of EPA but not of other n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can decrease NK cell activity in healthy subjects.


Depressive symptoms were quite low at baseline and did not change significantly in response to supplementation. Our data suggest that n-3 PUFAs can reduce inflammation in overweight, sedentary middle-aged and older adults, and thus could have broad health benefits. These data provide a window into the ways in which the n-3 PUFAs may impact disease initiation, progression, and resolution. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723.


T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell numbers and function in healthy young males are little affected by supplemental EPA intakes up to 4 g/d.


  • Fish Oil for the Endocrine System

FO supplements blunted the endocrine stress response and the increase in body temperature, but had no impact on cytokine production after LPS. These findings conflict with the postulated anti-inflammatory effects of FO on arachidonic acid metabolism and cytokine release. These results suggest that FO may exert beneficial effects in sepsis though non-inflammatory which require further investigations.


Having previously shown that the response to LPS was reproducible, this study shows that three FO doses blunted it to various degrees. The 0.2 g/kg perfusion immediately before LPS was the most efficient in blunting the responses, suggesting LPS capture in addition to the systemic and membrane effects.


The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces increases PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity in the recovery period after exercise.


The postprandial TG increase does not stimulate monocytes beyond their circadian activation patterns. n3-FA reduce fasting TG and the postprandial TG increase. n3-FA may therefore allow to prospectively study whether selected patients benefit from TG-lowering independent of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol.


Dietary administration with omega-3 PUFA decreased serum FSH levels in NW but not in obese women with normal ovarian reserve. This effect is intriguing and is directionally consistent with murine data whereby higher dietary omega-3 PUFA extends reproductive lifespan. Our results imply that this nutritional intervention should be tested in women with diminished ovarian reserve in an attempt to delay ovarian aging.


  • Fish Oil for the Overall Systems

  • Fish Oil for the Integumentary system

  • Fish Oil for the Digestive System

  • Fish Oil for the Muscular System

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